§ 27.71 - Airport facilities.
(a) This section applies to all terminal facilities and services owned, leased, or operated on any basis by a recipient of DOT financial assistance at a commercial service airport, including parking and ground transportation facilities.
(b) Airport operators shall ensure that the terminal facilities and services subject to this section shall be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use wheelchairs. Airport operators shall be deemed to comply with this section 504 obligation if they meet requirements applying to state and local government programs or activities and facilities under Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
(c) The airport shall ensure that there is an accessible path between the gate and the area from which aircraft are boarded.
(d) Systems of inter-terminal transportation, including, but not limited to, shuttle vehicles and people movers, shall comply with applicable requirements of the Department of Transportation's ADA rules.
(e) The Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAGs), including section 10.4 concerning airport facilities, shall be the standard for accessibility under this section.
(f) Contracts or leases between carriers and airport operators concerning the use of airport facilities shall set forth the respective responsibilities of the parties for the provision of accessible facilities and services to individuals with disabilities as required by this part and applicable ADA rules of the Department of Transportation and Department of Justice for airport operators and applicable Air Carrier Access Act rules (49 CFR part 382) for carriers.
(g) If an airport operator who receives Federal financial assistance for an existing airport facility has not already done so, the recipient shall submit a transition plan meeting the requirements of § 27.65(d) of this part to the FAA no later than March 3, 1997.
(h) Service animal relief areas. Each airport with 10,000 or more annual enplanements shall cooperate with airlines that own, lease, or control terminal facilities at that airport to provide wheelchair accessible animal relief areas for service animals that accompany passengers departing, connecting, or arriving at the airport subject to the following requirements:
(1) Airports must consult with one or more service animal training organizations regarding the design, dimensions, materials and maintenance of service animal relief areas;
(2) Airports must establish at least one relief area in each airport terminal;
(3) Airports must establish the relief area required by paragrah (h)(2) of this section in the sterile area of each airport terminal unless:
(i) The Transportation Security Administration prohibits the airport from locating a relief area in the sterile area, or
(ii) A service animal training organization, the airport, and the carriers in the terminal in which the relief area will be located agree that a relief area would be better placed outside the terminal's sterile area. In that event, the airport must retain documentation evidencing the recommendation that the relief area be located outside of the sterile area; and
(4) To the extent airports have established service animal relief areas prior to the effective date of this paragraph:
(i) Airports that have not consulted with a service animal training organization shall consult with one or more such organizations regarding the sufficiency of all existing service animal relief areas,
(ii) Airports shall meet the requirements of this section August 4, 2016.
(i) High-contrast captioning (captioning that is at least as easy to read as white letters on a consistent black background) on television and audio-visual displays. This paragraph applies to airports with 10,000 or more annual enplanements.
(1) Airport operators must enable or ensure high-contrast captioning at all times on all televisions and other audio-visual displays that are capable of displaying captions and that are located in any gate area, ticketing area, first-class or other passenger lounge provided by a U.S. or foreign carrier, or any common area of the terminal to which any passengers have access and that are owned, leased, or controlled by the airport.
(2) With respect to any televisions and other audio-visual displays located in any gate area, ticketing area, first-class or other passenger lounge provided by a U.S. or foreign carrier, or any common area of the terminal to which any passengers have access that provide passengers with safety briefings, information, or entertainment that do not have high-contrast captioning capability, an airport operator must replace or ensure the replacement of these devices with equipment that does have such capability whenever such equipment is replaced in the normal course of operations and/or whenever areas of the terminal in which such equipment is located undergo substantial renovation or expansion.
(3) If an airport installs new televisions and other audio-visual displays for passenger safety briefings, information, or entertainment on or after October 5, 2015, such equipment must have high-contrast captioning capability.
(j) Shared-use automated airport kiosks. This paragraph applies to U.S. airports with 10,000 or more annual enplanements.
(1) Airport operators that jointly own, lease, or control automated airport kiosks with carriers at U.S. airports must ensure that all shared-use automated kiosks installed on or after December 12, 2016 meet the design specifications set forth in paragraph (k) of this section until at least 25 percent of kiosks provided in each location at the airport (i.e., each cluster of kiosks and all stand-alone kiosks at the airport) meet this specification.
(2) Airport operators must ensure that at least 25 percent of shared-use automated airport kiosks they jointly own, lease, or control with carriers in each location at the airport meet the design specifications in paragraph (k) of this section by December 12, 2022.
(3) When shared-use kiosks provided in a location at the airport perform more than one function (e.g., print boarding passes/bag tags, accept payment for flight amenities such as seating upgrades/meals/WiFi access, rebook tickets, etc.), the accessible kiosks must provide all the same functions as the inaccessible kiosks in that location.
(4) Each shared-use automated kiosk that meets the design specifications in paragraph (k) of this section must be visually and tactilely identifiable to users as accessible (e.g., an international symbol of accessibility affixed to the front of the device) and maintained in proper working condition.
(5) Airport operators are jointly and severally liable with carriers for ensuring that shared-use automated airport kiosks are compliant with the requirements of paragraphs (j) and (k) of this section.
(k) Shared-use automated airport kiosks provided in accordance with paragraph (j) of this section must conform to the following technical accessibility standards with respect to their physical design and the functions they perform:
(1) Self contained. Except for personal headsets and audio loops, automated kiosks must be operable without requiring the user to attach assistive technology.
(2) Clear floor or ground space. A clear floor or ground space complying with section 305 of the U.S. Department of Justice's 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design, 28 CFR 35.104 (defining the “2010 Standards” for title II as the requirements set forth in appendices B and D to 36 CFR part 1191 and the requirements contained in 28 CFR 35.151) (hereinafter 2010 ADA Standards) must be provided.
(3) Operable parts. Operable parts must comply with section 309 of the 2010 ADA Standards, and the following requirements:
(i) Identification. Operable parts must be tactilely discernible without activation;
(ii) Timing. Where a timed response is required, the user must be alerted visually and by touch or sound and must be given the opportunity to indicate that more time is required;
(iii) Status indicators. Status indicators, including all locking or toggle controls or keys (e.g., Caps Lock and Num Lock keys), must be discernible visually and by touch or sound; and
(iv) Color. Color coding must not be used as the only means of conveying information, indicating an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a visual element.
(4) Privacy. Automated airport kiosks must provide the opportunity for the same degree of privacy of input and output available to all individuals. However, if an option is provided to blank the screen in the speech output mode, the screen must blank when activated by the user, not automatically.
(5) Output. Automated airport kiosks must comply with paragraphs (k)(5)(i) through (iv) of this section.
(i) Speech output enabled. Automated airport kiosks must provide an option for speech output. Operating instructions and orientation, visible transaction prompts, user input verification, error messages, and all other visual information for full use must be accessible to and independently usable by individuals with vision impairments. Speech output must be delivered through a mechanism that is readily available to all users, including but not limited to, an industry standard connector or a telephone handset. Speech output must be recorded or digitized human, or synthesized. Speech output must be coordinated with information displayed on the screen. Speech output must comply with paragraphs (k)(5)(i)(A) through (D) of this section.
(A) When asterisks or other masking characters are used to represent personal identification numbers or other visual output that is not displayed for security purposes, the masking characters must be spoken (“*” spoken as “asterisk”) rather than presented as beep tones or speech representing the concealed information.
(B) Advertisements and other similar information are not required to be audible unless they convey information that can be used in the transaction being conducted.
(C) Speech for any single function must be automatically interrupted when a transaction is selected or navigation controls are used. Speech must be capable of being repeated and paused by the user.
(D) Where receipts, tickets, or other outputs are provided as a result of a transaction, speech output must include all information necessary to complete or verify the transaction, except that -
(1) Automated airport kiosk location, date and time of transaction, customer account numbers, and the kiosk identifier are not required to be audible;
(2) Information that duplicates information available on-screen and already presented audibly is not required to be repeated; and
(3) Printed copies of a carrier's contract of carriage, applicable fare rules, itineraries and other similar supplemental information that may be included with a boarding pass are not required to be audible.
(ii) Volume control. Automated kiosks must provide volume control complying with paragraphs (k)(5)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section.
(A) Private listening. Where speech required by paragraph (k)(5)(i) is delivered through a mechanism for private listening, the automated kiosk must provide a means for the user to control the volume. A function must be provided to automatically reset the volume to the default level after every use.
(B) Speaker volume. Where sound is delivered through speakers on the automated kiosk, incremental volume control must be provided with output amplification up to a level of at least 65 dB SPL. Where the ambient noise level of the environment is above 45 dB SPL, a volume gain of at least 20 dB above the ambient level must be user selectable. A function must be provided to automatically reset the volume to the default level after every use.
(iii) Captioning. Multimedia content that contains speech or other audio information necessary for the comprehension of the content must be open or closed captioned.
Advertisements and other similar information are not required to be captioned unless they convey information that can be used in the transaction being conducted.
(iv) Tickets and boarding passes. Where tickets or boarding passes are provided, tickets and boarding passes must have an orientation that is tactilely discernible if orientation is important to further use of the ticket or boarding pass.
(6) Input. Input devices must comply with paragraphs (k)(6)(i) through (iv) of this section.
(i) Input controls. At least one input control that is tactilely discernible without activation must be provided for each function. Where provided, key surfaces not on active areas of display screens, must be raised above surrounding surfaces. Where touch or membrane keys are the only method of input, each must be tactilely discernible from surrounding surfaces and adjacent keys.
(ii) Alphabetic keys. Alphabetic keys must be arranged in a QWERTY keyboard layout. The “F” and “J” keys must be tactilely distinct from the other keys.
(iii) Numeric keys. Numeric keys must be arranged in a 12-key ascending or descending keypad layout or must be arranged in a row above the alphabetic keys on a QWERTY keyboard. The “5” key must be tactilely distinct from the other keys.
(iv) Function keys. Function keys must comply with paragraphs (k)(6)(iv)(A) and (B) of this section.
(A) Contrast. Function keys must contrast visually from background surfaces. Characters and symbols on key surfaces must contrast visually from key surfaces. Visual contrast must be either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. However, tactile symbols required by (k)(6)(iv)(B) are not required to comply with paragraph (k)(6)(iv)(A) of this section.
(B) Tactile symbols. Function key surfaces must have tactile symbols as follows: Enter or Proceed key: raised circle; Clear or Correct key: raised left arrow; Cancel key: raised letter ex; Add Value key: raised plus sign; Decrease Value key: raised minus sign.
(7) Display screen. The display screen must comply with paragraphs (k)(7)(i) and (ii) of this section.
(i) Visibility. The display screen must be visible from a point located 40 inches (1015 mm) above the center of the clear floor space in front of the automated kiosk.
(ii) Characters. Characters displayed on the screen must be in a sans serif font. Characters must be 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) high minimum based on the uppercase letter “I.” Characters must contrast with their background with a minimum luminosity contrast ratio of 3:1.
(8) Braille instructions. Braille instructions for initiating the speech mode must be provided. Braille must comply with section 703.3 of the 2010 ADA Standards.
(9) Biometrics. Biometrics must not be the only means for user identification or control, unless at least two biometric options that use different biological characteristics are provided.