U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

Regulations most recently checked for updates: Oct 27, 2020

§ 1.453-12 - Allocation of unrecaptured section 1250 gain reported on the installment method.

(a) General rule. Unrecaptured section 1250 gain, as defined in section 1(h)(7), is reported on the installment method if that method otherwise applies under section 453 or 453A and the corresponding regulations. If gain from an installment sale includes unrecaptured section 1250 gain and adjusted net capital gain (as defined in section 1(h)(4)), the unrecaptured section 1250 gain is taken into account before the adjusted net capital gain.

(b) Installment payments from sales before May 7, 1997. The amount of unrecaptured section 1250 gain in an installment payment that is properly taken into account after May 6, 1997, from a sale before May 7, 1997, is determined as if, for all payments properly taken into account after the date of sale but before May 7, 1997, unrecaptured section 1250 gain had been taken into account before adjusted net capital gain.

(c) Installment payments received after May 6, 1997, and on or before August 23, 1999. If the amount of unrecaptured section 1250 gain in an installment payment that is properly taken into account after May 6, 1997, and on or before August 23, 1999, is less than the amount that would have been taken into account under this section, the lesser amount is used to determine the amount of unrecaptured section 1250 gain that remains to be taken into account.

(d) Examples. In each example, the taxpayer, an individual whose taxable year is the calendar year, does not elect out of the installment method. The installment obligation bears adequate stated interest, and the property sold is real property held in a trade or business that qualifies as both section 1231 property and section 1250 property. In all taxable years, the taxpayer's marginal tax rate on ordinary income is 28 percent. The following examples illustrate the rules of this section:

Example 1. General rule.This example illustrates the rule of paragraph (a) of this section as follows:

(i) In 1999, A sells property for $10,000, to be paid in ten equal annual installments beginning on December 1, 1999. A originally purchased the property for $5000, held the property for several years, and took straight-line depreciation deductions in the amount of $3000. In each of the years 1999-2008, A has no other capital or section 1231 gains or losses.

(ii) A's adjusted basis at the time of the sale is $2000. Of A's $8000 of section 1231 gain on the sale of the property, $3000 is attributable to prior straight-line depreciation deductions and is unrecaptured section 1250 gain. The gain on each installment payment is $800.

(iii) As illustrated in the table in this paragraph (iii) of this Example 1., A takes into account the unrecaptured section 1250 gain first. Therefore, the gain on A's first three payments, received in 1999, 2000, and 2001, is taxed at 25 percent. Of the $800 of gain on the fourth payment, received in 2002, $600 is taxed at 25 percent and the remaining $200 is taxed at 20 percent. The gain on A's remaining six installment payments is taxed at 20 percent. The table is as follows:

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004-2008 Total gain
Installment gain80080080080080040008000
Taxed at 25%8008008006003000
Taxed at 20%20080040005000
Remaining to be taxed at 25%22001400600
Example 2. Installment payments from sales prior to May 7, 1997.This example illustrates the rule of paragraph (b) of this section as follows:

(i) The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that A sold the property in 1994, received the first of the ten annual installment payments on December 1, 1994, and had no other capital or section 1231 gains or losses in the years 1994-2003.

(ii) As in Example 1, of A's $8000 of gain on the sale of the property, $3000 was attributable to prior straight-line depreciation deductions and is unrecaptured section 1250 gain.

(iii) As illustrated in the following table, A's first three payments, in 1994, 1995, and 1996, were received before May 7, 1997, and taxed at 28 percent. Under the rule described in paragraph (b) of this section, A determines the allocation of unrecaptured section 1250 gain for each installment payment after May 6, 1997, by taking unrecaptured section 1250 gain into account first, treating the general rule of paragraph (a) of this section as having applied since the time the property was sold, in 1994. Consequently, of the $800 of gain on the fourth payment, received in 1997, $600 is taxed at 25 percent and the remaining $200 is taxed at 20 percent. The gain on A's remaining six installment payments is taxed at 20 percent. The table is as follows:

1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999-2003 Total
gain
Installment gain80080080080080040008000
Taxed at 28%8008008002400
Taxed at 25%600600
Taxed at 20%20080040005000
Remaining to be taxed at 25%22001400600
Example 3. Effect of section 1231(c) recapture.This example illustrates the rule of paragraph (a) of this section when there are non-recaptured net section 1231 losses, as defined in section 1231(c)(2), from prior years as follows:

(i) The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that in 1999 A has non-recaptured net section 1231 losses from the previous four years of $1000.

(ii) As illustrated in the table in paragraph (iv) of this Example 3, in 1999, all of A's $800 installment gain is recaptured as ordinary income under section 1231(c). Under the rule described in paragraph (a) of this section, for purposes of determining the amount of unrecaptured section 1250 gain remaining to be taken into account, the $800 recaptured as ordinary income under section 1231(c) is treated as reducing unrecaptured section 1250 gain, rather than adjusted net capital gain. Therefore, A has $2200 of unrecaptured section 1250 gain remaining to be taken into account.

(iii) In the year 2000, A's installment gain is taxed at two rates. First, $200 is recaptured as ordinary income under section 1231(c). Second, the remaining $600 of gain on A's year 2000 installment payment is taxed at 25 percent. Because the full $800 of gain reduces unrecaptured section 1250 gain, A has $1400 of unrecaptured section 1250 gain remaining to be taken into account.

(iv) The gain on A's installment payment received in 2001 is taxed at 25 percent. Of the $800 of gain on the fourth payment, received in 2002, $600 is taxed at 25 percent and the remaining $200 is taxed at 20 percent. The gain on A's remaining six installment payments is taxed at 20 percent. The table is as follows:

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004-2008 Total
gain
Installment gain80080080080080040008000
Taxed at ordinary rates under section 1231(c)8002001000
Taxed at 25%6008006002000
Taxed at 20%20080040005000
Remaining non-recaptured net section 1231 losses200
Remaining to be taxed at 25%22001400600
Example 4. Effect of a net section 1231 loss.This example illustrates the application of paragraph (a) of this section when there is a net section 1231 loss as follows:

(i) The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that A has section 1231 losses of $1000 in 1999.

(ii) In 1999, A's section 1231 installment gain of $800 does not exceed A's section 1231 losses of $1000. Therefore, A has a net section 1231 loss of $200. As a result, under section 1231(a) all of A's section 1231 gains and losses are treated as ordinary gains and losses. As illustrated in the following table, A's entire $800 of installment gain is ordinary gain. Under the rule described in paragraph (a) of this section, for purposes of determining the amount of unrecaptured section 1250 gain remaining to be taken into account, A's $800 of ordinary section 1231 installment gain in 1999 is treated as reducing unrecaptured section 1250 gain. Therefore, A has $2200 of unrecaptured section 1250 gain remaining to be taken into account.

(iii) In the year 2000, A has $800 of section 1231 installment gain, resulting in a net section 1231 gain of $800. A also has $200 of non-recaptured net section 1231 losses. The $800 gain is taxed at two rates. First, $200 is taxed at ordinary rates under section 1231(c), recapturing the $200 net section 1231 loss sustained in 1999. Second, the remaining $600 of gain on A's year 2000 installment payment is taxed at 25 percent. As in Example 3, the $200 of section 1231(c) gain is treated as reducing unrecaptured section 1250 gain, rather than adjusted net capital gain. Therefore, A has $1400 of unrecaptured section 1250 gain remaining to be taken into account.

(iv) The gain on A's installment payment received in 2001 is taxed at 25 percent, reducing the remaining unrecaptured section 1250 gain to $600. Of the $800 of gain on the fourth payment, received in 2002, $600 is taxed at 25 percent and the remaining $200 is taxed at 20 percent. The gain on A's remaining six installment payments is taxed at 20 percent. The table is as follows:

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004-2008 Total gain
Installment gain80080080080080040008000
Ordinary gain under section 1231(a)800800
Taxed at ordinary rates under section 1231(c)200200
Taxed at 25%6008006002000
Taxed at 20%20080040005000
Net section 1231 loss200
Remaining to be taxed at 25%22001400600

(e) Effective date. This section applies to installment payments properly taken into account after August 23, 1999.

[T.D. 8836, 64 FR 45875, Aug. 23, 1999]