U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

Regulations most recently checked for updates: Oct 27, 2020

§ 1.468B-3 - Rules applicable to the transferor.

(a) Transfer of property - (1) In general. A transferor must treat a transfer of property to a qualified settlement fund as a sale or exchange of that property for purposes of section 1001(a). In computing the gain or loss, the amount realized by the transferor is the fair market value of the property on the date the transfer is made (or is treated as made under § 1.468B-1(g)) to the qualified settlement fund. Because the issuance of a transferor's debt, obligation to provide services or property in the future, or obligation to make a payment described in § 1.461-4(g), is generally not a transfer of property by the transferor, it generally does not result in gain or loss to the transferor under this paragraph (a)(1). If a person other than the transferor transfers property to a qualified settlement fund, there may be other tax consequences as determined under general federal income tax principles.

(2) Anti-abuse rule. The Commissioner may disallow a loss resulting from the transfer of property to a qualified settlement fund if the Commissioner determines that a principal purpose for the transfer was to claim the loss and -

(i) The transferor places significant restrictions on the fund's ability to use or dispose of the property; or

(ii) The property (or substantially similar property) is distributed to the transferor (or a related person).

(b) Qualified appraisal requirement for transfers of certain property - (1) In general. A transferor must obtain a qualified appraisal to support a loss or deduction it claims with respect to a transfer to a qualified settlement fund of the following types of property -

(i) Nonpublicly traded securities (as defined in § 1.170A-13(c)(7)(ix)) issued by the transferor (or a related person); and

(ii) Interests in the transferor (if the transferor is a partnership) and in a partnership in which the transferor (or a related person) is a direct or indirect partner.

(2) Provision of copies. The transferor must provide a copy of the qualified appraisal to the administrator of the qualified settlement fund no later than February 15 of the year following the calendar year in which the property is transferred. The transferor also must attach a copy of the qualified appraisal to (and as part of) its timely filed income tax return (including extensions) for the taxable year of the transferor in which the transfer is made.

(3) Qualified appraisal. A “qualified appraisal” is a written appraisal that -

(i) Is made within 60 days before or after the date the property is transferred to the qualified settlement fund;

(ii) Is prepared, signed, and dated by an individual who is a qualified appraiser within the meaning of § 1.170A-13(c)(5);

(iii) Includes the information required by paragraph (b)(4) of this section; and

(iv) Does not involve an appraisal fee of the type prohibited by § 1.170A-13(c)(6).

(4) Information included in a qualified appraisal. A qualified appraisal must include the following information -

(i) A description of the appraised property;

(ii) The date (or expected date) of the property's transfer to the qualified settlement fund;

(iii) The appraised fair market value of the property on the date (or expected date) of transfer;

(iv) The method of valuing the property, such as the comparable sales approach;

(v) The specific basis for the valuation, such as specific comparable sales or statistical sampling, including a justification for using comparable sales or statistical sampling and an explanation of the procedure employed;

(vi) The terms of any agreement or understanding entered into (or expected to be entered into) by or on behalf of the transferor (or a related person) or the qualified settlement fund that relates to the use, sale, or other disposition of the transferred property, including, for example, the terms of any agreement or understanding that temporarily or permanently -

(A) Restricts the qualified settlement fund's right to use or dispose of the property; or

(B) Reserves to, or confers upon, any person other than the qualified settlement fund any right (including designating another person as having the right) to income from the property, to possess the property (including the right to purchase or otherwise acquire the property), or to exercise any voting rights with respect to the property;

(vii) The name, address, and taxpayer identification number of the qualified appraiser; and if the qualified appraiser is acting in his or her capacity as a partner in a partnership, an employee of any person, or an independent contractor engaged by a person other than the transferor, the name, address, and taxpayer identification number of the partnership or the person who employs or engages the qualified appraiser;

(viii) The qualifications of the qualified appraiser, including the appraiser's background, experience, education, and membership, if any, in professional appraisal associations; and

(ix) A statement that the appraisal was prepared for income tax purposes.

(5) Effect of signature of the qualified appraiser. Any appraiser who falsely or fraudulently overstates the value of the transferred property referred to in a qualified appraisal may be subject to a civil penalty under section 6701 for aiding and abetting an understatement of tax liability and may have appraisals disregarded pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 330(c).

(c) Economic performance - (1) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (c), for purposes of section 461(h), economic performance occurs with respect to a liability described in § 1.468B-1(c)(2) (determined with regard to § 1.468B-1(f) and (g)) to the extent the transferor makes a transfer to a qualified settlement fund to resolve or satisfy the liability.

(2) Right to a refund or reversion - (i) In general. Economic performance does not occur to the extent -

(A) The transferor (or a related person) has a right to a refund or reversion of a transfer if that right is exercisable currently and without the agreement of an unrelated person that is independent or has an adverse interest (e.g., the court or agency that approved the fund, or the fund claimants); or

(B) Money or property is transferred under conditions that allow its refund or reversion by reason of the occurrence of an event that is certain to occur, such as the passage of time, or if restrictions on its refund or reversion are illusory.

(ii) Right extinguished. With respect to a transfer described in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, economic performance is deemed to occur on the date, and to the extent, the transferor's right to a refund or reversion is extinguished.

(3) Obligations of a transferor. Economic performance does not occur when a transferor transfers to a qualified settlement fund its debt (or the debt of a related person). Instead, economic performance occurs as the transferor (or related person) makes principal payments on the debt. Similarly, economic performance does not occur when a transferor transfers to a qualified settlement fund its obligation (or the obligation of a related person) to provide services or property in the future, or to make a payment described in § 1.461-4(g). Instead, economic performance with respect to such an obligation occurs as services, property or payments are provided or made to the qualified settlement fund or a claimant.

(d) Payment of insurance amounts. No deduction is allowed to a transferor for a transfer to a qualified settlement fund to the extent the transferred amounts represent amounts received from the settlement of an insurance claim and are excludable from gross income. If the settlement of an insurance claim occurs after a transferor makes a transfer to a qualified settlement fund for which a deduction has been taken, the transferor must include in income the amounts received from the settlement of the insurance claim to the extent of the deduction.

(e) Statement to the qualified settlement fund and the Internal Revenue Service - (1) In general. A transferor must provide the statement described in paragraph (e)(2) of this section to the administrator of a qualified settlement fund no later than February 15 of the year following each calendar year in which the transferor (or an insurer or other person on behalf of the transferor) makes a transfer to the fund. The transferor must attach a copy of the statement to (and as part of) its timely filed income tax return (including extensions) for the taxable year of the transferor in which the transfer is made.

(2) Required statement - (i) In general. The statement required by this paragraph (e) must provide the following information -

(A) A legend, “§ 1.468B-3 Statement”, at the top of the first page;

(B) The transferor's name, address, and taxpayer identification number;

(C) The qualified settlement fund's name, address, and employer identification number;

(D) The date of each transfer;

(E) The amount of cash transferred; and

(F) A description of property transferred and its fair market value on the date of transfer.

(ii) Combined statements. If a qualified settlement fund has more than one transferor, any two or more of the transferors may provide a combined statement to the administrator that does not identify the amount of cash or the property transferred by a particular transferor. If a combined statement is used, however, each transferor must include with its copy of the statement that is attached to its income tax return a schedule describing each asset that the transferor transferred to the qualified settlement fund.

(f) Distributions to transferors - (1) In general. A transferor must include in gross income any distribution (including a deemed distribution described in paragraph (f)(2) of this section) it receives from a qualified settlement fund. If property is distributed, the amount includible in gross income and the basis in that property, is the fair market value of the property on the date of the distribution.

(2) Deemed distributions - (i) Other liabilities. If a qualified settlement fund makes a distribution on behalf of a transferor to a person that is not a claimant, or to a claimant to resolve or satisfy a liability of the transferor (or a related person) other than a liability described in § 1.468B-1(c)(2) for which the fund was established, the distribution is deemed made by the fund to the transferor. The transferor, in turn, is deemed to have made a payment to the actual recipient.

(ii) Constructive receipt. To the extent a transferor acquires a right to a refund or reversion described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section of all or a portion of the assets of a qualified settlement fund subsequent to the transfer of those assets to the fund, the fund is deemed to distribute those assets to the transferor on the date the right is acquired.

(3) Tax benefit rule. A distribution described in paragraph (f)(1) or (f)(2) of this section is excluded from the gross income of a transferor to the extent provided by section 111(a).

(g) Example. The following example illustrates the rules of this section:

Example.On March 1, 1993, Individual A transfers $1 million to a qualified settlement fund to resolve or satisfy claims against him resulting from certain violations of securities laws. Individual A uses the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting. Since Individual A does not use the accrual method of accounting, the economic performance rules of paragraph (c) of this section are not applicable. Therefore, whether, when, and to what extent Individual A can deduct the transfer is determined under applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, such as sections 162 and 461. [T.D. 8459, 57 FR 60992, Dec. 23, 1992]