U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

Regulations most recently checked for updates: Oct 27, 2020

§ 1.446-7 - Net asset value method for certain money market fund shares.

(a) In general. This section provides a permissible method of accounting (the net asset value method, or NAV method) for gain or loss on shares in a money market fund (or MMF).

(b) Definitions. For purposes of this section -

(1) Computation period. Computation periods are the periods (of either equal or varying length) that a taxpayer selects for computing gain and loss under the NAV method for shares in an MMF. Computation periods must possess all of the following attributes:

(i) Every day during the taxable year falls within one, and only one, computation period;

(ii) Each computation period contains days from only one taxable year; and

(iii) If the taxpayer is a regulated investment company (RIC) that is not described in section 4982(f) -

(A) The same computation periods are used for purposes of both income tax accounting under chapter 1 and excise tax computations under section 4982; and

(B) The requirements in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section are also satisfied if applied by substituting the RIC's section 4982 period for the RIC's taxable year.

(2) Ending value. The ending value of a taxpayer's shares in an MMF for a computation period is the aggregate fair market value of the taxpayer's shares at the end of that computation period.

(3) Fair market value. The fair market value of a share in an MMF is determined as follows:

(i) Presumption based on applicable published redemption amount. For purposes of this section, the fair market value of a share in an MMF is presumed to be the applicable published redemption amount for the share.

(ii) Published redemption amount. The published redemption amount for a share in an MMF is the published amount for which the MMF would redeem the share (usually, the net asset value per share (NAV)), taking into account any corrections and not taking into account any liquidity fee described in Rule 2a-7(c)(2) under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (17 CFR 270.2a-7(c)(2)).

(iii) Applicable published redemption amount. The applicable published redemption amount is -

(A) For purposes of determining the ending value of a taxpayer's shares in an MMF for a computation period under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the last published redemption amount on the last day of that computation period;

(B) For purposes of determining the value of MMF shares received in a redemption or exchange described in paragraph (b)(5)(ii)(A) of this section, the published redemption amount for such MMF shares used to determine the consideration received in the redemption or exchange, or if the consideration received is not based on a published redemption amount, the first published redemption amount for such MMF shares after the redemption or exchange;

(C) For purposes of determining the amount received in a redemption or exchange described in paragraph (b)(5)(ii)(B) of this section in which the consideration received is based on a published redemption amount for the redeemed shares, that published redemption amount; and

(D) For purposes of determining the amount received in an exchange described in paragraph (b)(5)(ii)(B) of this section that is not described in paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C) of this section, or the amount of any adjustment resulting from a disposition transaction described in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, the first published redemption amount for the exchanged or disposed of MMF shares after the exchange or other transaction.

(iv) Facts and circumstances determination. If there is no applicable published redemption amount or if circumstances indicate that the amount does not represent the fair market value of a share in the MMF, the fair market value is determined on the basis of all of the facts and circumstances.

(4) Money market fund (or MMF). An MMF is a regulated investment company that is permitted to hold itself out to investors as a money market fund under Rule 2a-7 under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (17 CFR 270.2a-7). See paragraph (c)(5) of this section for the treatment of shares in a single MMF held in more than one account.

(5) Net investment - (i) In general. The net investment in an MMF for a computation period may be a positive amount, a negative amount, or zero. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, the net investment is equal to -

(A) The aggregate cost of shares in the MMF purchased during the computation period (including purchases through reinvestment of dividends); minus

(B) The aggregate amount received during the computation period in redemption of (or otherwise in exchange for) shares in the MMF in transactions in which gain or loss would be recognized if the taxpayer did not apply the NAV method to the shares.

(ii) Aggregate amount received. For purposes of paragraph (b)(5)(i)(B) of this section, the amount received in a redemption or exchange of an MMF share is -

(A) If no property other than cash and shares in one or more other MMFs is received, the amount of any cash plus the fair market value of any MMF shares received; or

(B) If any property other than cash or shares in one or more other MMFs is received, the fair market value of the redeemed MMF share.

(iii) Adjustments - (A) Dispositions in which gain or loss is not recognized. If, during the computation period, any shares in an MMF are disposed of in transactions in which gain or loss would not be recognized if the taxpayer did not apply the NAV method to the shares, the net investment in the MMF for the computation period is decreased by the fair market value of each such share at the time of its disposition.

(B) Acquisitions other than by purchase. If, during the computation period, any shares in an MMF are acquired other than by purchase, the net investment in the MMF for the computation period is increased by the adjusted basis (for purposes of determining loss) of each such share immediately after its acquisition. If the adjusted basis of an acquired share would be determined by reference to the basis of a share or shares in an MMF that are being disposed of by the taxpayer in a transaction that is governed by paragraph (b)(5)(iii)(A) of this section, then the adjusted basis of each such disposed share is treated for purposes of this section as being the fair market value of that share at the time of its disposition. If the adjusted basis of an acquired share would be determined by reference to the basis of that share in the hands of the person from whom the share is acquired and that person was applying the NAV method to the share at the time of the transaction, then the adjusted basis of the share in the hands of the person from whom the share is acquired is treated for purposes of this section as being the fair market value of that share at the time of the transaction.

(6) Section 4982 period. If a taxpayer using the NAV method is a RIC to which section 4982 applies, the section 4982 period is the one-year period with respect to which gain or loss is determined for purposes of section 4982(e)(2) and (e)(6). The preceding sentence is applied taking into account the application of section 4982(e)(4). See paragraph (c)(8) of this section regarding the application of section 4982(e)(6).

(7) Starting basis. The starting basis of a taxpayer's shares in an MMF for a computation period is -

(i) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(7)(ii) of this section, the ending value of the taxpayer's shares in the MMF for the immediately preceding computation period; or

(ii) For the first computation period in a taxable year, if the taxpayer did not use the NAV method for shares in the MMF for the immediately preceding taxable year, the aggregate adjusted basis of the taxpayer's shares in the MMF at the end of the immediately preceding taxable year.

(c) NAV method - (1) Scope. A taxpayer may use the NAV method described in this section to determine the gain or loss for a taxable year on the taxpayer's shares in an MMF. A taxpayer may have different methods of accounting, different computation periods, and gains or losses of differing character, for its shares in different MMFs. See paragraph (c)(5) of this section for the treatment of shares in a single MMF held in more than one account. See paragraph (c)(6) of this section for rules applicable to RICs to which section 4982 applies. See paragraph (c)(8) of this section for rules applicable to accounting method changes.

(2) Net gain or loss for a taxable year - (i) Determination for each computation period. Subject to any adjustment under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, the net gain or loss for each computation period with respect to the shares in an MMF to which the NAV method applies equals the ending value, minus the starting basis, minus the net investment in the MMF for the computation period. If the computation produces a result that is greater than zero, the taxpayer has a gain for the computation period with respect to the shares in the MMF; if the computation produces a result that is less than zero, the taxpayer has a loss for the computation period with respect to the shares in the MMF; and if the computation produces a result that is equal to zero, the taxpayer has no gain or loss for the computation period with respect to the shares in the MMF.

(ii) Adjustment of gain or loss to reflect any basis adjustments. If, during a computation period, there is any downward (or upward) adjustment to the taxpayer's basis in the shares in the MMF under any provision of internal revenue law, then the net gain or loss for the computation period on shares in the MMF determined under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section is increased (or decreased) by the amount of the adjustment.

(iii) Timing of gains and losses. Gain or loss determined under the NAV method with respect to a taxpayer's shares in an MMF during a computation period is treated as arising on the last day of the computation period.

(iv) Determination of net gain or loss for each taxable year. The taxpayer's net gain or loss for a taxable year on shares in an MMF is the sum of the net gains or losses on shares in the MMF for the computation period (or computation periods) that comprise the taxable year.

(3) Character - (i) In the case of a taxpayer that applies the NAV method to shares in an MMF, the gain or loss with respect to those shares for a computation period is treated as gain or loss from a sale or exchange of a capital asset provided the sale or exchange of one or more of those shares during the computation period would give rise to capital gain or loss if the taxpayer did not apply the NAV method to the shares.

(ii) In the case of a taxpayer that applies the NAV method to shares in an MMF, the gain or loss with respect to those shares for a computation period is treated as ordinary gain or loss provided the sale or exchange of every one of those shares during the computation period would give rise to ordinary gain or loss if the taxpayer did not apply the NAV method to the shares.

(iii) See paragraph (c)(5) of this section for the treatment of shares in a single MMF held in more than one account.

(4) Holding period. Capital gains and losses determined under the NAV method are treated as short-term capital gains and losses.

(5) More than one account. If a taxpayer holds shares in an MMF through more than one account, the taxpayer must treat its holdings in each account as a separate MMF for purposes of this section. A taxpayer therefore may have different methods of accounting, different computation periods, and gains or losses of differing character, for its shares of a single MMF held in different accounts.

(6) Consistency requirement for MMF shareholders that are RICs. If the taxpayer is a RIC that is not described in section 4982(f) (and therefore is subject to the section 4982 excise tax), then, for each MMF, the taxpayer must use the NAV method for both income tax and excise tax computations or for neither computation. See paragraph (c)(5) of this section for the treatment of shares in a single MMF held in more than one account. See paragraph (c)(8)(ii) of this section for changes to or from the NAV method by a RIC.

(7) Treatment of ordinary gains and losses under section 4982(e)(6). Under section 4982(e)(6)(B), this section is a specified mark to market provision, and therefore any ordinary gains and losses determined under the NAV method are governed by section 4982(e)(6)(A).

(8) Accounting method changes - (i) In general. A change to or from the NAV method is a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of section 446 and the accompanying regulations apply. A taxpayer seeking to change to or from the NAV method must secure the consent of the Commissioner in accordance with § 1.446-1(e) and follow the administrative procedures issued under § 1.446-1(e)(3)(ii) for obtaining the Commissioner's consent to change the taxpayer's accounting method. Any such change will be made on a cut-off basis. Because there will be no duplication or omission of amounts as a result of such a change to or from the NAV method, no adjustment under section 481(a) will be required or permitted.

(ii) RICs - (A) In general. A RIC that is subject to the excise tax under section 4982 and that changes to or from the NAV method for its shares in an MMF for income tax purposes must apply the new method for excise tax purposes starting with the first day of the RIC's income tax year of change. If that first day is not the first day of the RIC's section 4982 period that ends in or with the RIC's income tax year, then solely for purposes of applying the NAV method to compute the RIC's required distribution for the calendar year that ends with or within the RIC's income tax year of change, the section 4982 period is bifurcated into two portions, each of which is treated as a separate taxable year. The first portion begins on the first day of the section 4982 period and ends on the last day of the RIC's income tax year that precedes the year of change. The second portion begins on the first day of the income tax year of change and ends on the last day of the section 4982 period.

(B) Example. If a RIC that holds MMF shares as capital assets changes from a realization method to the NAV method for its income tax year ending January 31, 2019, the section 4982 period is bifurcated into two portions that are treated as separate taxable years solely for purposes of applying this section. For the portion starting on November 1, 2017, and ending on January 31, 2018, the RIC applies its realization method for excise tax purposes. For the portion starting on February 1, 2018, and ending on October 31, 2018, the RIC applies the NAV method for excise tax purposes, treating February 1, 2018, as the first day of the RIC's tax year for purposes of paragraphs (b)(1) and (6) of this section. The RIC's net gain or loss for this later portion is determined under paragraph (c)(2)(iii) of this section. This net gain or loss and any gains and losses for the earlier portion determined under the realization method are taken into account in determining the RIC's capital gain net income for the full one-year period described in section 4982(b)(1)(B).

(d) Example. The provisions of this section may be illustrated by the following example:

Example.(i) Fund is an MMF. Shareholder is a person whose taxable year is the calendar year. On January 1 of Year 1, Shareholder owns 5,000,000 shares in Fund with an adjusted basis of $5,000,000.00. The price of Fund shares has not varied from $1.00 from the date Shareholder acquired the shares through January 1 of Year 1. During that period, Shareholder has engaged in multiple purchases and redemptions of Fund shares, but Shareholder has reported no gains or losses with respect to the shares because Shareholder realized an amount in each redemption equal to Shareholder's basis in the redeemed shares. During Year 1, the price of Fund shares begins to float. During Year 1, Shareholder receives $32,158.23 in taxable dividends from Fund and makes 120 purchases of additional shares in Fund (including purchases through the reinvestment of those dividends) totaling $1,253,256.37 and 28 redemptions totaling $1,124,591.71. The fair market value of Shareholder's shares in Fund at the end of Year 1 is $5,129,750.00. All of Shareholder's shares in Fund are held in a single account and as capital assets. There is no adjustment to the basis in Shareholder's shares in Fund under any provision of internal revenue law during Year 1.

(ii) Prior to Year 1, Shareholder has had no gains or losses to report with respect to the Fund shares under a realization method and no changes in fair market value that would have been reported under the NAV method. Therefore, Shareholder may use the NAV method for the shares in Fund for Year 1. Shareholder uses the NAV method for the shares with its taxable year as the computation period. Shareholder's net investment in Fund for Year 1 equals $128,664.66 (the $1,253,256.37 in purchases, minus the $1,124,591.71 in redemptions). Shareholder's Year 1 gain therefore is $1,085.34, which is the ending value of Shareholder's shares ($5,129,750.00), minus the starting basis of Shareholder's shares ($5,000,000.00), minus Shareholder's net investment in the fund for the taxable year ($128,664.66). The gain of $1,085.34 is treated as short-term capital gain. Shareholder's starting basis for Year 2 is $5,129,750.00. Shareholder also must include the $32,158.23 in dividends in its income for Year 1 in the same manner as if Shareholder did not use the NAV method.

(iii) If Shareholder had instead adopted the calendar month as its computation period, it would have used the NAV method for every month of Year 1, even though prices of Fund shares may have been fixed for some months.

(e) Effective/applicability date. Except as provided in the following sentence, this section applies to taxable years ending on or after July 8, 2016. For taxable years ending on or after July 28, 2014, and beginning before July 8, 2016, however, shareholders of MMFs may rely either on this section or on § 1.446-7 of the 2014 proposed regulations REG-107012-14 (79 FR 43694).

[T.D. 9774, 81 FR 44512, July 8, 2016]