Appendix B - Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 197 - Substance Technical Guidelines, Benzene

I. Physical and Chemical Data

(a) Substance identification. (1) Synonyms: Benzol, benzole, coal naphtha, cyclohexatriene, phene, phenyl hydride, pyrobenzol. (Benzin, petroleum benzin, and benzine do not contain benzene).

(2) Formula: C6 H6 (CAS Registry Number: 71-43-2).

(b) Physical data. (1) Boiling point (760 mm Hg): 80.1 °C (176 °F).

(2) Specific gravity (water = 1): 0.879.

(3) Vapor density (air = 1): 2.7.

(4) Melting point: 5.5 °C (42 °F).

(5) Vapor pressure at 20 °C (68 °F): 75 mm Hg.

(6) Solubility in water: .06%.

(7) Evaporation rate (ether = 1): 2.8.

(8) Appearance and odor: Clear, colorless liquid with a distinctive sweet odor.

II. Fire, Explosion, and Reactivity Hazard Data

(a) Fire. (1) Flash point (closed cup): −11 °C (12 °F).

(2) Autoignition temperature: 580 °C (1076 °F).

(3) Flammable limits in air, % by volume: Lower: 1.3%, Upper: 7.5%.

(4) Extinguishing media: Carbon dioxide, dry chemical, or foam.

(5) Special fire fighting procedures: Do not use a solid stream of water, because it will scatter and spread the fire. Fine water spray may be used to keep fire-exposed containers cool.

(6) Unusual fire and explosion hazards: Benzene is a flammable liquid. Its vapors can form explosive mixtures. All ignition sources must be controlled when benzene is used, handled, or stored. Areas where liquid or vapor may be released are considered hazardous locations. Benzene vapors are heavier than air. Thus, benzene vapors may travel along the deck and ground and be ignited by open flames or sparks at locations remote from the site at which benzene is handled.

(7) Benzene is classified as a flammable liquid for the purpose of conforming to the requirements of 49 CFR 172.101 concerning the designation of materials as hazardous materials. Locations where benzene may be present in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures are considered Class I Group D locations for the purposes of conforming to the requirements of 46 CFR parts 30 through 40, 151, and 153 when determining the requirements for electrical equipment as specified in Subchapter J (Electrical engineering).

(b) Reactivity. (1) Conditions contributing to instability: Heat.

(2) Incompatibility: Heat and oxidizing materials.

(3) Hazardous decomposition products: Toxic gases and vapors (such as carbon monoxide).

III. Spill and Leak Procedures

(a) Steps to be taken if the material is released or spilled. As much benzene as possible should be absorbed with suitable materials, such as dry sand or earth. That remaining must be flushed with large amounts of water. Do not flush benzene into a confined space, such as a sewer, because of explosion danger. Remove all ignition sources. Ventilate enclosed places.

(b) Waste disposal method. Disposal methods must conform to state and local regulations. If allowed, benzene may be disposed of (a) by absorbing it in dry sand or earth and disposing in a sanitary landfill, (b), if in small quantities, by removing it to a safe location away from buildings or other combustible sources or by pouring onto dry sand or earth and cautiously igniting it, and (c), if in large quantities, by atomizing it in a suitable combustion chamber.