Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence
Control by the Court; Purposes.
The court should exercise reasonable control over the mode and order of examining witnesses and presenting evidence so as to:
avoid wasting time; and
protect witnesses from harassment or undue embarrassment.
Cross-examination should not go beyond the subject matter of the direct examination and matters affecting the witness’s credibility. The court may allow inquiry into additional matters as if on direct examination.
Scope of Cross-Examination.
Leading questions should not be used on direct examination except as necessary to develop the witness’s testimony. Ordinarily, the court should allow leading questions:
on cross-examination; and
when a party calls a hostile witness, an adverse party, or a witness identified with an adverse party.
(Pub. L. 93–595, § 1, Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1936; Mar. 2, 1987, eff. Oct. 1, 1987; Apr. 26, 2011, eff. Dec. 1, 2011.)