United States Code

USC most recently checked for updates: Apr 05, 2020

§ 1508.
Crop insurance
(a)
Authority to offer insurance
(1)
In general

If sufficient actuarial data are available (as determined by the Corporation), the Corporation may insure, or provide reinsurance for insurers of, producers of agricultural commodities grown in the United States under 1 or more plans of insurance determined by the Corporation to be adapted to the agricultural commodity concerned. To qualify for coverage under a plan of insurance, the losses of the insured commodity must be due to drought, flood, or other natural disaster (as determined by the Secretary).

(2)
Period

Except in the cases of tobacco, potatoes, sweet potatoes, and hemp, insurance shall not extend beyond the period during which the insured commodity is in the field. As used in the preceding sentence, in the case of an aquacultural species, the term “field” means the environment in which the commodity is produced.

(3)
Exclusion of losses due to certain actions of producer
(A)
Exclusions
Insurance provided under this subsection shall not cover losses due to—
(i)
the neglect or malfeasance of the producer;
(ii)
the failure of the producer to reseed to the same crop in such areas and under such circumstances as it is customary to reseed; or
(iii)
the failure of the producer to follow good farming practices, including scientifically sound sustainable and organic farming practices.
(B)
Good farming practices determination review
(i)
Informal administrative process

A producer shall have the right to a review of a determination regarding good farming practices made under subparagraph (A)(iii) in accordance with an informal administrative process to be established by the Corporation.

(ii)
Administrative review
(I)
No adverse decision

The determination shall not be considered an adverse decision for purposes of subtitle H of the Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 6991 et seq.).

(II)
Reversal or modification

Except as provided in clause (i), the determination may not be reversed or modified as the result of a subsequent administrative review.

(iii)
Judicial review
(I)
Right to review

A producer shall have the right to judicial review of the determination without exhausting any right to a review under clause (i).

(II)
Reversal or modification

The determination may not be reversed or modified as the result of judicial review unless the determination is found to be arbitrary or capricious.

(C)
Limitation on revenue coverage for potatoes

No policy or plan of insurance provided under this subchapter (including a policy or plan of insurance approved by the Board under subsection (h)) shall cover losses due to a reduction in revenue for potatoes except as covered under a whole farm policy or plan of insurance, as determined by the Corporation.

(4)
Expansion to other areas or single producers
(A)
Area expansion

The Corporation may offer plans of insurance or reinsurance for production of agricultural commodities in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau in the same manner as provided in this section for production of agricultural commodities in the United States.

(B)
Producer expansion

In an area in the United States or specified in subparagraph (A) where crop insurance is not available for a particular agricultural commodity, the Corporation may offer to enter into a written agreement with an individual producer operating in the area for insurance coverage under this subchapter if the producer has actuarially sound data relating to the production by the producer of the commodity or similar commodities and the data is acceptable to the Corporation.

(5)
Dissemination of crop insurance information
(A)
Available information
The Corporation shall make available to producers through local offices of the Department—
(i)
current and complete information on all aspects of Federal crop insurance; and
(ii)
a listing of insurance agents and companies offering to sell crop insurance in the area of the producers.
(B)
Use of electronic methods
(i)
Dissemination by Corporation

The Corporation shall make the information described in subparagraph (A) available electronically to producers and approved insurance providers.

(ii)
Submission to Corporation

To the maximum extent practicable, the Corporation shall allow producers and approved insurance providers to use electronic methods to submit information required by the Corporation.

(6)
Addition of new and specialty crops (including value-added crops)
(A)
Annual review
Not later than 1 year after December 20, 2018, and annually thereafter, the manager of the Corporation shall prepare, to the maximum extent practicable, based on data shared from the noninsured crop disaster assistance program established by section 7333 of this title, written agreements, or other data, and present to the Board not less than 1 of each of the following:
(i)
Research and development for a policy or plan of insurance for a commodity for which there is no existing policy or plan of insurance.
(ii)
Expansion of an existing policy or plan of insurance to additional counties or States, including malting barley endorsements or contract options.
(iii)
Research and development for a new policy or plan of insurance, or endorsement, for commodities with existing policies or plans of insurance, such as dollar plans.
(B)
Report

Not later than 1 year after October 13, 1994, and annually thereafter, the Corporation shall report to Congress on the progress and expected timetable for expanding crop insurance coverage under this subchapter to new and specialty crops.

(7)
Adequate coverage for States and underserved producers
(A)
Definitions
In this paragraph:
(i)
Adequately served

The term “adequately served” means having a participation rate, by crop, that is at least 50 percent of the national average participation rate.

(ii)
Underserved producer
The term “underserved producer” means an individual (including a member of an Indian Tribe) that is—
(I)
a beginning farmer or rancher;
(II)
a veteran farmer or rancher; or
(III)
a socially disadvantaged farmer or rancher.
(B)
Review

Using resources and information available to the Board or the Secretary, the Board shall review the policies and plans of insurance that are offered by approved insurance providers under this subchapter, including policies and plans of insurance for underserved producers, to determine if each State is adequately served by the policies and plans of insurance.

(C)
Report
(i)
In general

Not later than 30 days after completion of the review under subparagraph (B), and not less frequently than once every 3 years thereafter, the Board shall make publicly available and submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report describing the results of the review.

(ii)
Recommendations

The report under clause (i) shall include recommendations to increase participation in States and among underserved producers that are not adequately served by the policies and plans of insurance, including any plans for administrative action or recommendations for Congressional action.

(8)
Special provisions for cotton and rice

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, beginning with the 2001 crops of upland cotton, extra long staple cotton, and rice, the Corporation shall offer plans of insurance, including prevented planting coverage and replanting coverage, under this subchapter that cover losses of upland cotton, extra long staple cotton, and rice resulting from failure of irrigation water supplies due to drought and saltwater intrusion.

(9)
Premium adjustments
(A)
Prohibition

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no person shall pay, allow, or give, or offer to pay, allow, or give, directly or indirectly, either as an inducement to procure insurance or after insurance has been procured, any rebate, discount, abatement, credit, or reduction of the premium named in an insurance policy or any other valuable consideration or inducement not specified in the policy.

(B)
Exceptions
Subparagraph (A) does not apply with respect to—
(i)
a payment authorized under subsection (b)(5)(B);
(ii)
a performance-based discount authorized under subsection (d)(3); or
(iii)
a patronage dividend, or similar payment, that is paid—
(I)
by an entity that was approved by the Corporation to make such payments for the 2005, 2006, or 2007 reinsurance year, in accordance with subsection (b)(5)(B) as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of this paragraph; and
(II)
in a manner consistent with the payment plan approved in accordance with that subsection for the entity by the Corporation for the applicable reinsurance year.
(C)
Publication of violations
(i)
Publication required

Subject to clause (ii), the Corporation shall publish in a timely manner on the website of the Risk Management Agency information regarding each violation of this paragraph, including any sanctions imposed in response to the violation, in sufficient detail so that the information may serve as effective guidance to approved insurance providers, agents, and producers.

(ii)
Protection of privacy

In providing information under clause (i) regarding violations of this paragraph, the Corporation shall redact the identity of the persons and entities committing the violations in order to protect the privacy of those persons and entities.

(10)
Commissions
(A)
Definition of immediate family

In this paragraph, the term “immediate family” means an individual’s father, mother, stepfather, stepmother, brother, sister, stepbrother, stepsister, son, daughter, stepson, stepdaughter, grandparent, grandson, granddaughter, father-in-law, mother-in-law, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, the spouse of the foregoing, and the individual’s spouse.

(B)
Prohibition
No individual (including a subagent) may receive directly, or indirectly through an entity, any compensation (including any commission, profit sharing, bonus, or any other direct or indirect benefit) for the sale or service of a policy or plan of insurance offered under this subchapter if—
(i)
the individual has a substantial beneficial interest, or a member of the individual’s immediate family has a substantial beneficial interest, in the policy or plan of insurance; and
(ii)
the total compensation to be paid to the individual with respect to the sale or service of the policies or plans of insurance that meet the condition described in clause (i) exceeds 30 percent or the percentage specified in State law, whichever is less, of the total of all compensation received directly or indirectly by the individual for the sale or service of all policies and plans of insurance offered under this subchapter for the reinsurance year.
(C)
Reporting

Not later than 90 days after the annual settlement date of the reinsurance year, any individual that received directly or indirectly any compensation for the service or sale of any policy or plan of insurance offered under this subchapter in the prior reinsurance year shall certify to applicable approved insurance providers that the compensation that the individual received was in compliance with this paragraph.

(D)
Sanctions

The procedural requirements and sanctions prescribed in section 1515(h) of this title shall apply to the prosecution of a violation of this paragraph.

(E)
Applicability
(i)
In general

Sanctions for violations under this paragraph shall only apply to the individuals or entities directly responsible for the certification required under subparagraph (C) or the failure to comply with the requirements of this paragraph.

(ii)
Prohibition

No sanctions shall apply with respect to the policy or plans of insurance upon which compensation is received, including the reinsurance for those policies or plans.

(11)
Cover crops
(A)
In general

The voluntary practice of cover cropping shall be considered a good farming practice under paragraph (3)(A)(iii) if the cover crop is terminated in accordance with subparagraph (B).

(B)
Termination
(i)
In general
The termination of a cover crop shall be carried out according to—
(I)
guidelines established by the Secretary; or
(II)
an exception to the guidelines approved under clause (ii).
(ii)
Exception to guidelines
The Corporation shall approve an exception to the guidelines under clause (i)(I) if that exception is recommended by—
(I)
the Natural Resources Conservation Service; or
(II)
an agricultural expert, as determined by the Corporation, unless the exception is determined to be unreasonable by the Corporation.
(C)
Insurability of subsequent crop

Cover crop termination shall not affect the insurability of a subsequently planted insurable crop if the cover crop is terminated in accordance with subparagraph (B).

(D)
Summer fallow

In a county in which summer fallow is an insurable practice, a cover crop in that county that is terminated in accordance with subparagraph (B) shall be considered as summer fallow for the purpose of insurability.

(b)
Catastrophic risk protection
(1)
Coverage availability

The Corporation shall offer a catastrophic risk protection plan to indemnify producers for crop loss due to loss of yield or prevented planting, if provided by the Corporation, when the producer is unable, because of drought, flood, or other natural disaster (as determined by the Secretary), to plant other crops for harvest on the acreage for the crop year.

(2)
Amount of coverage
(A)
In general
Subject to subparagraph (B)—
(i)
in the case of each of the 1995 through 1998 crop years, catastrophic risk protection shall offer a producer coverage for a 50 percent loss in yield, on an individual yield or area yield basis, indemnified at 60 percent of the expected market price, or a comparable coverage (as determined by the Corporation); and
(ii)
in the case of each of the 1999 and subsequent crop years, catastrophic risk protection shall offer a producer coverage for a 50 percent loss in yield, on an individual yield or area yield basis, indemnified at 55 percent of the expected market price, or a comparable coverage (as determined by the Corporation).
(B)
Reduction in actual payment

The amount paid to a producer on a claim under catastrophic risk protection may reflect a reduction that is proportional to the out-of-pocket expenses that are not incurred by the producer as a result of not planting, growing, or harvesting the crop for which the claim is made, as determined by the Corporation.

(3)
Alternative catastrophic coverage
Beginning with the 2001 crop year, the Corporation shall offer producers of an agricultural commodity the option of selecting either of the following:
(A)
The catastrophic risk protection coverage available under paragraph (2)(A).
(B)
An alternative catastrophic risk protection coverage that—
(i)
indemnifies the producer on an area yield and loss basis if such a policy or plan of insurance is offered for the agricultural commodity in the county in which the farm is located;
(ii)
provides, on a uniform national basis, a higher combination of yield and price protection than the coverage available under paragraph (2)(A); and
(iii)
the Corporation determines is comparable to the coverage available under paragraph (2)(A) for purposes of subsection (e)(2)(A).
(4)
Sale of catastrophic risk coverage
(A)
In general
Catastrophic risk coverage may be offered by—
(i)
approved insurance providers, if available in an area; and
(ii)
at the option of the Secretary that is based on considerations of need, local offices of the Department.
(B)
Need

For purposes of considering need under subparagraph (A)(ii), the Secretary may take into account the most efficient and cost-effective use of resources, the availability of personnel, fairness to local producers, the needs and convenience of local producers, and the availability of private insurance carriers.

(C)
Delivery of coverage
(i)
In general

(ii)
Coverage by approved insurance providers

To the extent that catastrophic risk protection coverage by approved insurance providers is sufficiently available in a State (or a portion of a State) as determined by the Secretary, only approved insurance providers may provide the coverage in the State or portion of the State.

(iii)
Timing of determinations

Not later than 90 days after April 4, 1996, the Secretary shall announce the results of the determinations under clause (i) for policies for the 1997 crop year. For subsequent crop years, the Secretary shall make the announcement not later than April 30 of the year preceding the year in which the crop will be produced, or at such other times during the year as the Secretary finds practicable in consultation with affected crop insurance providers for those States (or portions of States) in which catastrophic coverage remains available through local offices of the Department.

(iv)
Current policies

This clause shall take effect beginning with the 1997 crop year. Subject to clause (ii) all catastrophic risk protection policies written by local offices of the Department shall be transferred to the approved insurance provider for performance of all sales, service, and loss adjustment functions. Any fees in connection with such policies that are not yet collected at the time of the transfer shall be payable to the approved insurance providers assuming the policies. The transfer process for policies for the 1997 crop year with sales closing dates before January 1, 1997, shall begin at the time of the Secretary’s announcement under clause (iii) and be completed by the sales closing date for the crop and county. The transfer process for all subsequent policies (including policies for the 1998 and subsequent crop years) shall begin at a date that permits the process to be completed not later than 45 days before the sales closing date.

(5)
Administrative fee
(A)
Basic fee

Each producer shall pay an administrative fee for catastrophic risk protection in the amount of $655 per crop per county.

(B)
Payment of catastrophic risk protection fee on behalf of producers
(i)
Payment authorized

If State law permits a licensing fee to be paid by an insurance provider to a cooperative association or trade association and rebated to a producer through the payment of catastrophic risk protection administrative fees, a cooperative association or trade association located in that State may pay, on behalf of a member of the association in that State or a contiguous State who consents to be insured under such an arrangement, all or a portion of the administrative fee required by this paragraph for catastrophic risk protection.

(ii)
Selection of provider

Nothing in this subparagraph limits the option of a producer to select the licensed insurance agent or other approved insurance provider from whom the producer will purchase a policy or plan of insurance or to refuse coverage for which a payment is offered to be made under clause (i).

(iii)
Delivery of insurance

Catastrophic risk protection coverage for which a payment is made under clause (i) shall be delivered by a licensed insurance agent or other approved insurance provider.

(iv)
Additional coverage encouraged

A cooperative association or trade association, and any approved insurance provider with whom a licensing fee is made, shall encourage producer members to purchase appropriate levels of coverage in order to meet the risk management needs of the member producers.

(C)
Time for payment

The administrative fee required by this paragraph shall be paid by the producer on the same date on which the premium for a policy of additional coverage would be paid by the producer.

(D)
Use of fees
(i)
In general

The amounts paid under this paragraph shall be deposited in the crop insurance fund established under section 1516(c) of this title, to be available for the programs and activities of the Corporation.

(ii)
Limitation

No funds deposited in the crop insurance fund under this subparagraph may be used to compensate an approved insurance provider or agent for the delivery of services under this subsection.

(E)
Waiver of fee
(i)
In general

The Corporation shall waive the amounts required under this paragraph for limited resource farmers and beginning farmers or ranchers, as defined by the Corporation, and veteran farmers or ranchers.

(ii)
Coordination

The Corporation shall coordinate with other agencies of the Department that provide programs or services to farmers and ranchers described in clause (i) to make available coverage under the waiver under that clause and to share eligibility information to reduce paperwork and avoid duplication.

(6)
Participation requirement

A producer may obtain catastrophic risk coverage for a crop of the producer on land in the county only if the producer obtains the coverage for the crop on all insurable land of the producer in the county.

(7)
Limitation due to risk

The Corporation may limit catastrophic risk coverage in any county or area, or on any farm, on the basis of the insurance risk concerned.

(8)
Transitional coverage for 1995 crops

Effective only for a 1995 crop planted or for which insurance attached prior to January 1, 1995, the Corporation shall allow producers of the crops until not later than the end of the 180-day period beginning on the date of enactment of the Federal Crop Insurance Reform Act of 1994 [Oct. 13, 1994] to obtain catastrophic risk protection for the crop. On enactment of such Act, a producer who made timely purchases of a crop insurance policy before the date of enactment of such Act, under the provisions of this subchapter then in effect, shall be eligible for the same benefits to which a producer would be entitled under comparable additional coverage under subsection (c).

(9)
Simplification
(A)
Catastrophic risk protection plans

In developing and carrying out the policies and procedures for a catastrophic risk protection plan under this subchapter, the Corporation shall, to the maximum extent practicable, minimize the paperwork required and the complexity and costs of procedures governing applications for, processing, and servicing of the plan for all parties involved.

(B)
Other plans

To the extent that the policies and procedures developed under subparagraph (A) may be applied to other plans of insurance offered under this subchapter without jeopardizing the actuarial soundness or integrity of the crop insurance program, the Corporation shall apply the policies and procedures to the other plans of insurance within a reasonable period of time (as determined by the Corporation) after the effective date of this paragraph.

(10)
Loss adjustment

The rate for reimbursing an approved insurance provider or agent for expenses incurred by the approved insurance provider or agent for loss adjustment in connection with a policy of catastrophic risk protection shall not exceed 6 percent of the premium for catastrophic risk protection that is used to define loss ratio.

(c)
General coverage levels
(1)
Additional coverage generally
(A)
In general

The Corporation shall offer to producers of agricultural commodities grown in the United States plans of crop insurance that provide additional coverage.

(B)
Purchase

To be eligible for additional coverage, a producer must apply to an approved insurance provider for purchase of additional coverage if the coverage is available from an approved insurance provider. If additional coverage is unavailable privately, the Corporation may offer additional coverage plans of insurance directly to producers.

(2)
Transfer of relevant information

If a producer has already applied for catastrophic risk protection at the local office of the Department and elects to purchase additional coverage, the relevant information for the crop of the producer shall be transferred to the approved insurance provider servicing the additional coverage crop policy.

(3)
Yield and loss basis options
A producer shall have the option of purchasing additional coverage based on—
(A)
(i)
an individual yield and loss basis; or
(ii)
an area yield and loss basis;
(B)
an individual yield and loss basis, supplemented with coverage based on an area yield and loss basis to cover a part of the deductible under the individual yield and loss policy, as described in paragraph (4)(C); or
(C)
a margin basis alone or in combination with the coverages available under subparagraph (A) or (B).
(4)
Level of coverage
(A)
Dollar denomination and percentage of yield
Except as provided in subparagraph (C), the level of coverage—
(i)
shall be dollar denominated; and
(ii)
may be purchased at any level not to exceed 85 percent of the individual yield or 95 percent of the area yield (as determined by the Corporation).
(B)
Information

The Corporation shall provide producers with information on catastrophic risk and additional coverage in terms of dollar coverage (within the allowable limits of coverage provided in this paragraph).

(C)
Supplemental coverage option
(i)
In general
Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), in the case of the supplemental coverage option described in paragraph (3)(B), the Corporation shall offer producers the opportunity to purchase coverage in combination with a policy or plan of insurance offered under this subchapter that would allow indemnities to be paid to a producer equal to a part of the deductible under the policy or plan of insurance—
(I)
at a county-wide level to the fullest extent practicable; or
(II)
in counties that lack sufficient data, on the basis of such larger geographical area as the Corporation determines to provide sufficient data for purposes of providing the coverage.
(ii)
Trigger

Coverage offered under paragraph (3)(B) and clause (i) shall be triggered only if the losses in the area exceed 14 percent of normal levels (as determined by the Corporation).

(iii)
Coverage
Subject to the trigger described in clause (ii), coverage offered under paragraph (3)(B) and clause (i) shall not exceed the difference between—
(I)
86 percent; and
(II)
the coverage level selected by the producer for the underlying policy or plan of insurance.
(iv)
Ineligible crops and acres

Crops for which the producer has elected under section 9016 of this title to receive agriculture risk coverage and acres that are enrolled in the stacked income protection plan under section 1508b of this title shall not be eligible for supplemental coverage under this subparagraph.

(v)
Calculation of premium
Notwithstanding subsection (d), the premium for coverage offered under paragraph (3)(B) and clause (i) shall—
(I)
be sufficient to cover anticipated losses and a reasonable reserve; and
(II)
include an amount for operating and administrative expenses established in accordance with subsection (k)(4)(F).
(5)
Expected market price
(A)
Establishment or approval

For the purposes of this subchapter, the Corporation shall establish or approve the price level (referred to in this subchapter as the “expected market price”) of each agricultural commodity for which insurance is offered.

(B)
General rule

Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (C), the expected market price of an agricultural commodity shall be not less than the projected market price of the agricultural commodity, as determined by the Corporation.

(C)
Other authorized approaches
The expected market price of an agricultural commodity—
(i)
may be based on the actual market price of the agricultural commodity at the time of harvest, as determined by the Corporation;
(ii)
in the case of revenue and other similar plans of insurance, may be the actual market price of the agricultural commodity, as determined by the Corporation;
(iii)
in the case of cost of production or similar plans of insurance, shall be the projected cost of producing the agricultural commodity, as determined by the Corporation; or
(iv)
in the case of other plans of insurance, may be an appropriate amount, as determined by the Corporation.
(D)
Grain sorghum price election
(i)
In general
The Corporation, in conjunction with the Secretary (referred to in this subparagraph as the “Corporation”), shall—
(I)
not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of this subparagraph, make available all methods and data, including data from the Economic Research Service, used by the Corporation to develop the expected market prices for grain sorghum under the production and revenue-based plans of insurance of the Corporation; and
(II)
request applicable data from the grain sorghum industry.
(ii)
Expert reviewers
(I)
In general

Not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this subparagraph, the Corporation shall contract individually with 5 expert reviewers described in subclause (II) to develop and recommend a methodology for determining an expected market price for sorghum for both the production and revenue-based plans of insurance to more accurately reflect the actual price at harvest.

(II)
Requirements
The expert reviewers under subclause (I) shall be comprised of agricultural economists with experience in grain sorghum and corn markets, of whom—
(aa)
2 shall be agricultural economists of institutions of higher education;
(bb)
2 shall be economists from within the Department; and
(cc)
1 shall be an economist nominated by the grain sorghum industry.
(iii)
Recommendations
(I)
In general

Not later than 90 days after the date of contracting with the expert reviewers under clause (ii), the expert reviewers shall submit, and the Corporation shall make available to the public, the recommendations of the expert reviewers.

(II)
Consideration

The Corporation shall consider the recommendations under subclause (I) when determining the appropriate pricing methodology to determine the expected market price for grain sorghum under both the production and revenue-based plans of insurance.

(III)
Publication

Not later than 60 days after the date on which the Corporation receives the recommendations of the expert reviewers, the Corporation shall publish the proposed pricing methodology for both the production and revenue-based plans of insurance for notice and comment and, during the comment period, conduct at least 1 public meeting to discuss the proposed pricing methodologies.

(iv)
Appropriate pricing methodology
(I)
In general

Not later than 180 days after the close of the comment period in clause (iii)(III), but effective not later than the 2010 crop year, the Corporation shall implement a pricing methodology for grain sorghum under the production and revenue-based plans of insurance that is transparent and replicable.

(II)
Interim methodology

Until the date on which the new pricing methodology is implemented, the Corporation may continue to use the pricing methodology that the Corporation determines best establishes the expected market price.

(III)
Availability

On an annual basis, the Corporation shall make available the pricing methodology and data used to determine the expected market prices for grain sorghum under the production and revenue-based plans of insurance, including any changes to the methodology used to determine the expected market prices for grain sorghum from the previous year.

(6)
Price elections
(A)
In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), insurance coverage shall be made available to a producer on the basis of any price election that equals or is less than the price election established by the Corporation. The coverage shall be quoted in terms of dollars per acre.

(B)
Minimum price elections

The Corporation may establish minimum price elections below which levels of insurance shall not be offered.

(C)
Wheat classes and malting barley

The Corporation shall, as the Corporation determines practicable, offer producers different price elections for classes of wheat and malting barley (including contract prices in the case of malting barley), in addition to the standard price election, that reflect different market prices, as determined by the Corporation. The Corporation shall, as the Corporation determines practicable, offer additional coverage for each class determined under this subparagraph and charge a premium for each class that is actuarially sound.

(D)
Organic crops
(i)
In general

As soon as possible, but not later than the 2015 reinsurance year, the Corporation shall offer producers of organic crops price elections for all organic crops produced in compliance with standards issued by the Department of Agriculture under the national organic program established under the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 (7 U.S.C. 6501 et seq.) that reflect the actual retail or wholesale prices, as appropriate, received by producers for organic crops, as determined by the Secretary using all relevant sources of information.

(ii)
Annual report
The Corporation shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate an annual report on progress made in developing and improving Federal crop insurance for organic crops, including—
(I)
the numbers and varieties of organic crops insured;
(II)
the progress of implementing the price elections required under this subparagraph, including the rate at which additional price elections are adopted for organic crops;
(III)
the development of new insurance approaches relevant to organic producers; and
(IV)
any recommendations the Corporation considers appropriate to improve Federal crop insurance coverage for organic crops.
(7)
Fire and hail coverage

For levels of additional coverage equal to 65 percent or more of the recorded or appraised average yield indemnified at 100 percent of the expected market price, or an equivalent coverage, a producer may elect to delete from the additional coverage any coverage against damage caused by fire and hail if the producer obtains an equivalent or greater dollar amount of coverage for damage caused by fire and hail from an approved insurance provider. On written notice of the election to the company issuing the policy providing additional coverage and submission of evidence of substitute coverage on the commodity insured, the premium of the producer shall be reduced by an amount determined by the Corporation to be actuarially appropriate, taking into account the actuarial value of the remaining coverage provided by the Corporation. In no event shall the producer be given credit for an amount of premium determined to be greater than the actuarial value of the protection against losses caused by fire and hail that is included in the additional coverage for the crop.

(8)
State premium subsidies

The Corporation may enter into an agreement with any State or agency of a State under which the State or agency may pay to the approved insurance provider an additional premium subsidy to further reduce the portion of the premium paid by producers in the State.

(9)
Limitations on additional coverage

The Board may limit the availability of additional coverage under this subsection in any county or area, or on any farm, on the basis of the insurance risk involved. The Board shall not offer additional coverage equal to less than 50 percent of the recorded or appraised average yield indemnified at 100 percent of the expected market price, or an equivalent coverage.

(10)
Administrative fee
(A)
Fee required

If a producer elects to purchase coverage for a crop at a level in excess of catastrophic risk protection, the producer shall pay an administrative fee for the additional coverage of $30 per crop per county.

(B)
Use of fees; waiver

Subparagraphs (D) and (E) of subsection (b)(5) shall apply with respect to the collection and use of administrative fees under this paragraph.

(C)
Time for payment

Subsection (b)(5)(C) shall apply with respect to the collection date for the administrative fee.

(d)
Premiums
(1)
Premiums required
The Corporation shall fix adequate premiums for all the plans of insurance of the Corporation at such rates as the Board determines are actuarially sufficient to attain an expected loss ratio of not greater than—
(A)
1.1 through September 30, 1998;
(B)
1.075 for the period beginning October 1, 1998, and ending on the day before the date of enactment of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008; and
(C)
1.0 on and after the date of enactment of that Act.
(2)
Premium amounts
The premium amounts for catastrophic risk protection under subsection (b) and additional coverage under subsection (c) shall be fixed as follows:
(A)
In the case of catastrophic risk protection, the amount of the premium established by the Corporation for each crop for which catastrophic risk protection is available shall be reduced by the percentage equal to the difference between the average loss ratio for the crop and 100 percent, plus a reasonable reserve, as determined by the Corporation.
(B)
In the case of additional coverage equal to or greater than 50 percent of the recorded or appraised average yield indemnified at not greater than 100 percent of the expected market price, or a comparable coverage for a policy or plan of insurance that is not based on individual yield, the amount of the premium shall—
(i)
be sufficient to cover anticipated losses and a reasonable reserve; and
(ii)
include an amount for operating and administrative expenses, as determined by the Corporation, on an industry-wide basis as a percentage of the amount of the premium used to define loss ratio.
(3)
Performance-based discount

The Corporation may provide a performance-based premium discount for a producer of an agricultural commodity who has good insurance or production experience relative to other producers of that agricultural commodity in the same area, as determined by the Corporation.

(4)
Billing date for premiums

Effective beginning with the 2012 reinsurance year, the Corporation shall establish August 15 as the billing date for premiums.

(e)
Payment of portion of premium by Corporation
(1)
In general

For the purpose of encouraging the broadest possible participation of producers in the catastrophic risk protection provided under subsection (b) and the additional coverage provided under subsection (c), the Corporation shall pay a part of the premium in the amounts provided in accordance with this subsection.

(2)
Amount of payment
Subject to paragraphs (3), (6), and (7), the amount of the premium to be paid by the Corporation shall be as follows:
(A)
In the case of catastrophic risk protection, the amount shall be equivalent to the premium established for catastrophic risk protection under subsection (d)(2)(A).
(B)
In the case of additional coverage equal to or greater than 50 percent, but less than 55 percent, of the recorded or appraised average yield indemnified at not greater than 100 percent of the expected market price, or a comparable coverage for a policy or plan of insurance that is not based on individual yield, the amount shall be equal to the sum of—
(i)
67 percent of the amount of the premium established under subsection (d)(2)(B)(i) for the coverage level selected; and
(ii)
the amount determined under subsection (d)(2)(B)(ii) for the coverage level selected to cover operating and administrative expenses.
(C)
In the case of additional coverage equal to or greater than 55 percent, but less than 65 percent, of the recorded or appraised average yield indemnified at not greater than 100 percent of the expected market price, or a comparable coverage for a policy or plan of insurance that is not based on individual yield, the amount shall be equal to the sum of—
(i)
64 percent of the amount of the premium established under subsection (d)(2)(B)(i) for the coverage level selected; and
(ii)
the amount determined under subsection (d)(2)(B)(ii) for the coverage level selected to cover operating and administrative expenses.
(D)
In the case of additional coverage equal to or greater than 65 percent, but less than 75 percent, of the recorded or appraised average yield indemnified at not greater than 100 percent of the expected market price, or a comparable coverage for a policy or plan of insurance that is not based on individual yield, the amount shall be equal to the sum of—
(i)
59 percent of the amount of the premium established under subsection (d)(2)(B)(i) for the coverage level selected; and
(ii)
the amount determined under subsection (d)(2)(B)(ii) for the coverage level selected to cover operating and administrative expenses.
(E)
In the case of additional coverage equal to or greater than 75 percent, but less than 80 percent, of the recorded or appraised average yield indemnified at not greater than 100 percent of the expected market price, or a comparable coverage for a policy or plan of insurance that is not based on individual yield, the amount shall be equal to the sum of—
(i)
55 percent of the amount of the premium established under subsection (d)(2)(B)(i) for the coverage level selected; and
(ii)
the amount determined under subsection (d)(2)(B)(ii) for the coverage level selected to cover operating and administrative expenses.
(F)
In the case of additional coverage equal to or greater than 80 percent, but less than 85 percent, of the recorded or appraised average yield indemnified at not greater than 100 percent of the expected market price, or a comparable coverage for a policy or plan of insurance that is not based on individual yield, the amount shall be equal to the sum of—
(i)
48 percent of the amount of the premium established under subsection (d)(2)(B)(i) for the coverage level selected; and
(ii)
the amount determined under subsection (d)(2)(B)(ii) for the coverage level selected to cover operating and administrative expenses.
(G)
Subject to subsection (c)(4), in the case of additional coverage equal to or greater than 85 percent of the recorded or appraised average yield indemnified at not greater than 100 percent of the expected market price, or a comparable coverage for a policy or plan of insurance that is not based on individual yield, the amount shall be equal to the sum of—
(i)
38 percent of the amount of the premium established under subsection (d)(2)(B)(i) for the coverage level selected; and
(ii)
the amount determined under subsection (d)(2)(B)(ii) for the coverage level selected to cover operating and administrative expenses.
(H)
In the case of the supplemental coverage option authorized in subsection (c)(4)(C), the amount shall be equal to the sum of—
(i)
65 percent of the additional premium associated with the coverage; and
(ii)
the amount determined under subsection (c)(4)(C)(v)(II), subject to subsection (k)(4)(F), for the coverage to cover operating and administrative expenses.
(3)
Prohibition on continuous coverage

Notwithstanding paragraph (2), during each of the 2001 and subsequent reinsurance years, additional coverage under subsection (c) shall be available only in 5 percent increments beginning at 50 percent of the recorded or appraised average yield.

(4)
Premium payment disclosure

Each policy or plan of insurance under this subchapter shall prominently indicate the dollar amount of the portion of the premium paid by the Corporation.

(5)
Enterprise and whole farm units
(A)
In general

The Corporation may pay a portion of the premiums for plans or policies of insurance for which the insurable unit is defined on a whole farm or enterprise unit basis that is higher than would otherwise be paid in accordance with paragraph (2).

(B)
Amount

The percentage of the premium paid by the Corporation to a policyholder for a policy with an enterprise or whole farm unit under this paragraph shall, to the maximum extent practicable, provide the same dollar amount of premium subsidy per acre that would otherwise have been paid by the Corporation under paragraph (2) if the policyholder had purchased a basic or optional unit for the crop for the crop year.

(C)
Limitation

The amount of the premium paid by the Corporation under this paragraph may not exceed 80 percent of the total premium for the enterprise or whole farm unit policy.

(D)
Nonirrigated crops

Beginning with the 2015 crop year, the Corporation shall make available separate enterprise units for irrigated and nonirrigated acreage of crops in counties.

(E)
Enterprise units across county lines
The Corporation may allow a producer to establish a single enterprise unit by combining an enterprise unit with—
(i)
1 or more other enterprise units in 1 or more other counties; or
(ii)
all basic units and all optional units in 1 or more other counties.
(6)
Premium subsidy for area revenue plans
Subject to paragraph (4), in the case of a policy or plan of insurance that covers losses due to a reduction in revenue in an area, the amount of the premium paid by the Corporation shall be as follows:
(A)
In the case of additional area coverage equal to or greater than 70 percent, but less than 75 percent, of the recorded county yield indemnified at not greater than 100 percent of the expected market price, the amount shall be equal to the sum of—
(i)
59 percent of the amount of the premium established under subsection (d)(2)(B)(i) for the coverage level selected; and
(ii)
the amount determined under subsection (d)(2)(B)(ii) for the coverage level selected to cover operating and administrative expenses.
(B)
In the case of additional area coverage equal to or greater than 75 percent, but less than 85 percent, of the recorded county yield indemnified at not greater than 100 percent of the expected market price, the amount shall be equal to the sum of—
(i)
55 percent of the amount of the premium established under subsection (d)(2)(B)(i) for the coverage level selected; and
(ii)
the amount determined under subsection (d)(2)(B)(ii) for the coverage level selected to cover operating and administrative expenses.
(C)
In the case of additional area coverage equal to or greater than 85 percent, but less than 90 percent, of the recorded county yield indemnified at not greater than 100 percent of the expected market price, the amount shall be equal to the sum of—
(i)
49 percent of the amount of the premium established under subsection (d)(2)(B)(i) for the coverage level selected; and
(ii)
the amount determined under subsection (d)(2)(B)(ii) for the coverage level selected to cover operating and administrative expenses.
(D)
In the case of additional area coverage equal to or greater than 90 percent of the recorded county yield indemnified at not greater than 100 percent of the expected market price, the amount shall be equal to the sum of—
(i)
44 percent of the amount of the premium established under subsection (d)(2)(B)(i) for the coverage level selected; and
(ii)
the amount determined under subsection (d)(2)(B)(ii) for the coverage level selected to cover operating and administrative expenses.
(7)
Premium subsidy for area yield plans
Subject to paragraph (4), in the case of a policy or plan of insurance that covers losses due to a loss of yield or prevented planting in an area, the amount of the premium paid by the Corporation shall be as follows:
(A)
In the case of additional area coverage equal to or greater than 70 percent, but less than 80 percent, of the recorded county yield indemnified at not greater than 100 percent of the expected market price, the amount shall be equal to the sum of—
(i)
59 percent of the amount of the premium established under subsection (d)(2)(B)(i) for the coverage level selected; and
(ii)
the amount determined under subsection (d)(2)(B)(ii) for the coverage level selected to cover operating and administrative expenses.
(B)
In the case of additional area coverage equal to or greater than 80 percent, but less than 90 percent, of the recorded county yield indemnified at not greater than 100 percent of the expected market price, the amount shall be equal to the sum of—
(i)
55 percent of the amount of the premium established under subsection (d)(2)(B)(i) for the coverage level selected; and
(ii)
the amount determined under subsection (d)(2)(B)(ii) for the coverage level selected to cover operating and administrative expenses.
(C)
In the case of additional area coverage equal to or greater than 90 percent,1
1
 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.
of the recorded county yield indemnified at not greater than 100 percent of the expected market price, the amount shall be equal to the sum of—
(i)
51 percent of the amount of the premium established under subsection (d)(2)(B)(i) for the coverage level selected; and
(ii)
the amount determined under subsection (d)(2)(B)(ii) for the coverage level selected to cover operating and administrative expenses.
(8)
Premium for beginning and veteran farmers or ranchers

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection regarding payment of a portion of premiums, a beginning farmer or rancher or veteran farmer or rancher shall receive premium assistance that is 10 percentage points greater than premium assistance that would otherwise be available under paragraphs (2) (except for subparagraph (A) of that paragraph), (5), (6), and (7) for the applicable policy, plan of insurance, and coverage level selected by the beginning farmer or rancher or veteran farmer or rancher.

(f)
Eligibility
(1)
In general

To participate in catastrophic risk protection coverage under this section, a producer shall submit an application at the local office of the Department or to an approved insurance provider.

(2)
Sales closing date
(A)
In general

For coverage under this subchapter, each producer shall purchase crop insurance on or before the sales closing date for the crop by providing the required information and executing the required documents. Subject to the goal of ensuring actuarial soundness for the crop insurance program, the sales closing date shall be established by the Corporation to maximize convenience to producers in obtaining benefits under price and production adjustment programs of the Department.

(B)
Established dates

Except as provided in subparagraph (C), the Corporation shall establish, for an insurance policy for each insurable crop that is planted in the spring, a sales closing date that is 30 days earlier than the corresponding sales closing date that was established for the 1994 crop year.

(C)
Exception

If compliance with subparagraph (B) results in a sales closing date for an agricultural commodity that is earlier than January 31, the sales closing date for that commodity shall be January 31 beginning with the 2000 crop year.

(3)
Records and reporting
To obtain catastrophic risk protection under subsection (b) or additional coverage under subsection (c), a producer shall—
(A)
provide annually records acceptable to the Secretary regarding crop acreage, acreage yields, and production for each agricultural commodity insured under this subchapter or accept a yield determined by the Corporation; and
(B)
report acreage planted and prevented from planting by the designated acreage reporting date for the crop and location as established by the Corporation.
(g)
Yield determinations
(1)
In general

Subject to paragraph (2), the Corporation shall establish crop insurance underwriting rules that ensure that yield coverage, as specified in this subsection, is provided to eligible producers obtaining catastrophic risk protection under subsection (b) or additional coverage under subsection (c).

(2)
Yield coverage plans
(A)
Actual production history

Subject to subparagraph (B) and paragraph (4)(C), the yield for a crop shall be based on the actual production history for the crop, if the crop was produced on the farm without penalty during each of the 4 crop years immediately preceding the crop year for which actual production history is being established, building up to a production data base for each of the 10 consecutive crop years preceding the crop year for which actual production history is being established.

(B)
Assigned yield
If the producer does not provide satisfactory evidence of the yield of a commodity under subparagraph (A), the producer shall be assigned—
(i)
a yield that is not less than 65 percent of the transitional yield of the producer (adjusted to reflect actual production reflected in the records acceptable to the Corporation for continuous years), as specified in regulations issued by the Corporation based on production history requirements;
(ii)
a yield determined by the Corporation, in the case of—
(I)
a producer that has not had a share of the production of the insured crop for more than two crop years, as determined by the Secretary;
(II)
a producer that produces an agricultural commodity on land that has not been farmed by the producer; or
(III)
a producer that rotates a crop produced on a farm to a crop that has not been produced on the farm; or
(iii)
if the producer is a beginning farmer or rancher or veteran farmer or rancher who was previously involved in a farming or ranching operation, including involvement in the decisionmaking or physical involvement in the production of the crop or livestock on the farm, for any acreage obtained by the beginning farmer or rancher or veteran farmer or rancher, a yield that is the higher of—
(I)
the actual production history of the previous producer of the crop or livestock on the acreage determined under subparagraph (A); or
(II)
a yield of the producer, as determined in clause (i).
(C)
Area yield

The Corporation may offer a crop insurance plan based on an area yield that allows an insured producer to qualify for an indemnity if a loss has occurred in an area (as specified by the Corporation) in which the farm of the producer is located. Under an area yield plan, an insured producer shall be allowed to select the level of area production at which an indemnity will be paid consistent with such terms and conditions as are established by the Corporation.

(D)
Commodity-by-commodity basis

A producer may choose between individual yield or area yield coverage or combined coverage, if available, on a commodity-by-commodity basis.

(E)
Sources of yield data
To determine yields under this paragraph, the Corporation—
(i)
shall use county data collected by the Risk Management Agency, the National Agricultural Statistics Service, or both; or
(ii)
if sufficient county data is not available, may use other data considered appropriate by the Secretary.
(3)
Transitional yields for producers of feed or forage
(A)
In general
If a producer does not provide satisfactory evidence of a yield under paragraph (2)(A), the producer shall be assigned a yield that is at least 80 percent of the transitional yield established by the Corporation (adjusted to reflect the actual production history of the producer) if the Secretary determines that—
(i)
the producer grows feed or forage primarily for on-farm use in a livestock, dairy, or poultry operation; and
(ii)
over 50 percent of the net farm income of the producer is derived from the operation.
(B)
Yield calculation
The Corporation shall—
(i)
for the first year of participation of a producer, provide the assigned yield under this paragraph to the producer of feed or forage; and
(ii)
for the second year of participation of the producer, apply the actual production history or assigned yield requirement, as provided in this subsection.
(C)
Termination of authority

The authority provided by this paragraph shall terminate on the date that is 3 years after the effective date of this paragraph.

(4)
Adjustment in actual production history to establish insurable yields
(A)
Application

This paragraph shall apply whenever the Corporation uses the actual production records of the producer to establish the producer’s actual production history for an agricultural commodity for any of the 2001 and subsequent crop years.

(B)
Election to use percentage of transitional yield
If, for one or more of the crop years used to establish the producer’s actual production history of an agricultural commodity, the producer’s recorded or appraised yield of the commodity was less than 60 percent of the applicable transitional yield, as determined by the Corporation, the Corporation shall, at the election of the producer—
(i)
exclude any of such recorded or appraised yield; and
(ii)
(I)
replace each excluded yield with a yield equal to 60 percent of the applicable transitional yield; or
(II)
in the case of beginning farmers or ranchers and veteran farmers or ranchers, replace each excluded yield with a yield equal to 80 percent of the applicable transitional yield.
(C)
Election to exclude certain history
(i)
In general

Notwithstanding paragraph (2), with respect to 1 or more of the crop years used to establish the actual production history of an agricultural commodity of the producer, the producer may elect to exclude any recorded or appraised yield for any crop year in which the per planted acre yield of the agricultural commodity in the county of the producer was at least 50 percent below the simple average of the per planted acre yield of the agricultural commodity in the county during the previous 10 consecutive crop years.

(ii)
Contiguous counties

In any crop year that a producer in a county is eligible to make an election to exclude a yield under clause (i), a producer in a contiguous county is eligible to make such an election.

(iii)
Irrigation practice

For purposes of determining whether the per planted acre yield of the agricultural commodity in the county of the producer was at least 50 percent below the simple average of the per planted acre yield of the agricultural commodity in the county during the previous 10 consecutive crop years, the Corporation shall make a separate determination for irrigated and nonirrigated acreage.

(D)
Premium adjustment

In the case of a producer that makes an election under subparagraph (B) or (C), the Corporation shall adjust the premium to reflect the risk associated with the adjustment made in the actual production history of the producer.

(5)
Adjustment to reflect increased yields from successful pest control efforts
(A)
Situations justifying adjustment
The Corporation shall develop a methodology for adjusting the actual production history of a producer when each of the following apply:
(i)
The producer’s farm is located in an area where systematic, area-wide efforts have been undertaken using certain operations or measures, or the producer’s farm is a location at which certain operations or measures have been undertaken, to detect, eradicate, suppress, or control, or at least to prevent or retard the spread of, a plant disease or plant pest, including a plant pest (as defined in section 7759 2
2
 See References in Text note below.
of this title).
(ii)
The presence of the plant disease or plant pest has been found to adversely affect the yield of the agricultural commodity for which the producer is applying for insurance.
(iii)
The efforts described in clause (i) have been effective.
(B)
Adjustment amount

The amount by which the Corporation adjusts the actual production history of a producer of an agricultural commodity shall reflect the degree to which the success of the systematic, area-wide efforts described in subparagraph (A), on average, increases the yield of the commodity on the producer’s farm, as determined by the Corporation.

(6)
Continued authority
(A)
In general
The Corporation shall establish—
(i)
underwriting rules that limit the decrease in the actual production history of a producer, at the election of the producer, to not more than 10 percent of the actual production history of the previous crop year provided that the production decline was the result of drought, flood, natural disaster, or other insurable loss (as determined by the Corporation); and
(ii)
actuarially sound premiums to cover additional risk.
(B)
Other authority

The authority provided under subparagraph (A) is in addition to any other authority that adjusts the actual production history of the producer under this subchapter.

(C)
Effect

Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to require a change in the administration of any provision of this subchapter as the subchapter was administered for the 2018 reinsurance year.

(h)
Submission of policies and materials to Board
(1)
Authority to submit
(A)
In general
In addition to any standard forms or policies that the Board may require be made available to producers under subsection (c), a person (including an approved insurance provider, a college or university, a cooperative or trade association, or any other person) may prepare for submission or propose to the Board—
(i)
other crop insurance policies and provisions of policies; and
(ii)
rates of premiums for multiple peril crop insurance pertaining to wheat, soybeans, field corn, and any other crops determined by the Secretary.
(B)
Review and submission by Corporation
(i)
In general
The Corporation shall review any policy developed under section 1522(c) of this title or any pilot program developed under section 1523 of this title
(I)
subject to clause (ii), will likely result in a viable and marketable policy consistent with this subsection;
(II)
would provide crop insurance coverage in a significantly improved form; and
(III)
adequately protects the interests of producers.
(ii)
Waiver for hemp

The Corporation may waive the viability and marketability requirement under clause (i)(I) in the case of a policy or pilot program relating to the production of hemp.

(2)
Submission of policies

A policy or other material submitted to the Board under this subsection may be prepared without regard to the limitations contained in this subchapter, including the requirements concerning the levels of coverage and rates and the requirement that a price level for each commodity insured must equal the expected market price for the commodity as established by the Board.

(3)
Review and approval by the Board
(A)
In general
A policy, plan of insurance, or other material submitted to the Board under this subsection shall be reviewed by the Board and shall be approved by the Board for reinsurance and for sale by approved insurance providers to producers at actuarially appropriate rates and under appropriate terms and conditions if the Board determines that—
(i)
the interests of producers are adequately protected;
(ii)
the proposed policy or plan of insurance will—
(I)
provide a new kind of coverage that is likely to be viable and marketable;
(II)
provide crop insurance coverage in a manner that addresses a clear and identifiable flaw or problem in an existing policy; or
(III)
provide a new kind of coverage for a commodity that previously had no available crop insurance, or has demonstrated a low level of participation or coverage level under existing coverage; and
(iii)
the proposed policy or plan of insurance will not have a significant adverse impact on the crop insurance delivery system.
(B)
Consideration
In approving policies or plans of insurance, the Board shall in a timely manner—
(i)
first, consider policies or plans of insurance that address underserved commodities, including commodities for which there is no insurance;
(ii)
second, consider existing policies or plans of insurance for which there is inadequate coverage or there exists low levels of participation; and
(iii)
last, consider all policies or plans of insurance submitted to the Board that do not meet the criteria described in clause (i) or (ii).
(C)
Specified review and approval priorities
In reviewing policies and other materials submitted to the Board under this subsection for approval, the Board—
(i)
shall make the development and approval of a revenue policy for peanut producers a priority so that a revenue policy is available to peanut producers in time for the 2015 crop year;
(ii)
shall make the development and approval of a margin coverage policy for rice producers a priority so that a margin coverage policy is available to rice producers in time for the 2015 crop year;
(iii)
may approve a submission that is made pursuant to this subsection that would, beginning with the 2015 crop year, allow producers that purchase policies in accordance with subsection (e)(5)(A) to separate enterprise units by risk rating for acreage of crops in counties; and
(iv)
in the case of reviewing policies and other materials relating to the production of hemp, may waive the viability and marketability requirement under subparagraph (A)(ii)(I).
(4)
Guidelines for submission and review
The Corporation shall issue regulations to establish guidelines for the submission, and Board review, of policies or other material submitted to the Board under this subsection. At a minimum, the guidelines shall ensure the following:
(A)
Confidentiality
(i)
In general

A proposal submitted to the Board under this subsection (including any information generated from the proposal) shall be considered to be confidential commercial or financial information for the purposes of section 552(b)(4) of title 5.

(ii)
Standard of confidentiality

If information concerning a proposal could be withheld by the Secretary under the standard for privileged or confidential information pertaining to trade secrets and commercial or financial information under section 552(b)(4) of title 5, the information shall not be released to the public.

(iii)
Application

This subparagraph shall apply with respect to a proposal only during the period preceding any approval of the proposal by the Board.

(B)
Personal presentation

The Board shall provide an applicant with the opportunity to present the proposal to the Board in person if the applicant so desires.

(C)
Notification of intent to disapprove
(i)
Time period

The Board shall provide an applicant with notification of intent to disapprove a proposal not later than 30 days prior to making the disapproval.

(ii)
Modification of application
(I)
Authority

An applicant that receives the notification may modify the application, and such application, as modified, shall be considered by the Board in the manner provided in subparagraph (D) within the 30-day period beginning on the date the modified application is submitted.

(II)
Time period

Clause (i) shall not apply to the Board’s consideration of the modified application.

(iii)
Explanation

Any notification of intent to disapprove a policy or other material submitted under this subsection shall be accompanied by a complete explanation as to the reasons for the Board’s intention to deny approval.

(D)
Determination to approve or disapprove policies or materials
(i)
Time period

Not later than 120 days after a policy or other material is submitted under this subsection, the Board shall make a determination to approve or disapprove the policy or material.

(ii)
Explanation

Any determination by the Board to disapprove any policy or other material shall be accompanied by a complete explanation of the reasons for the Board’s decision to deny approval.

(iii)
Failure to meet deadline

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, if the Board fails to make a determination within the prescribed time period, the submitted policy or other material shall be deemed approved by the Board for the initial reinsurance year designated for the policy or material, unless the Board and the applicant agree to an extension.

(E)
Consultation
(i)
Requirement

As part of the feasibility and research associated with the development of a policy or other material for fruits and vegetables, tree nuts, dried fruits, and horticulture and nursery crops (including floriculture), the submitter prior to making a submission under this subsection shall consult with groups representing producers of those agricultural commodities in all major producing areas for the commodities to be served or potentially impacted, either directly or indirectly.

(ii)
Submission to the Board

Any submission made to the Board under this subsection shall contain a summary and analysis of the feasibility and research findings from the impacted groups described in clause (i), including a summary assessment of the support for or against development of the policy and an assessment on the impact of the proposed policy to the general marketing and production of the crop from both a regional and national perspective.

(iii)
Evaluation by the Board

In evaluating whether the interests of producers are adequately protected pursuant to paragraph (3) with respect to a submission made under this subsection, the Board shall review the information provided pursuant to clause (ii) to determine if the submission will create adverse market distortions with respect to the production of commodities that are the subject of the submission.

(5)
Premium schedule
(A)
Payment by Corporation
In the case of a policy or plan of insurance developed and approved under this subsection or section 1522 of this title, or conducted under section 1523 of this title (other than a policy or plan of insurance applicable to livestock), the Corporation shall pay a portion of the premium of the policy or plan of insurance that is equal to—
(i)
the percentage, specified in subsection (e) for a similar level of coverage, of the total amount of the premium used to define loss ratio; and
(ii)
an amount for administrative and operating expenses determined in accordance with subsection (k)(4).
(B)
Transitional schedule

Effective only during the 2001 reinsurance year, in the case of a policy or plan of insurance developed and approved under this subsection or section 1522 of this title, or conducted under section 1523 of this title (other than a policy or plan of insurance applicable to livestock), and first approved by the Board after June 20, 2000, the payment by the Corporation of a portion of the premium of the policy may not exceed the dollar amount that would otherwise be authorized under subsection (e) (consistent with subsection (c)(5), as in effect on the day before June 20, 2000).

(6)
Additional prevented planting policy coverage
(A)
In general

Beginning with the 1995 crop year, the Corporation shall offer to producers additional prevented planting coverage that insures producers against losses in accordance with this paragraph.

(B)
Approved insurance providers

Additional prevented planting coverage shall be offered by the Corporation through approved insurance providers.

(C)
Timing of loss
A crop loss shall be covered by the additional prevented planting coverage if—
(i)
crop insurance policies were obtained for—
(I)
the crop year the loss was experienced; and
(II)
the crop year immediately preceding the year of the prevented planting loss; and
(ii)
the cause of the loss occurred—
(I)
after the sales closing date for the crop in the crop year immediately preceding the loss; and
(II)
before the sales closing date for the crop in the year in which the loss is experienced.
(i)
Adoption of rates and coverages
(1)
In general

The Corporation shall adopt, as soon as practicable, rates and coverages that will improve the actuarial soundness of the insurance operations of the Corporation for those crops that are determined to be insured at rates that are not actuarially sound, except that no rate may be increased by an amount of more than 20 percent over the comparable rate of the preceding crop year.

(2)
Review of rating methodologies

To maximize participation in the Federal crop insurance program and to ensure equity for producers, the Corporation shall periodically review the methodologies employed for rating plans of insurance under this subchapter consistent with section 1507(c)(2) of this title.

(3)
Analysis of rating and loss history

The Corporation shall analyze the rating and loss history of approved policies and plans of insurance for agricultural commodities by area.

(4)
Premium adjustment

If the Corporation makes a determination that premium rates are excessive for an agricultural commodity in an area relative to the requirements of subsection (d)(2) for that area, then, for the 2002 crop year (and as necessary thereafter), the Corporation shall make appropriate adjustments in the premium rates for that area for that agricultural commodity.

(j)
Claims for losses
(1)
In general

Under rules prescribed by the Corporation, the Corporation may provide for adjustment and payment of claims for losses. The rules prescribed by the Corporation shall establish standards to ensure that all claims for losses are adjusted, to the extent practicable, in a uniform and timely manner.

(2)
Denial of claims
(A)
In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), if a claim for indemnity is denied by the Corporation or an approved provider on behalf of the Corporation, an action on the claim may be brought against the Corporation or Secretary only in the United States district court for the district in which the insured farm is located.

(B)
Statute of limitations

A suit on the claim may be brought not later than 1 year after the date on which final notice of denial of the claim is provided to the claimant.

(3)
Indemnification

The Corporation shall provide approved insurance providers with indemnification, including costs and reasonable attorney fees incurred by the approved insurance provider, due to errors or omissions on the part of the Corporation.

(4)
Marketing windows

The Corporation shall consider marketing windows in determining whether it is feasible to require planting during a crop year.

(5)
Settlement of claims on farm-stored production

A producer with farm-stored production may, at the option of the producer, delay settlement of a crop insurance claim relating to the farm-stored production for up to 4 months after the last date on which claims may be submitted under the policy of insurance.

(k)
Reinsurance
(1)
In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, the Corporation shall, to the maximum extent practicable, provide reinsurance to insurers approved by the Corporation that insure producers of any agricultural commodity under 1 or more plans acceptable to the Corporation.

(2)
Terms and conditions

The reinsurance shall be provided on such terms and conditions as the Board may determine to be consistent with subsections (b) and (c) and sound reinsurance principles.

(3)
Share of risk

The reinsurance agreements of the Corporation with the reinsured companies shall require the reinsured companies to bear a sufficient share of any potential loss under the agreement so as to ensure that the reinsured company will sell and service policies of insurance in a sound and prudent manner, taking into consideration the financial condition of the reinsured companies and the availability of private reinsurance.

(4)
Rate
(A)
In general
Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the rate established by the Board to reimburse approved insurance providers and agents for the administrative and operating costs of the providers and agents shall not exceed—
(i)
for the 1998 reinsurance year, 27 percent of the premium used to define loss ratio; and
(ii)
(B)
Proportional reductions

A policy of additional coverage that received a rate of reimbursement for administrative and operating costs for the 1998 reinsurance year that is lower than the rate specified in subparagraph (A)(i) shall receive a reduction in the rate of reimbursement that is proportional to the reduction in the rate of reimbursement between clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A).

(C)
Other reductions

Beginning with the 2002 reinsurance year, in the case of a policy or plan of insurance approved by the Board that was not reinsured during the 1998 reinsurance year but, had it been reinsured, would have received a reduced rate of reimbursement during the 1998 reinsurance year, the rate of reimbursement for administrative and operating costs established for the policy or plan of insurance shall take into account the factors used to determine the rate of reimbursement for administrative and operating costs during the 1998 reinsurance year, including the expected difference in premium and actual administrative and operating costs of the policy or plan of insurance relative to an individual yield policy or plan of insurance and other appropriate factors, as determined by the Corporation.

(D)
Time for reimbursement

Effective beginning with the 2012 reinsurance year, the Corporation shall reimburse approved insurance providers and agents for the allowable administrative and operating costs of the providers and agents as soon as practicable after October 1 (but not later than October 31) after the reinsurance year for which reimbursements are earned.

(E)
Reimbursement rate reduction

In the case of a policy of additional coverage that received a rate of reimbursement for administrative and operating costs for the 2008 reinsurance year, for each of the 2009 and subsequent reinsurance years, the reimbursement rate for administrative and operating costs shall be 2.3 percentage points below the rates in effect as of the date of enactment of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 for all crop insurance policies used to define loss ratio, except that only ½ of the reduction shall apply in a reinsurance year to the total premium written in a State in which the State loss ratio is greater than 1.2.

(F)
Reimbursement rate for area policies and plans of insurance

Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A) through (E), for each of the 2009 and subsequent reinsurance years, the reimbursement rate for area policies and plans of insurance widely available as of the date of enactment of this subparagraph or authorized under subsection (c)(4)(C) or section 1508b of this title shall be 12 percent of the premium used to define loss ratio for that reinsurance year.

(5)
Cost and regulatory reduction

Consistent with section 118 of the Federal Crop Insurance Reform Act of 1994, and consistent with maintenance of program integrity, prevention of fraud and abuse, the need for program expansion, and improvement of quality of service to customers, the Board shall alter program procedures and administrative requirements in order to reduce the administrative and operating costs of approved insurance providers and agents in an amount that corresponds to any reduction in the reimbursement rate required under paragraph (4) during the 5-year period beginning on October 13, 1994.

(6)
Agency discretion

The determination of whether the Corporation is achieving, or has achieved, corresponding administrative cost savings shall not be subject to administrative review, and is wholly committed to agency discretion within the meaning of section 701(a)(2) of title 5.

(7)
Plan

The Corporation shall submit to Congress a plan outlining the measures that will be used to achieve the reduction required under paragraph (5). If the Corporation can identify additional cost reduction measures, the Corporation shall describe the measures in the plan.

(8)
Renegotiation of standard reinsurance agreement
(A)
In general
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), notwithstanding section 536 of the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998 (7 U.S.C. 1506 note; Public Law 105–185) and section 148 of the Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2000 (7 U.S.C. 1506 note; Public Law 106–224), the Corporation may renegotiate the financial terms and conditions of each Standard Reinsurance Agreement—
(i)
to be effective for the 2011 reinsurance year beginning July 1, 2010; and
(ii)
once during each period of 5 reinsurance years thereafter.
(B)
Exceptions
(i)
Adverse circumstances

Subject to clause (ii), subparagraph (A) shall not apply in any case in which the approved insurance providers, as a whole, experience unexpected adverse circumstances, as determined by the Secretary.

(ii)
Effect of Federal law changes

If Federal law is enacted after the date of enactment of this paragraph that requires revisions in the financial terms of the Standard Reinsurance Agreement, and changes in the Agreement are made on a mandatory basis by the Corporation, the changes shall not be considered to be a renegotiation of the Agreement for purposes of subparagraph (A).

(C)
Notification requirement

If the Corporation renegotiates a Standard Reinsurance Agreement under subparagraph (A)(ii), the Corporation shall notify the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate of the renegotiation.

(D)
Consultation

The approved insurance providers may confer with each other and collectively with the Corporation during any renegotiation under subparagraph (A).

(E)
2011 reinsurance year
(i)
In general

As part of the Standard Reinsurance Agreement renegotiation authorized under subparagraph (A)(i), the Corporation shall consider alternative methods to determine reimbursement rates for administrative and operating costs.

(ii)
Alternative methods
Alternatives considered under clause (i) shall include—
(I)
methods that—
(aa)
are graduated and base reimbursement rates in a State on changes in premiums in that State;
(bb)
are graduated and base reimbursement rates in a State on the loss ratio for crop insurance for that State; and
(cc)
are graduated and base reimbursement rates on individual policies on the level of total premium for each policy; and
(II)
any other method that takes into account current financial conditions of the program and ensures continued availability of the program to producers on a nationwide basis.
(F)
Budget
(i)
In general
The Board shall ensure that any Standard Reinsurance Agreement negotiated under subparagraph (A)(ii) shall—
(I)
to the maximum extent practicable, be estimated as budget neutral with respect to the total amount of payments described in paragraph (9) as compared to the total amount of such payments estimated to be made under the immediately preceding Standard Reinsurance Agreement if that Agreement were extended over the same period of time;
(II)
comply with the applicable provisions of this subchapter establishing the rates of reimbursement for administrative and operating costs for approved insurance providers and agents, except that, to the maximum extent practicable, the estimated total amount of reimbursement for those costs shall not be less than the total amount of the payments to be made under the immediately preceding Standard Reinsurance Agreement if that Agreement were extended over the same period of time, as estimated on February 7, 2014; and
(III)
in no event significantly depart from budget neutrality unless otherwise required by this subchapter.
(ii)
Use of savings

To the extent that any budget savings are realized in the renegotiation of a Standard Reinsurance Agreement under subparagraph (A)(ii), and the savings are determined not to be a significant departure from budget neutrality under clause (i), the savings shall be used to increase reimbursements or payments described under paragraphs (4) and (9).

(9)
Due date for payment of underwriting gains
Effective beginning with the 2011 reinsurance year, the Corporation shall make payments for underwriting gains under this subchapter on—
(A)
for the 2011 reinsurance year, October 1, 2012; and
(B)
for each reinsurance year thereafter, October 1 of the following calendar year.
(l)
Optional coverages

The Corporation may offer specific risk protection programs, including protection against prevented planting, wildlife depredation, tree damage and disease, and insect infestation, under such terms and conditions as the Board may determine, except that no program may be undertaken if insurance for the specific risk involved is generally available from private companies.

(m)
Quality loss adjustment coverage
(1)
Effect of coverage

If a policy or plan of insurance offered under this subchapter includes quality loss adjustment coverage, the coverage shall provide for a reduction in the quantity of production of the agricultural commodity considered produced during a crop year, or a similar adjustment, as a result of the agricultural commodity not meeting the quality standards established in the policy or plan of insurance.

(2)
Additional quality loss adjustment
(A)
Producer option
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in addition to the quality loss adjustment coverage available under paragraph (1), the Corporation shall offer producers the option of purchasing quality loss adjustment coverage on a basis that is smaller than a unit with respect to an agricultural commodity that satisfies each of the following:
(i)
The agricultural commodity is sold on an identity-preserved basis.
(ii)
All quality determinations are made solely by the Federal agency designated to grade or classify the agricultural commodity.
(iii)
All quality determinations are made in accordance with standards published by the Federal agency in the Federal Register.
(iv)
The discount schedules that reflect the reduction in quality of the agricultural commodity are established by the Secretary.
(B)
Basis for adjustment

Under this paragraph, the Corporation shall set the quality standards below which quality losses will be paid based on the variability of the grade of the agricultural commodity from the base quality for the agricultural commodity.

(3)
Review of criteria and procedures
(A)
Review

The Corporation shall contract with a qualified person to review the quality loss adjustment procedures of the Corporation so that the procedures more accurately reflect local quality discounts that are applied to agricultural commodities insured under this subchapter.

(B)
Procedures

Effective beginning not later than the 2004 reinsurance year, based on the review, the Corporation shall make adjustments in the procedures, taking into consideration the actuarial soundness of the adjustment and the prevention of fraud, waste, and abuse.

(4)
Quality of agricultural commodities delivered to warehouse operators
In administering this subchapter, the Secretary shall accept, in the same manner and under the same terms and conditions, evidence of the quality of agricultural commodities delivered to—
(A)
warehouse operators that are licensed under the United States Warehouse Act (7 U.S.C. 241 et seq.);
(B)
warehouse operators that—
(i)
are licensed under State law; and
(ii)
have entered into a storage agreement with the Commodity Credit Corporation; and
(C)
warehouse operators that—
(i)
are not licensed under State law but are in compliance with State law regarding warehouses; and
(ii)
have entered into a commodity storage agreement with the Commodity Credit Corporation.
(5)
Special provisions for malting barley

The Corporation shall promulgate special provisions under this subsection specific to malting barley, taking into consideration any changes in quality factors, as required by applicable market conditions.

(6)
Test weight for corn
(A)
In general

The Corporation shall establish procedures to allow insured producers not more than 120 days to settle claims, in accordance with procedures established by the Secretary, involving corn that is determined to have low test weight.

(B)
Implementation

As soon as practicable after February 7, 2014, the Corporation shall implement subparagraph (A) on a regional basis based on market conditions and the interests of producers.

(C)
Termination of effectiveness

The authority provided by this paragraph terminates effective on the date that is 5 years after the date on which subparagraph (A) is implemented.

(n)
Limitation on multiple benefits for same loss
(1)
In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), if a producer who is eligible to receive benefits under catastrophic risk protection under subsection (b) is also eligible to receive assistance for the same loss under any other program administered by the Secretary, the producer shall be required to elect whether to receive benefits under this subchapter or under the other program, but not both. A producer who purchases additional coverage under subsection (c) may also receive assistance for the same loss under other programs administered by the Secretary, except that the amount received for the loss under the additional coverage together with the amount received under the other programs may not exceed the amount of the actual loss of the producer.

(2)
Exception

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to emergency loans under subtitle C of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (7 U.S.C. 1961 et seq.).

(o)
Crop production on native sod
(1)
Definition of native sod
In this subsection, the term “native sod” means land—
(A)
on which the plant cover is composed principally of native grasses, grasslike plants, forbs, or shrubs suitable for grazing and browsing; and
(B)
that has never been tilled, or the producer cannot substantiate that the ground has ever been tilled, for the production of an annual crop as of the date of enactment of this subsection.
(2)
Reduction in benefits
(A)
In general
(i)
First 4 crop years

During the first 4 crop years of planting, as determined by the Secretary, native sod acreage that has been tilled for the production of an annual crop beginning on February 8, 2014, and ending on December 20, 2018, shall be subject to a reduction in benefits under this subchapter as described in this paragraph.

(ii)
Subsequent crop years
Native sod acreage that has been tilled for the production of an insurable crop after December 20, 2018, shall be subject to a reduction in benefits under this subchapter as described in this paragraph for not more than 4 cumulative years—
(I)
during the first 10 years after initial tillage; and
(II)
during each of which a crop on that acreage is insured under subsection (c).
(B)
De minimis acreage exemption

The Secretary shall exempt areas of 5 acres or less from subparagraph (A).

(C)
Administration
(i)
Reduction
For purposes of the reduction in benefits for the acreage described in subparagraph (A)—
(I)
the crop insurance guarantee shall be determined by using a yield equal to 65 percent of the transitional yield of the producer; and
(II)
the crop insurance premium subsidy provided for the producer under this subchapter, except for coverage authorized pursuant to subsection (b)(1), shall be 50 percentage points less than the premium subsidy that would otherwise apply.
(ii)
Yield substitution

During the period native sod acreage is covered by this subsection, a producer may not substitute yields for the native sod.

(3)
Application

This subsection shall only apply to native sod acreage in the States of Minnesota, Iowa, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Nebraska.

(p)
Coverage levels by practice

Beginning with the 2015 crop year, a producer that produces an agricultural commodity on both dry land and irrigated land may elect a different coverage level for each production practice.

(Feb. 16, 1938, ch. 30, title V, § 508, 52 Stat. 74; June 22, 1938, ch. 563, 52 Stat. 835; June 21, 1941, ch. 214, §§ 3–7, 10, 55 Stat. 255, 256; Dec. 23, 1944, ch. 713, §§ 1–3, 58 Stat. 918, 919; Aug. 1, 1947, ch. 440, §§ 1–3, 61 Stat. 718; Aug. 25, 1949, ch. 512, §§ 1–3, 63 Stat. 663; Aug. 13, 1953, ch. 431, 67 Stat. 575; Pub. L. 85–111, July 23, 1957, 71 Stat. 309; Pub. L. 86–131, Aug. 4, 1959, 73 Stat. 278; Pub. L. 88–589, Sept. 12, 1964, 78 Stat. 933; Pub. L. 96–365, title I, §§ 105, 106, 107(b), Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1314, 1315, 1317; Pub. L. 100–387, title II, § 208(a), Aug. 11, 1988, 102 Stat. 941; Pub. L. 101–624, title XXII, §§ 2203–2205, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3955–3957; Pub. L. 102–237, title VI, § 601(4), (5), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1878; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIV, § 1403(b)(1), (2), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 333, 334; Pub. L. 103–354, title I, § 106, Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3183; Pub. L. 104–127, title I, §§ 193(a)(1), (2), (c), (d), (f), 195, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 943–946; Pub. L. 105–185, title V, §§ 532, 534, June 23, 1998, 112 Stat. 581, 583; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, § 101(a) [title VIII, § 803(a)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681, 2681–38; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, § 1000(a)(5) [title II, §§ 205(a), 206], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–294; Pub. L. 106–224, title I, §§ 101–103(b)(1), (c), (d), 104–107, 123, 124(a), 144–146, 161, 162, June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 360–368, 378, 391, 392, 395; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §§ 10001–10003, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 486; Pub. L. 109–97, title VII, § 780, Nov. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 2162; Pub. L. 110–234, title XII, §§ 12003(b)–12006(a), 12007–12014(a), 12015–12020(a), 12033(c)(2)(B), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1372–1381, 1405; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title XII, §§ 12003(b)–12006(a), 12007–12014(a), 12015–12020(a), 12033(c)(2)(B), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2133–2142, 2167; Pub. L. 113–79, title XI, §§ 11002–11003(c), 11004–11010(a), 11011–11014(a), 11015, 11016(b), 11017(b), 11023(a), 11028(a), title XII, § 12305(b), Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 954–957, 960, 961, 963, 966, 973, 977, 988; Pub. L. 114–74, title II, § 201, Nov. 2, 2015, 129 Stat. 587; Pub. L. 114–94, div. C, title XXXII, § 32205, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1740; Pub. L. 115–334, title XI, §§ 11105(b)–11109(a), 11110–11114, title XII, § 12306(b)(2), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4921–4924, 4968.)
cite as: 7 USC 1508