§ 5317. Search and forfeiture of monetary instruments
(a) The Secretary of the Treasury may apply to a court of competent jurisdiction for a search warrant when the Secretary reasonably believes a monetary instrument is being transported and a report on the instrument under section 5316 of this title has not been filed or contains a material omission or misstatement. The Secretary shall include a statement of information in support of the warrant. On a showing of probable cause, the court may issue a search warrant for a designated person or a designated or described place or physical object. This subsection does not affect the authority of the Secretary under another law.
(b)Searches at Border.—For purposes of ensuring compliance with the requirements of section 5316, a customs officer may stop and search, at the border and without a search warrant, any vehicle, vessel, aircraft, or other conveyance, any envelope or other container, and any person entering or departing from the United States.
(A)In general.—The court in imposing sentence for any violation of section 5313, 5316, or 5324 of this title, or any conspiracy to commit such violation, shall order the defendant to forfeit all property, real or personal, involved in the offense and any property traceable thereto.
(B)Procedure.—Forfeitures under this paragraph shall be governed by the procedures established in section 413 of the Controlled Substances Act.
(A)In general.—Any property involved in a violation of section 5313, 5316, or 5324 of this title, or any conspiracy to commit any such violation, and any property traceable to any such violation or conspiracy, may be seized and forfeited to the United States in accordance with the procedures governing civil forfeitures in money laundering cases pursuant to section 981(a)(1)(A) of title 18, United States Code.
(B)Internal revenue service seizure requirements with respect to structuring transactions.—
(i)Property derived from an illegal source.—Property may only be seized by the Internal Revenue Service pursuant to subparagraph (A) by reason of a claimed violation of section 5324 if the property to be seized was derived from an illegal source or the funds were structured for the purpose of concealing the violation of a criminal law or regulation other than section 5324.
(ii)Notice.—Not later than 30 days after property is seized by the Internal Revenue Service pursuant to subparagraph (A), the Internal Revenue Service shall—(I) make a good faith effort to find all persons with an ownership interest in such property; and(II) provide each such person so found with a notice of the seizure and of the person’s rights under clause (iv).
(iii)Extension of notice under certain circumstances.—The Internal Revenue Service may apply to a court of competent jurisdiction for one 30-day extension of the notice requirement under clause (ii) if the Internal Revenue Service can establish probable cause of an imminent threat to national security or personal safety necessitating such extension.
(iv)Post-seizure hearing.—If a person with an ownership interest in property seized pursuant to subparagraph (A) by the Internal Revenue Service requests a hearing by a court of competent jurisdiction within 30 days after the date on which notice is provided under subclause (ii), such property shall be returned unless the court holds an adversarial hearing and finds within 30 days of such request (or such longer period as the court may provide, but only on request of an interested party) that there is probable cause to believe that there is a violation of section 5324 involving such property and probable cause to believe that the property to be seized was derived from an illegal source or the funds were structured for the purpose of concealing the violation of a criminal law or regulation other than section 5324.
(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 998; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, § 901(d), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2135; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, § 1355, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–22; Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, § 1525(c)(2), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4065; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §§ 365(b)(2)(B), 372(a), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 335, 338; Pub. L. 116–25, title I, § 1201, July 1, 2019, 133 Stat. 986.)