View all text of Part VIII [§ 2291 - § 2291n]

§ 2291. Policy, general authorities, coordination, foreign police actions, definitions, and other provisions
(a) Policy and general authorities
(1) Statements of policy
(A) International narcotics trafficking poses an unparalleled transnational threat in today’s world, and its suppression is among the most important foreign policy objectives of the United States.
(B) Under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, and under the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, the parties are required to criminalize certain drug-related activities, provide appropriately severe penalties, and cooperate in the extradition of accused offenders.
(C) International narcotics control programs should include, as priority goals, the suppression of the illicit manufacture of and trafficking in narcotic and psychotropic drugs, money laundering, and precursor chemical diversion, and the progressive elimination of the illicit cultivation of the crops from which narcotic and psychotropic drugs are derived.
(D) International criminal activities, particularly international narcotics trafficking, money laundering, and corruption, endanger political and economic stability and democratic development, and assistance for the prevention and suppression of international criminal activities should be a priority for the United States.
(E) The international community should provide assistance, where appropriate, to those producer and transit countries which require assistance in discharging these primary obligations.
(F) The objective of the United States in dealing with the problem of international money laundering is to ensure that countries adopt comprehensive domestic measures against money laundering and cooperate with each other in narcotics money laundering investigations, prosecutions, and related forfeiture actions.
(G) Effective international cooperation is necessary to control the illicit cultivation, production, and smuggling of, trafficking in, and abuse of narcotic and psychotropic drugs.
(2) In order to promote such cooperation, the President is authorized to conclude agreements, including reciprocal maritime agreements, with other countries to facilitate control of the production, processing, transportation, and distribution of narcotics analgesics, including opium and its derivatives, other narcotic and psychotropic drugs, and other controlled substances.
(3) In order to promote international cooperation in combatting international trafficking in illicit narcotics, it shall be the policy of the United States to use its voice and vote in multilateral development banks to promote the development and implementation in the major illicit drug producing countries of programs for the reduction and eventual eradication of narcotic drugs and other controlled substances, including appropriate assistance in conjunction with effective programs of illicit crop eradication.
(4) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the President is authorized to furnish assistance to any country or international organization, on such terms and conditions as he may determine, for the control of narcotic and psychotropic drugs and other controlled substances, or for other anticrime purposes.
(b) Coordination of all United States antinarcotics assistance to foreign countries
(1) Responsibility of Secretary of State

Consistent with chapter 1 of the National Narcotics Leadership Act of 1988,1

1 See References in Text note below.
the Secretary of State shall be responsible for coordinating all assistance provided by the United States Government to support international efforts to combat illicit narcotics production or trafficking.

(2) Rule of construction

Nothing contained in this subsection or section 2291h(b) of this title shall be construed to limit or impair the authority or responsibility of any other Federal agency with respect to law enforcement, domestic security operations, or intelligence activities as defined in Executive Order 12333.

(c) Participation in foreign police actions
(1) Prohibition on effecting an arrest

No officer or employee of the United States may directly effect an arrest in any foreign country as part of any foreign police action with respect to narcotics control efforts, notwithstanding any other provision of law.

(2) Participation in arrest actions

Paragraph (1) does not prohibit an officer or employee of the United States, with the approval of the United States chief of mission, from being present when foreign officers are effecting an arrest or from assisting foreign officers who are effecting an arrest.

(3) Exception for exigent, threatening circumstances

Paragraph (1) does not prohibit an officer or employee from taking direct action to protect life or safety if exigent circumstances arise which are unanticipated and which pose an immediate threat to United States officers or employees, officers or employees of a foreign government, or members of the public.

(4) Exception for maritime law enforcement

With the agreement of a foreign country, paragraph (1) does not apply with respect to maritime law enforcement operations in the territorial sea or archipelagic waters of that country.

(5) Interrogations

No officer or employee of the United States may interrogate or be present during the interrogation of any United States person arrested in any foreign country with respect to narcotics control efforts without the written consent of such person.

(6) Exception for Status of Forces arrangements

This subsection does not apply to the activities of the United States Armed Forces in carrying out their responsibilities under applicable Status of Forces arrangements.

(d) Use of herbicides for aerial eradication
(1) Monitoring

The President, with the assistance of appropriate Federal agencies, shall monitor any use under this part of a herbicide for aerial eradication in order to determine the impact of such use on the environment and on the health of individuals.

(2) Annual reports

In the annual report required by section 2291h(a) of this title, the President shall report on the impact on the environment and the health of individuals of the use under this part of a herbicide for aerial eradication.

(3) Report upon determination of harm to environment or health

If the President determines that any such use is harmful to the environment or the health of individuals, the President shall immediately report that determination to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, together with such recommendations as the President deems appropriate.

(e) DefinitionsFor purposes of this part and other provisions of this chapter relating specifically to international narcotics matters—
(1) the term “legal and law enforcement measures” means—
(A) the enactment and implementation of laws and regulations or the implementation of existing laws and regulations to provide for the progressive control, reduction, and gradual elimination of the illicit cultivation, production, processing, transportation, and distribution of narcotic drugs and other controlled substances; and
(B) the effective organization, staffing, equipping, funding, and activation of those governmental authorities responsible for narcotics control;
(2) the term “major illicit drug producing country” means a country—
(A) in which 1,000 hectares or more of illicit opium poppy is cultivated or harvested during a year;
(B) in which 1,000 hectares or more of illicit coca is cultivated or harvested during a year;
(C) in which 5,000 hectares or more of illicit cannabis is cultivated or harvested during a year, unless the President determines that such illicit cannabis production does not significantly affect the United States;
(D) that is a significant source of illicit synthetic opioids significantly affecting the United States; or
(E) that is a significant direct source of covered synthetic drugs or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances, including precursor chemicals when those chemicals are used in the production of such drugs and substances, significantly affecting the United States;
(3) the term “narcotic and psychotropic drugs and other controlled substances” has the same meaning as is given by any applicable international narcotics control agreement or domestic law of the country or countries concerned;
(4) the term “United States assistance” means—
(A) any assistance under this chapter (and any support under subchapter II of chapter 103 of this title, relating to the United States International Development Finance Corporation), other than—
(i) assistance under this part,
(ii) any other narcotics-related assistance under this subchapter (including part IV of subchapter II of this chapter), but any such assistance provided under this clause shall be subject to the prior notification procedures applicable to reprogrammings pursuant to section 2394–1 of this title,
(iii) disaster relief assistance, including any assistance under part IX of this subchapter,
(iv) assistance which involves the provision of food (including monetization of food) or medicine, and
(v) assistance for refugees;
(B) sales, or financing on any terms, under the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.];
(C) the provision of agricultural commodities, other than food, under the Food for Peace Act [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.];
(D) financing under the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945 [12 U.S.C. 635 et seq.];
(E) assistance that furthers the objectives set forth in paragraphs (1) through (4) of section 2151n–2(b) of this title;
(F) assistance to combat trafficking authorized under the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (22 U.S.C. 7101 et seq.)) 2
2 So in original.
; and
(G) global health assistance authorized under sections 2151b through 2151b–4 of this title.
(5) the term “major drug-transit country” means a country through which are transported covered synthetic drugs or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances significantly affecting the United States;
(6) the term “precursor chemical” has the same meaning as the term “listed chemical” has under paragraph (33) of section 802 of title 21;
(7) the term “major money laundering country” means a country whose financial institutions engage in currency transactions involving significant amounts of proceeds from international narcotics trafficking;
(8) the term “appropriate congressional committees” means the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate; and
(9) the term “covered synthetic drug” has the meaning given that term in section 5558 of the FENTANYL Results Act.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, § 481, as added Pub. L. 92–352, title V, § 503, July 13, 1972, 86 Stat. 496; amended Pub. L. 93–189, § 11(a), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 719; Pub. L. 94–329, title V, § 504(b), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 764; Pub. L. 95–384, §§ 3, 4, Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 730; Pub. L. 96–92, § 3(b), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 702; Pub. L. 97–113, title V, § 502(a)(1), (b), title VII, § 734(a)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1538, 1539, 1560; Pub. L. 98–164, title X, § 1003, Nov. 22, 1983, 97 Stat. 1053; Pub. L. 99–83, title VI, §§ 604–606, 618, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 228, 229, 233; Pub. L. 99–570, title II, §§ 2005, 2008, 2009, 2017, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–61, 3207–64, 3207–68; Pub. L. 100–202, § 101(e) [title V, § 585(a)], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–131, 1329–184; Pub. L. 100–204, title VIII, § 805, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1397; Pub. L. 100–461, title V, § 578(e)(2), (g)(1), (3), (h), (i), Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2268–47, 2268–48; Pub. L. 100–690, title IV, § 4202(b), 4401–4403, 4405(a), 4407(a), (b)(1), 4502, 4802(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4267, 4275–4277, 4281, 4285, 4294; Pub. L. 101–231, §§ 15, 17(a)–(f), Dec. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 1963–1965; Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, § 1519, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4060; Pub. L. 102–583, §§ 4(a)–(d), 5(b), 6(b)(1)–(3), 11(a), Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4914, 4915, 4931, 4932, 4934; Pub. L. 103–447, title I, § 101(a), (b), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4691; Pub. L. 104–164, title I, § 131(a), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1429; Pub. L. 105–20, § 2(b), June 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 234; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, § 3001(b)(1)(A), (2)(Q), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1820; Pub. L. 115–254, div. F, title VI, § 1470(j)(3), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3517; Pub. L. 117–81, div. F, title LXVI, § 6610(b), Dec. 27, 2021, 135 Stat. 2447; Pub. L. 117–263, div. E, title LV, § 5555(b), Dec. 23, 2022, 136 Stat. 3343.)