Collapse to view only § 12705. State and local housing strategies

§ 12701. National housing goal

The Congress affirms the national goal that every American family be able to afford a decent home in a suitable environment.

(Pub. L. 101–625, title I, § 101, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4085.)
§ 12702. Objective of national housing policy
The objective of national housing policy shall be to reaffirm the long-established national commitment to decent, safe, and sanitary housing for every American by strengthening a nationwide partnership of public and private institutions able—
(1) to ensure that every resident of the United States has access to decent shelter or assistance in avoiding homelessness;
(2) to increase the Nation’s supply of decent housing that is affordable to low-income and moderate-income families and accessible to job opportunities;
(3) to improve housing opportunities for all residents of the United States, particularly members of disadvantaged minorities, on a nondiscriminatory basis;
(4) to help make neighborhoods safe and livable;
(5) to expand opportunities for homeownership;
(6) to provide every American community with a reliable, readily available supply of mortgage finance at the lowest possible interest rates; and
(7) to encourage tenant empowerment and reduce generational poverty in federally assisted and public housing by improving the means by which self-sufficiency may be achieved.
(Pub. L. 101–625, title I, § 102, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4085.)
§ 12703. Purposes of Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act
The purposes of this Act are—
(1) to help families not owning a home to save for a down payment for the purchase of a home;
(2) to retain wherever feasible as housing affordable to low-income families those dwelling units produced for such purpose with Federal assistance;
(3) to extend and strengthen partnerships among all levels of government and the private sector, including for-profit and nonprofit organizations, in the production and operation of housing affordable to low-income and moderate-income families;
(4) to expand and improve Federal rental assistance for very low-income families; and
(5) to increase the supply of supportive housing, which combines structural features and services needed to enable persons with special needs to live with dignity and independence.
(Pub. L. 101–625, title I, § 103, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4085.)
§ 12704. DefinitionsAs used in this subchapter and in subchapter II:
(1) The term “unit of general local government” means a city, town, township, county, parish, village, or other general purpose political subdivision of a State; the Federated States of Micronesia and Palau, the Marshall Islands, or a general purpose political subdivision thereof; a consortium of such political subdivisions recognized by the Secretary in accordance with section 12746(2) of this title; and any agency or instrumentality thereof that is established pursuant to legislation and designated by the chief executive to act on behalf of the jurisdiction with regard to provisions of this Act.
(2) The term “State” means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any agency or instrumentality thereof that is established pursuant to legislation and designated by the chief executive officer to act on behalf of the State with regard to the provisions of this Act.
(3) The term “jurisdiction” means a State or unit of general local government.
(4) The term “participating jurisdiction” means any State or unit of general local government that has been so designated in accordance with section 12746 of this title.
(5) The term “nonprofit organization” means any private, nonprofit organization (including a State or locally chartered, nonprofit organization) that—
(A) is organized under State or local laws,
(B) has no part of its net earnings inuring to the benefit of any member, founder, contributor, or individual,
(C) complies with standards of financial accountability acceptable to the Secretary, and
(D) has among its purposes significant activities related to the provision of decent housing that is affordable to low-income and moderate-income persons.
(6) The term “community housing development organization” means a nonprofit organization as defined in paragraph (5), that—
(A) has among its purposes the provision of decent housing that is affordable to low-income and moderate-income persons;
(B) maintains, through significant representation on the organization’s governing board and otherwise, accountability to low-income community residents and, to the extent practicable, low-income beneficiaries with regard to decisions on the design, siting, development, and management of affordable housing;
(C) has a demonstrated capacity for carrying out activities assisted under this Act; and
(D) has a history of serving the local community or communities within which housing to be assisted under this Act is to be located.
In the case of an organization serving more than one county, the Secretary may not require that such organization, to be considered a community housing development organization for purposes of this Act, include as members on the organization’s governing board low-income persons residing in each county served.
(7) The term “government-sponsored mortgage finance corporations” means the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, and the Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation.
(8) The term “housing” includes manufactured housing and manufactured housing lots and elder cottage housing opportunity units that are small, free-standing, barrier-free, energy-efficient, removable, and designed to be installed adjacent to existing 1- to 4-family dwellings.
(9) The term “very low-income families” means low-income families whose incomes do not exceed 50 percent of the median family income for the area, as determined by the Secretary with adjustments for smaller and larger families, except that the Secretary may establish income ceilings higher or lower than 50 percent of the median for the area on the basis of the Secretary’s findings that such variations are necessary because of prevailing levels of construction costs or fair market rents, or unusually high or low family incomes.
(10) The term “low-income families” means families whose incomes do not exceed 80 percent of the median income for the area, as determined by the Secretary with adjustments for smaller and larger families, except that the Secretary may establish income ceilings higher or lower than 80 percent of the median for the area on the basis of the Secretary’s findings that such variations are necessary because of prevailing levels of construction costs or fair market rents, or unusually high or low family incomes.
(11) The term “families” has the same meaning given that term by section 1437a of this title.
(12) The term “security” has the same meaning as in section 77b of title 15.
(13) The term “displaced homemaker” means an individual who—
(A) is an adult;
(B) has not worked full-time full-year in the labor force for a number of years but has, during such years, worked primarily without remuneration to care for the home and family; and
(C) is unemployed or underemployed and is experiencing difficulty in obtaining or upgrading employment.
(14) The term “first-time homebuyer” means an individual and his or her spouse who have not owned a home during the 3-year period prior to purchase of a home with assistance under subchapter II, except that—
(A) any individual who is a displaced homemaker may not be excluded from consideration as a first-time homebuyer under this paragraph on the basis that the individual, while a homemaker, owned a home with his or her spouse or resided in a home owned by the spouse;
(B) any individual who is a single parent may not be excluded from consideration as a first-time homebuyer under this paragraph on the basis that the individual, while married, owned a home with his or her spouse or resided in a home owned by the spouse; and
(C) an individual shall not be excluded from consideration as a first-time homebuyer under this paragraph on the basis that the individual owns or owned, as a principal residence during such 3-year period, a dwelling unit whose structure is—
(i) not permanently affixed to a permanent foundation in accordance with local or other applicable regulations, or
(ii) not in compliance with State, local, or model building codes, or other applicable codes, and cannot be brought into compliance with such codes for less than the cost of constructing a permanent structure.
(15) The term “single parent” means an individual who—
(A) is unmarried or legally separated from a spouse; and
(B)
(i) has 1 or more minor children for whom the individual has custody or joint custody; or
(ii) is pregnant.
(16) The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, unless otherwise specified in this Act.
(17) The term “substantial rehabilitation” means the rehabilitation of residential property at an average cost in excess of $25,000 per dwelling unit.
(18) The term “public housing agency” has the meaning given the term in section 1437a(b) of this title.
(19) The term “metropolitan city” has the meaning given the term in section 5302(a)(4) of this title.
(20) The term “urban county” has the meaning given the term in section 5302(a)(6) of this title.
(21)
(23)1
1 So in original. Probably should be “(22)”.
The term “to demonstrate to the Secretary” means to submit to the Secretary a written assertion together with supporting evidence that, in the determination of the Secretary, supports the accuracy of the assertion.
(24)2
2 So in original. Two pars. (24) have been enacted.
The term “insular area” means any of the following: Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.
(24)2 The term “energy efficient mortgage” means a mortgage that provides financing incentives for the purchase of energy efficient homes, or that provides financing incentives to make energy efficiency improvements in existing homes by incorporating the cost of such improvements in the mortgage.
(25) The term “energy efficient mortgage” means a mortgage that provides financing incentives for the purchase of energy efficient homes, or that provides financing incentives to make energy efficiency improvements in existing homes by incorporating the cost of such improvements in the mortgage.
(Pub. L. 101–625, title I, § 104, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4085; Pub. L. 102–229, title I, Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1709; Pub. L. 101–230, § 2, Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1720; Pub. L. 102–486, title I, § 105(a), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2792; Pub. L. 102–550, title II, §§ 211(a)(1), 217(a), 218, 219, title IX, § 914(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3756, 3760, 3761, 3877; Pub. L. 103–233, title II, § 201, Apr. 11, 1994, 108 Stat. 363.)
§ 12705. State and local housing strategies
(a) In general
The Secretary shall provide assistance directly to a jurisdiction only if—
(1) the jurisdiction submits to the Secretary a comprehensive housing affordability strategy (hereafter in this section referred to as the “housing strategy”);
(2) the jurisdiction submits annual updates of the housing strategy; and
(3) the housing strategy, and any annual update of such strategy, is approved by the Secretary.
The Secretary shall establish such dates and manner for the submission and approval of housing strategies under this section that the Secretary determines will facilitate orderly program management by jurisdictions and provide for timely investment or other use of funds made available under subchapter II of this chapter and other programs requiring submission of a housing strategy. If the Secretary finds there is good cause, the Secretary may provide reasonable extensions of any deadlines for submission of a jurisdiction’s housing strategy.
(b) Contents
A housing strategy submitted under this section shall be in a form that the Secretary determines to be appropriate for the assistance the jurisdiction may be provided and shall—
(1) describe the jurisdiction’s estimated housing needs projected for the ensuing 5-year period, and the jurisdiction’s need for assistance for very low-income, low-income, and moderate-income families, specifying such needs for different types of tenure and for different categories of residents, such as very low-income, low-income, and moderate-income families, the elderly, persons with disabilities, single persons, large families, residents of nonmetropolitan areas, families who are participating in an organized program to achieve economic independence and self-sufficiency, persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking and other categories of persons residing in or expected to reside in the jurisdiction that the Secretary determines to be appropriate;
(2) describe the nature and extent of homelessness, including rural homelessness, within the jurisdiction, providing an estimate of the special needs of various categories of persons who are homeless or threatened with homelessness, including tabular representation of such information, and a description of the jurisdiction’s strategy for (A) helping low-income families avoid becoming homeless; (B) addressing the emergency shelter and transitional housing needs of homeless persons (including a brief inventory of facilities and services that meet such needs within that jurisdiction); and (C) helping homeless persons make the transition to permanent housing and independent living;
(3) describe the significant characteristics of the jurisdiction’s housing market, indicating how those characteristics will influence the use of funds made available for rental assistance, production of new units, rehabilitation of old units, or acquisition of existing units;
(4) explain whether the cost of housing or the incentives to develop, maintain, or improve affordable housing in the jurisdiction are affected by public policies, particularly by policies of the jurisdiction, including tax policies affecting land and other property, land use controls, zoning ordinances, building codes, fees and charges, growth limits, and policies that affect the return on residential investment, and describe the jurisdiction’s strategy to remove or ameliorate negative effects, if any, of such policies, except that, if a State requires a unit of general local government to submit a regulatory barrier assessment that is substantially equivalent to the information required under this paragraph, as determined by the Secretary, the unit of general local government may submit its assessment submitted to the State to the Secretary and shall be considered to have complied with this paragraph;
(5) explain the institutional structure, including private industry, nonprofit organizations, and public institutions, through which the jurisdiction will carry out its housing strategy, assessing the strengths and gaps in that delivery system and describing what the jurisdiction will do to overcome those gaps;
(6) indicate resources from private and non-Federal public sources that are reasonably expected to be made available to carry out the purposes of this Act, explaining how funds made available will leverage those additional resources and identifying, where the jurisdiction deems it appropriate, publicly owned land or property located within the jurisdiction that may be utilized to carry out the purposes of this Act;
(7) set forth the jurisdiction’s plan for investment or other use of housing funds made available under subchapter II of this chapter, the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, and the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act [42 U.S.C. 11301 et seq.], during the ensuing year or such longer period as the Secretary determines to be appropriate, indicating the general priorities for allocating investment geographically within the jurisdiction and among different activities and housing needs;
(8) describe how the jurisdiction’s plan will address the housing needs identified pursuant to subparagraphs 1
1 So in original. Probably should be “paragraphs”.
(1) and (2), describe the reasons for allocation priorities, and identify any obstacles to addressing underserved needs;
(9) describe the means of cooperation and coordination among the State and any units of general local government in the development, submission, and implementation of their housing strategies;
(10) in the case of a unit of local government, describe the number of public housing units in the jurisdiction, the physical condition of such units, the restoration and revitalization needs of public housing projects within the jurisdiction, the public housing agency’s strategy for improving the management and operation of such public housing, and the public housing agency’s strategy for improving the living environment of low- and very-low-income families residing in public housing;
(11) describe the manner in which the plan of the jurisdiction will help address the needs of public housing;
(12) in the case of a State, describe the strategy to coordinate the Low-Income Tax Credit with development of housing, including public housing, that is affordable to very low-income and low-income families;
(13) describe the jurisdiction’s activities to encourage public housing residents to become more involved in management and participate in homeownership;
(14) describe the standards and procedures according to which the jurisdiction will monitor activities authorized under this Act and ensure long-term compliance with the provisions of this Act;
(15) include a certification that the jurisdiction will affirmatively further fair housing;
(16) include a certification that the jurisdiction has in effect and is following a residential antidisplacement and relocation assistance plan that, in any case of any such displacement in connection with any activity assisted with amounts provided under subchapter II, requires the same actions and provides the same rights as required and provided under a residential antidisplacement and relocation assistance plan under section 104(d) of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 [42 U.S.C. 5304(d)] in the event of displacement in connection with a development project assisted under section 106 or 119 of such Act [42 U.S.C. 5306, 5318];
(17) estimate the number of housing units within the jurisdiction that are occupied by low-income families or very low-income families and that contain lead-based paint hazards, as defined in section 4851b of this title, outline the actions proposed or being taken to evaluate and reduce lead-based paint hazards, and describe how lead-based paint hazard reduction will be integrated into housing policies and programs;
(18) include the number of families to whom the jurisdiction will provide affordable housing as defined in section 12745 of this title using funds made available;
(19) for any housing strategy submitted for fiscal year 1994 or any fiscal year thereafter and taking into consideration factors over which the jurisdiction has control, describe the jurisdiction’s goals, programs, and policies for reducing the number of households with incomes below the poverty line (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget and revised annually), and, in consultation with other appropriate public and private agencies, state how the jurisdiction’s goals, programs, and policies for producing and preserving affordable housing set forth in the housing strategy will be coordinated with other programs and services for which the jurisdiction is responsible and the extent to which they will reduce (or assist in reducing) the number of households with incomes below the poverty line; and
(20) describe the jurisdictions activities to enhance coordination between public and assisted housing providers and private and governmental health, mental health, and service agencies.
The Secretary may provide for the submission of abbreviated housing strategies by jurisdictions that are not otherwise expected to be participating jurisdictions under subchapter II of this chapter. Such an abbreviated housing strategy shall be appropriate to the types and amounts of assistance the jurisdiction is to receive as determined by the Secretary.
(c) Approval
(1) In general

The Secretary shall review the housing strategy upon receipt. Not later than 60 days after receipt by the Secretary, the housing strategy shall be approved unless the Secretary determines before that date that (A) the housing strategy is inconsistent with the purposes of this Act, or (B) the information described in subsection (b) has not been provided in a substantially complete manner. For the purpose of the preceding sentence, the adoption or continuation of a public policy identified pursuant to subsection (b)(4) shall not be a basis for the Secretary’s disapproval of a housing strategy. During the 18-month period following November 28, 1990, the Secretary may extend the review period to not longer than 90 days.

(2) Actions in case of disapproval

If the Secretary disapproves the housing strategy, the Secretary shall immediately notify the jurisdiction of such disapproval. Not later than 15 days after the Secretary’s disapproval, the Secretary shall inform the jurisdiction in writing of (A) the reasons for disapproval, and (B) actions that the jurisdiction could take to meet the criteria for approval. If the Secretary fails to inform the jurisdiction of the reasons for disapproval within such 15-day period, the housing strategy shall be deemed to have been approved.

(3) Amendments and resubmission

The Secretary shall, for a period of not less than 45 days following the date of first disapproval, permit amendments to, or the resubmission of, any housing strategy that is disapproved. The Secretary shall approve or disapprove a housing strategy not less than 30 days after receipt of such amendments or resubmission.

(d) Coordination of State and local housing strategies

The Secretary may establish such requirements as the Secretary deems appropriate to encourage coordination between and among the housing strategies of a State and any participating jurisdictions within the State, except that a unit of general local government shall not be required to have elements of its housing strategy approved by the State.

(e) Consultation with social service agencies
(1) In general

When preparing a housing strategy for submission under this section, a jurisdiction shall make reasonable efforts to confer with appropriate social service agencies regarding the housing needs of children, elderly persons, persons with disabilities, homeless persons, and other persons served by such agencies.

(2) Lead-based paint hazards

When preparing that portion of a housing strategy required by subsection (b)(16), a jurisdiction shall consult with State or local health and child welfare agencies and examine existing data related to lead-based paint hazards and poisonings, including health department data on the addresses of housing units in which children have been identified as lead poisoned.

(f) Barrier removal

Not later than 4 months after completion of the final report of the Secretary’s Advisory Commission on Regulatory Barriers to Affordable Housing, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress a written report outlining the Secretary’s recommendations for legislative and administrative actions to facilitate the removal or modification of excessive, duplicative, or unnecessary regulations or other requirements of Federal, State, or local governments that (1) inflate the costs of or otherwise inhibit the construction, rehabilitation, or management of housing, particularly housing that otherwise could be affordable to low-income and moderate-income families, or (2) contribute to economic or racial discrimination.

(g) Treatment of troubled public housing agencies
(1) Effect of troubled status on CHAS

The comprehensive housing affordability strategy (or any consolidated plan incorporating such strategy) for the State or unit of general local government in which any troubled public housing agency is located shall not be considered to comply with the requirements under this section unless such plan includes a description of the manner in which the State or unit will provide financial or other assistance to such troubled agency in improving its operations to remove such designation.

(2) Definition

For purposes of this subsection, the term “troubled public housing agency” means a public housing agency that, upon the effective date of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998, is designated under section 6(j)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437d(j)(2)] as a troubled public housing agency.

(Pub. L. 101–625, title I, § 105, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4088; Pub. L. 102–550, title II, § 220, title VI, § 681, title X, § 1014, title XII, § 1206, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3761, 3830, 3908, 3940; Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §§ 568, 583, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2634, 2644; Pub. L. 106–400, § 2, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1675; Pub. L. 109–162, title VI, § 604, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3040.)
§ 12705a. Purposes of Removal of Regulatory Barriers to Affordable Housing Act
The purposes of sections 12705a to 12705d of this title are—
(1) to encourage State and local governments to further identify and remove regulatory barriers to affordable housing (including barriers that are excessive, unnecessary, duplicative, or exclusionary) that significantly increase housing costs and limit the supply of affordable housing; and
(2) to strengthen the connection between Federal housing assistance and State and local efforts to identify and eliminate regulatory barriers.
(Pub. L. 102–550, title XII, § 1202, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3938.)
§ 12705b. Definition of regulatory barriers to affordable housing

For purposes of sections 12705a to 12705d of this title, the terms “regulatory barriers to affordable housing” and “regulatory barriers” mean any public policies (including policies embodied in statutes, ordinances, regulations, or administrative procedures or processes) required to be identified by a jurisdiction in connection with its comprehensive housing affordability strategy under section 12705(b)(4) of this title. Such terms do not include policies relating to rents imposed on a structure by a jurisdiction or policies that have served to create or preserve, or can be shown to create or preserve, housing for low- and very low-income families, including displacement protections, demolition controls, replacement housing requirements, relocation benefits, housing trust funds, dedicated funding sources, waiver of local property taxes and builder fees, inclusionary zoning, rental zoning overlays, long-term use restrictions, and rights of first refusal.

(Pub. L. 102–550, title XII, § 1203, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3938.)
§ 12705c. Grants for regulatory barrier removal strategies and implementation
(a) Funding

There is authorized to be appropriated for grants under subsections (b) and (c) 1

1 See References in Text note below.
such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005.

(b) Grant authority
The Secretary may make grants to States and units of general local government (including consortia of such governments) for the costs of developing and implementing strategies to remove regulatory barriers to affordable housing, including the costs of—
(1) identifying, assessing, and monitoring State and local regulatory barriers;
(2) identifying State and local policies (including laws and regulations) that permit or encourage regulatory barriers;
(3) developing legislation to provide State, local, or regional programs to reduce regulatory barriers and developing a strategy for adoption of such legislation;
(4) developing model State or local standards and ordinances to reduce regulatory barriers and assisting in the adoption and use of the standards and ordinances;
(5) carrying out the simplification and consolidation of administrative procedures and processes constituting regulatory barriers to affordable housing, including the issuance of permits; and
(6) providing technical assistance and information to units of general local government for implementation of legislative and administrative reform programs to remove regulatory barriers to affordable housing.
(c) Repealed. Pub. L. 106–569, title I, § 102(c), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2947
(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section, the terms “regulatory barriers to affordable housing” and “regulatory barriers” have the meaning given such terms in section 12705b of this title.

(e) Application and selection

The Secretary shall provide for the form and manner of applications for grants under this section, which shall describe how grant amounts will assist the State or unit of general local government in developing and implementing strategies to remove regulatory barriers to affordable housing. The Secretary shall establish criteria for approval of applications under this subsection and such criteria shall require that grant amounts be used in a manner consistent with the strategy contained in the comprehensive housing affordability strategy for the jurisdiction pursuant to section 12705(b)(4) of this title.

(f) Selection of grantees

To the extent amounts are made available to carry out this section, the Secretary shall provide grants on a competitive basis to eligible grantees based on the proposed uses of such amounts, as provided in applications under subsection (e).

(g) Coordination with clearinghouse

Each State and unit of general local government receiving a grant under this section, shall consult, coordinate, and exchange information with the clearinghouse established under section 12705d of this title.

(h) Reports to Secretary

Each State and unit of general local government receiving a grant under this section shall submit a report to the Secretary, not less than 12 months after receiving the grant, describing any activities carried out with the grant amounts. The report shall contain an assessment of the impact of any regulatory barriers identified by the grantee on the housing patterns of minorities.

(Pub. L. 102–550, title XII, § 1204, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3938; Pub. L. 106–569, title I, § 102(a)–(e), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2946, 2947.)
§ 12705d. Regulatory barriers clearinghouse
(a) EstablishmentThe Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall establish a clearinghouse to serve as a national repository to receive, collect, process, assemble, and disseminate information regarding—
(1) State and local laws, regulations, and policies affecting the development, maintenance, improvement, availability, or cost of affordable housing (including tax policies affecting land and other property, land use controls, zoning ordinances, building codes, fees and charges, growth limits, and policies that affect the return on investment in residential property), and the prevalence and effects on affordable housing of such laws, regulations, and policies;
(2) State and local activities, strategies, and plans to remove or ameliorate the negative effects, if any, of such laws, regulations, and policies, including particularly innovative or successful activities, strategies, and plans; and
(3) State and local strategies, activities and plans that promote affordable housing and housing desegregation, including particularly innovative or successful strategies, activities, and plans.
(b) FunctionsThe clearinghouse established under subsection (a) shall—
(1) respond to inquiries from State and local governments, other organizations, and individuals requesting information regarding State and local laws, regulations, policies, activities, strategies, and plans described in subsection (a);
(2) provide assistance in identifying, examining, and understanding such laws, regulations, policies, activities, strategies, and plans; and
(3) by making available through a World Wide Web site of the Department, by electronic mail, or otherwise, provide to each housing agency of a unit of general local government that serves an area having a population greater than 100,000, an index of all State and local strategies and plans submitted under subsection (a) to the clearinghouse, which—
(A) shall describe the types of barriers to affordable housing that the strategy or plan was designed to ameliorate or remove; and
(B) shall, not later than 30 days after submission to the clearinghouse of any new strategy or plan, be updated to include the new strategy or plan submitted.
(c) Organization

The clearinghouse under this section shall be established within the Office of Policy Development of the Department of Housing and Urban Development and shall be under the direction of the Assistant Secretary for Policy Development and Research.

(d) Timing

The clearinghouse under this section (as amended by section 103 of the Housing Affordability Barrier Removal Act of 2000) shall be established and commence carrying out the functions of the clearinghouse under this section not later than 1 year after December 27, 2000. The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development may comply with the requirements under this section by reestablishing the clearinghouse that was originally established to comply with this section and updating and improving such clearinghouse to the extent necessary to comply with the requirements of this section as in effect pursuant to the enactment of such Act.

(Pub. L. 102–550, title XII, § 1205, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3940; Pub. L. 106–569, title I, § 103, Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2947.)
§ 12706. Certification

The Secretary shall, by regulation or otherwise, as deemed by the Secretary to be appropriate, require any application for housing assistance under subchapter II of this chapter, assistance under the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, or assistance under the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act [42 U.S.C. 11301 et seq.], to contain or be accompanied by a certification by an appropriate State or local public official that the proposed housing activities are consistent with the housing strategy of the jurisdiction to be served.

(Pub. L. 101–625, title I, § 106, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4091; Pub. L. 106–400, § 2, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1675.)
§ 12707. Citizen participation
(a) In general
Before submitting a housing strategy under this section,1
1 So in original. The words “this section” probably should be “section 12705 of this title”.
a jurisdiction shall—
(1) make available to its citizens, public agencies, and other interested parties information concerning the amount of assistance the jurisdiction expects to receive and the range of investment or other uses of such assistance that the jurisdiction may undertake;
(2) publish a proposed housing strategy in a manner that, in the determination of the Secretary, affords affected citizens, public agencies, and other interested parties a reasonable opportunity to examine its span and to submit comments on the proposed housing strategy;
(3) hold one or more public hearings to obtain the views of citizens, public agencies, and other interested parties on the housing needs of the jurisdiction; and
(4) provide citizens, public agencies, and other interested parties with reasonable access to records regarding any uses of any assistance the jurisdiction may have received during the preceding 5 years.
(b) Notice and comment

Before submitting any performance report or substantial amendment to a housing strategy under this section,1 a participating jurisdiction shall provide citizens with reasonable notice of, and opportunity to comment on, such performance report or substantial amendment prior to its submission.

(c) Consideration of comments

A participating jurisdiction shall consider any comments or views of citizens in preparing a final housing strategy, amendment to a housing strategy or performance report for submission. A summary of such comments or views shall be attached when a housing strategy, amendment to a housing strategy or performance report is submitted. The submitted housing strategy, amendment, or report shall be made available to the public.

(d) Regulations

The Secretary shall by regulation establish procedures appropriate and practicable for providing a fair hearing and timely resolution of citizen complaints related to housing strategies or performance reports.

(Pub. L. 101–625, title I, § 107, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4091.)
§ 12708. Compliance
(a) Performance reports
(1) In general

Each participating jurisdiction shall annually review and report, in a form acceptable to the Secretary, on the progress it has made in carrying out its housing strategy, which report shall include an evaluation of the jurisdiction’s progress in meeting its goal established in section 12705(b)(15) 1

1 See References in Text note below.
of this title, and information on the number and types of households served, including the number of very low-income, low-income, and moderate-income persons served and the racial and ethnic status of persons served that will be assisted with funds made available.

(2) Submission

The Secretary shall (A) establish dates for submission of reports under this subsection, and (B) review such reports and make such recommendations as the Secretary deems appropriate to carry out the purposes of this Act.

(3) Failure to report
If a jurisdiction fails to submit a report satisfactory to the Secretary in a timely manner, assistance to the jurisdiction under subchapter II of this chapter or the other programs referred to in section 12706 of this title may be—
(A) suspended until a report satisfactory to the Secretary is submitted; or
(B) withdrawn and reallocated if the Secretary finds, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, that the jurisdiction will not submit a satisfactory report.
(b) Performance review by Secretary
(1) In general
The Secretary shall ensure that activities of each jurisdiction required to submit a housing strategy under section 12705 of this title are reviewed not less frequently than annually. Such review shall include, insofar as practicable, on-site visits by employees of the Department of Housing and Urban Development and shall include an assessment of the jurisdiction’s—
(A) management of funds made available under programs administered by the Secretary;
(B) compliance with its housing strategy;
(C) accuracy in the preparation of performance reports under subsection (a); and
(D) efforts to ensure that housing assisted under programs administered by the Secretary are in compliance with contractual agreements and the requirements of law.
(2) Report by Secretary

The Secretary shall report on the performance review in writing. The Secretary shall give the jurisdiction not less than 30 days to review and comment on the report. After taking into consideration the comments of the jurisdiction, the Secretary may revise the report and shall make the jurisdiction’s comments and the report, with any revisions, readily available to the public within 30 days after receipt of the jurisdiction’s comments.

(c) Review by courts

The adequacy of information submitted under section 12705(b)(4) of this title shall not be reviewable by any Federal, State, or other court. Review of a housing strategy by any Federal, State, or other court shall be limited to determining whether the process of development and the span of the strategy are in substantial compliance with the requirements of this Act. During the pendency of any action challenging the adequacy of a housing strategy or the action of the Secretary in approving a strategy, the court shall not have the authority to enjoin activities taken by the jurisdiction to implement an approved housing strategy. Any housing assisted during the pendency of such action shall not be subject to any order of the court resulting from such action.

(Pub. L. 101–625, title I, § 108, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4092.)
§ 12709. Energy efficiency standards
(a) Establishment
(1) In general
The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and the Secretary of Agriculture shall, not later than September 30, 2006, jointly establish, by rule, energy efficiency standards for—
(A) new construction of public and assisted housing and single family and multifamily residential housing (other than manufactured homes) subject to mortgages insured under the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.];
(B) new construction of single family housing (other than manufactured homes) subject to mortgages insured, guaranteed, or made by the Secretary of Agriculture under title V of the Housing Act of 1949 [42 U.S.C. 1471 et seq.]; and
(C) rehabilitation and new construction of public and assisted housing funded by HOPE VI revitalization grants under section 1437v of this title.
(2) Contents

Such standards shall meet or exceed the requirements of the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (hereafter in this section referred to as “the 2006 IECC”), or, in the case of multifamily high rises, the requirements of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 90.1–2004 (hereafter in this section referred to as “ASHRAE Standard 90.1–2004”), and shall be cost-effective with respect to construction and operating costs on a life-cycle cost basis. In developing such standards, the Secretaries shall consult with an advisory task force composed of homebuilders, national, State, and local housing agencies (including public housing agencies), energy agencies, building code organizations and agencies, energy efficiency organizations, utility organizations, low-income housing organizations, and other parties designated by the Secretaries.

(b) International Energy Conservation Code

If the Secretaries have not, by September 30, 2006, established energy efficiency standards under subsection (a), all new construction and rehabilitation of housing specified in such subsection shall meet the requirements of the 2006 IECC, or, in the case of multifamily high rises, the requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1–2004.

(c) Revisions of the International Energy Conservation Code

If the requirements of the 2006 IECC, or, in the case of multifamily high rises, ASHRAE Standard 90.1–2004, are revised at any time, the Secretaries shall, not later than 1 year after such revision, amend the standards established under subsection (a) to meet or exceed the requirements of such revised code or standard unless the Secretaries determine that compliance with such revised code or standard would not result in a significant increase in energy efficiency or would not be technologically feasible or economically justified.

(d) Failure to amend the standards
If the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and the Secretary of Agriculture have not, within 1 year after the requirements of the 2006 IECC or the ASHRAE Standard 90.1–2004 are revised, amended the standards or made a determination under subsection (c), all new construction and rehabilitation of housing specified in subsection (a) shall meet the requirements of the revised code or standard if—
(1) the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or the Secretary of Agriculture make a determination that the revised codes do not negatively affect the availability or affordability of new construction of assisted housing and single family and multifamily residential housing (other than manufactured homes) subject to mortgages insured under the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) or insured, guaranteed, or made by the Secretary of Agriculture under title V of the Housing Act of 1949 (42 U.S.C. 1471 et seq.), respectively; and
(2) the Secretary of Energy has made a determination under section 6833 of this title that the revised code or standard would improve energy efficiency.
(Pub. L. 101–625, title I, § 109, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4093; Pub. L. 102–486, title I, § 101(c)(1), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2786; Pub. L. 109–58, title I, § 153, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 649; Pub. L. 110–140, title IV, § 481, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1648.)
§ 12710. Capacity study
(a) In general

The Secretary shall ensure that the Department of Housing and Urban Development has adequate capacity and resources, including staff and training programs, to carry out its mission and responsibilities to implement the provisions of this Act, including the ability of the Department to carry out the multifamily mortgage insurance program, and the ability to respond to areas identified as “material weaknesses” by the Office of the Inspector General in financial audits or other reports.

(b) Report

Not later than 60 days after November 28, 1990, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall prepare and submit to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs of the House of Representatives a study detailing the Department’s plan to maintain such capacity, together with any recommendations for legislative and administrative action as the Secretary determines to be appropriate.

(Pub. L. 101–625, title I, § 110, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4093; Pub. L. 102–550, title IV, § 407, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3778.)
§ 12711. Protection of State and local authority

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter or subchapter II, the Secretary shall not establish any criteria for allocating or denying funds made available under programs administered by the Secretary based on the adoption, continuation, or discontinuation by a jurisdiction of any public policy, regulation, or law that is (1) adopted, continued, or discontinued in accordance with the jurisdiction’s duly established authority, and (2) not in violation of any Federal law.

(Pub. L. 101–625, title I, § 111, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4093.)
§ 12712. 5-year energy efficiency plan
(a) Establishment

The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall establish a plan for activities to be undertaken and policies to be adopted by the Secretary within the 5-year period beginning upon the submission of the plan to the Congress under subsection (d) to provide for, encourage, and improve energy efficiency in newly constructed, rehabilitated, and existing housing. In developing the plan, the Secretary shall consider, as appropriate, any energy assessments under section 944.

(b) Initial plan

The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall establish the first plan under this section not later than the expiration of the 1-year period beginning on November 28, 1990.

(c) Updates

The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall revise and update the plan under this section not less than once for each 2-year period, the first such 2-year period beginning on the date of the submission of the initial plan under subsection (b) to the Congress (as provided in subsection (d)). Each such update shall revise the plan for the 5-year period beginning upon the submission of the updated plan to the Congress.

(d) Submission to Congress

The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall submit the initial plan established under subsection (b) and any updated plans under subsection (c) to the Congress not later than the date by which such plans are to be established or updated under such paragraphs.

(Pub. L. 101–625, title IX, § 945, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4416.)
§ 12713. Eligibility under first-time homebuyer programs
(a) Eligibility of displaced homemakers and single parents for Federal assistance for first-time homebuyers
(1) Displaced homemakers

No individual who is a displaced homemaker may be denied eligibility under any Federal program to assist first-time homebuyers on the basis that the individual, while a homemaker, owned a home with his or her spouse or resided in a home owned by the spouse.

(2) Single parents

No individual who is a single parent may be denied eligibility under any Federal program to assist first-time homebuyers on the basis that the individual, while married, owned a home with his or her spouse or resided in a home owned by the spouse.

(b) Definitions
For purposes of this section:
(1) Displaced homemaker
The term “displaced homemaker” means an individual who—
(A) is an adult;
(B) has not worked full-time, full-year in the labor force for a number of years but has, during such years, worked primarily without remuneration to care for the home and family; and
(C) is unemployed or underemployed and is experiencing difficulty in obtaining or upgrading employment.
(2) First-time homebuyer

The term “first-time homebuyer” means an individual who has never, or has not during a specified period of time, had any present ownership interest in a principal residence.

(3) Single parent
The term “single parent” means an individual who—
(A) is unmarried or legally separated from a spouse; and
(B)
(i) has 1 or more minor children for whom the individual has custody or joint custody; or
(ii) is pregnant.
(c) Applicability

This section shall apply to any Federal program to assist first-time homebuyers, unless the program is exempted from this section by a statute that amends this subsection or explicitly refers to this subsection.

(Pub. L. 101–625, title IX, § 956, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4421.)
§ 12714. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, § 404(a), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 44