- § 5141. Waiver of administrative conditions
- § 5142. Repealed.
- § 5143. Coordinating officers
- § 5144. Emergency support and response teams
- §§ 5145, 5146. Repealed.
- § 5147. Reimbursement of Federal agencies
- § 5148. Nonliability of Federal Government
- § 5149. Performance of services
- § 5150. Use of local firms and individuals
- § 5151. Nondiscrimination in disaster assistance
- § 5152. Use and coordination of relief organizations
- § 5153. Priority to certain applications for public facility and public housing assistance
- § 5154. Insurance
- § 5154a. Prohibited flood disaster assistance
- § 5155. Duplication of benefits
- § 5156. Standards and reviews
- § 5157. Penalties
- § 5158. Availability of materials
- § 5159. Protection of environment
- § 5160. Recovery of assistance
- § 5161. Audits and investigations
- § 5161a. Audit of contracts
- § 5162. Advance of non-Federal share
- § 5163. Limitation on use of sliding scales
- § 5164. Rules and regulations
- § 5165. Mitigation planning
- § 5165a. Minimum standards for public and private structures
- § 5165b. Management costs
- § 5165c. Public notice, comment, and consultation requirements
- § 5165d. Designation of Small State and Rural Advocate
- § 5165e. Integrated plan for administrative cost reduction
- § 5165f. National Urban Search and Rescue Response System
- § 5165g. National veterinary emergency teams
Any Federal agency charged with the administration of a Federal assistance program may, if so requested by the applicant State or local authorities, modify or waive, for a major disaster, such administrative conditions for assistance as would otherwise prevent the giving of assistance under such programs if the inability to meet such conditions is a result of the major disaster.
Immediately upon his declaration of a major disaster or emergency, the President shall appoint a Federal coordinating officer to operate in the affected area.
When the President determines assistance under this chapter is necessary, he shall request that the Governor of the affected State designate a State coordinating officer for the purpose of coordinating State and local disaster assistance efforts with those of the Federal Government.
Where the area affected by a major disaster or emergency includes parts of more than 1 State, the President, at the discretion of the President, may appoint a single Federal coordinating officer for the entire affected area, and may appoint such deputy Federal coordinating officers to assist the Federal coordinating officer as the President determines appropriate.
The President shall form emergency support teams of Federal personnel to be deployed in an area affected by a major disaster or emergency. Such emergency support teams shall assist the Federal coordinating officer in carrying out his responsibilities pursuant to this chapter. Upon request of the President, the head of any Federal agency is directed to detail to temporary duty with the emergency support teams on either a reimbursable or nonreimbursable basis, as is determined necessary by the President, such personnel within the administrative jurisdiction of the head of the Federal agency as the President may need or believe to be useful for carrying out the functions of the emergency support teams, each such detail to be without loss of seniority, pay, or other employee status.
The Administrator shall ensure that specific target capability levels, as defined pursuant to the guidelines established under section 746(a) of title 6, are established for Federal emergency response teams.
The President, acting through the Administrator, shall ensure that the Federal emergency response teams consist of adequate numbers of properly planned, organized, equipped, trained, and exercised personnel to achieve the established target capability levels. Each emergency response team shall work in coordination with State and local officials and onsite personnel associated with a particular incident.
The Administrator shall evaluate team readiness on a regular basis and report team readiness levels in the report required under section 752(a) of title 6.
Federal agencies may be reimbursed for expenditures under this chapter from funds appropriated for the purposes of this chapter. Any funds received by Federal agencies as reimbursement for services or supplies furnished under the authority of this chapter shall be deposited to the credit of the appropriation or appropriations currently available for such services or supplies.
The Federal Government shall not be liable for any claim based upon the exercise or performance of or the failure to exercise or perform a discretionary function or duty on the part of a Federal agency or an employee of the Federal Government in carrying out the provisions of this chapter.
In carrying out the purposes of this chapter, any Federal agency is authorized to accept and utilize the services or facilities of any State or local government, or of any agency, office, or employee thereof, with the consent of such government.
The Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency is authorized to appoint temporary personnel, after serving continuously for 3 years, to positions in the Federal Emergency Management Agency in the same manner that competitive service employees with competitive status are considered for transfer, reassignment, or promotion to such positions. An individual appointed under this subsection shall become a career-conditional employee, unless the employee has already completed the service requirements for career tenure.
The protections, rights, benefits, and obligations provided under chapter 43 of title 38 shall apply to intermittent personnel appointed pursuant to subsection (b)(1) to perform service to the Federal Emergency Management Agency under sections 401 and 501 or to train for such service.
Preclusion of giving notice of service by necessity of service under subsection (b)(1) to perform service to the Federal Emergency Management Agency under sections 401 and 501 or to train for such service shall be considered preclusion by “military necessity” for purposes of section 4312(b) of title 38 pertaining to giving notice of absence from a position of employment. A determination of such necessity shall be made by the Administrator and shall not be subject to review in any judicial or administrative proceeding.
In the expenditure of Federal funds for debris clearance, distribution of supplies, reconstruction, and other major disaster or emergency assistance activities which may be carried out by contract or agreement with private organizations, firms, or individuals, preference shall be given, to the extent feasible and practicable, to those organizations, firms, and individuals residing or doing business primarily in the area affected by such major disaster or emergency.
This subsection shall not be considered to restrict the use of Department of Defense resources under this chapter in the provision of assistance in a major disaster.
In carrying out this section, a contract or agreement may be set aside for award based on a specific geographic area.
Any expenditure of Federal funds for debris clearance, distribution of supplies, reconstruction, and other major disaster or emergency assistance activities which may be carried out by contract or agreement with private organizations, firms, or individuals, not awarded to an organization, firm, or individual residing or doing business primarily in the area affected by such major disaster shall be justified in writing in the contract file.
Following the declaration of an emergency or major disaster, an agency performing response, relief, and reconstruction activities shall transition work performed under contracts in effect on the date on which the President declares the emergency or major disaster to organizations, firms, and individuals residing or doing business primarily in any area affected by the major disaster or emergency, unless the head of such agency determines that it is not feasible or practicable to do so.
The head of a Federal agency, as feasible and practicable, shall formulate appropriate requirements to facilitate compliance with this section.
Nothing in this section shall be construed to require any Federal agency to breach or renegotiate any contract in effect before the occurrence of a major disaster or emergency.
The President shall issue, and may alter and amend, such regulations as may be necessary for the guidance of personnel carrying out Federal assistance functions at the site of a major disaster or emergency. Such regulations shall include provisions for insuring that the distribution of supplies, the processing of applications, and other relief and assistance activities shall be accomplished in an equitable and impartial manner, without discrimination on the grounds of race, color, religion, nationality, sex, age, disability, English proficiency, or economic status.
As a condition of participation in the distribution of assistance or supplies under this chapter or of receiving assistance under this chapter, governmental bodies and other organizations shall be required to comply with regulations relating to nondiscrimination promulgated by the President, and such other regulations applicable to activities within an area affected by a major disaster or emergency as he deems necessary for the effective coordination of relief efforts.
In the obligation of discretionary funds or funds which are not allocated among the States or political subdivisions of a State, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and the Secretary of Commerce shall give priority to applications for projects for major disaster areas.
An applicant for assistance under section 5172 of this title (relating to repair, restoration, and replacement of damaged facilities), section 5189 of this title (relating to simplified procedure) or section 3149(c)(2) of this title shall comply with regulations prescribed by the President to assure that, with respect to any property to be replaced, restored, repaired, or constructed with such assistance, such types and extent of insurance will be obtained and maintained as may be reasonably available, adequate, and necessary, to protect against future loss to such property.
In making a determination with respect to availability, adequacy, and necessity under paragraph (1), the President shall not require greater types and extent of insurance than are certified to him as reasonable by the appropriate State insurance commissioner responsible for regulation of such insurance.
No applicant for assistance under section 5172 of this title (relating to repair, restoration, and replacement of damaged facilities), section 5189 of this title (relating to simplified procedure), or section 3149(c)(2) of this title may receive such assistance for any property or part thereof for which the applicant has previously received assistance under this chapter unless all insurance required pursuant to this section has been obtained and maintained with respect to such property. The requirements of this subsection may not be waived under section 5141 of this title.
A State may elect to act as a self-insurer with respect to any or all of the facilities owned by the State. Such an election, if declared in writing at the time of acceptance of assistance under section 5172 or 5189 of this title or section 3149(c)(2) of this title or subsequently and accompanied by a plan for self-insurance which is satisfactory to the President, shall be deemed compliance with subsection (a). No such self-insurer may receive assistance under section 5172 or 5189 of this title for any property or part thereof for which it has previously received assistance under this chapter, to the extent that insurance for such property or part thereof would have been reasonably available.
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no Federal disaster relief assistance made available in a flood disaster area may be used to make a payment (including any loan assistance payment) to a person for repair, replacement, or restoration for damage to any personal, residential, or commercial property if that person at any time has received flood disaster assistance that was conditional on the person first having obtained flood insurance under applicable Federal law and subsequently having failed to obtain and maintain flood insurance as required under applicable Federal law on such property.
For purposes of paragraph (1), a property is described in this paragraph if it is personal, commercial, or residential property for which Federal disaster relief assistance made available in a flood disaster area has been provided, prior to the date on which the property is transferred, for repair, replacement, or restoration of the property, if such assistance was conditioned upon obtaining flood insurance in accordance with applicable Federal law with respect to such property.
This section and the amendments made by this section shall apply to disasters declared after September 23, 1994.
The President, in consultation with the head of each Federal agency administering any program providing financial assistance to persons, business concerns, or other entities suffering losses as a result of a major disaster or emergency, shall assure that no such person, business concern, or other entity will receive such assistance with respect to any part of such loss as to which he has received financial assistance under any other program or from insurance or any other source.
This section shall not prohibit the provision of Federal assistance to a person who is or may be entitled to receive benefits for the same purposes from another source if such person has not received such other benefits by the time of application for Federal assistance and if such person agrees to repay all duplicative assistance to the agency providing the Federal assistance.
The President shall establish such procedures as the President considers necessary to ensure uniformity in preventing duplication of benefits.
Receipt of partial benefits for a major disaster or emergency shall not preclude provision of additional Federal assistance for any part of a loss or need for which benefits have not been provided.
A request under subparagraph (A) shall be granted or denied not later than 45 days after submission of such request.
Notwithstanding subsection (c), in carrying out subparagraph (A), the President may not determine that a loan is a duplication of assistance, provided that all Federal assistance is used toward a loss suffered as a result of the major disaster or emergency.
A person receiving Federal assistance for a major disaster or emergency shall be liable to the United States to the extent that such assistance duplicates benefits available to the person for the same purpose from another source. The agency which provided the duplicative assistance shall collect such duplicative assistance from the recipient in accordance with chapter 37 of title 31, relating to debt collection, when the head of such agency considers it to be in the best interest of the Federal Government.
Federal major disaster and emergency assistance provided to individuals and families under this chapter, and comparable disaster assistance provided by States, local governments, and disaster assistance organizations, shall not be considered as income or a resource when determining eligibility for or benefit levels under federally funded income assistance or resource-tested benefit programs.
The President shall establish comprehensive standards which shall be used to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of Federal major disaster and emergency assistance programs administered under this chapter. The President shall conduct annual reviews of the activities of Federal agencies and State and local governments in major disaster and emergency preparedness and in providing major disaster and emergency assistance in order to assure maximum coordination and effectiveness of such programs and consistency in policies for reimbursement of States under this chapter.
Any person who knowingly misapplies the proceeds of a loan or other cash benefit obtained under this chapter shall be fined an amount equal to one and one-half times the misapplied amount of the proceeds or cash benefit.
Whenever it appears that any person has violated or is about to violate any provision of this chapter, including any civil penalty imposed under this chapter, the Attorney General may bring a civil action for such relief as may be appropriate. Such action may be brought in an appropriate United States district court.
The President shall expeditiously refer to the Attorney General for appropriate action any evidence developed in the performance of functions under this chapter that may warrant consideration for criminal prosecution.
Any individual who knowingly violates any order or regulation issued under this chapter shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each violation.
The President is authorized, at the request of the Governor of an affected State, to provide for a survey of construction materials needed in the area affected by a major disaster on an emergency basis for housing repairs, replacement housing, public facilities repairs and replacement, farming operations, and business enterprises and to take appropriate action to assure the availability and fair distribution of needed materials, including, where possible, the allocation of such materials for a period of not more than one hundred and eighty days after such major disaster. Any allocation program shall be implemented by the President to the extent possible, by working with and through those companies which traditionally supply construction materials in the affected area. For the purposes of this section “construction materials” shall include building materials and materials required for repairing housing, replacement housing, public facilities repairs and replacement, and for normal farm and business operations.
An action which is taken or assistance which is provided pursuant to section 5170a, 5170b, 5172, 5173, or 5192 of this title, including such assistance provided pursuant to the procedures provided for in section 5189 of this title, which has the effect of restoring a facility substantially to its condition prior to the disaster or emergency, shall not be deemed a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 852) [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.]. Nothing in this section shall alter or affect the applicability of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 to other Federal actions taken under this chapter or under any other provisions of law.
Any person who intentionally causes a condition for which Federal assistance is provided under this chapter or under any other Federal law as a result of a declaration of a major disaster or emergency under this chapter shall be liable to the United States for the reasonable costs incurred by the United States in responding to such disaster or emergency to the extent that such costs are attributable to the intentional act or omission of such person which caused such condition. Such action for reasonable costs shall be brought in an appropriate United States district court.
A person shall not be liable under this section for costs incurred by the United States as a result of actions taken or omitted by such person in the course of rendering care or assistance in response to a major disaster or emergency.
Subject to the provisions of chapter 75 of title 31, relating to requirements for single audits, the President shall conduct audits and investigations as necessary to assure compliance with this chapter, and in connection therewith may question such persons as may be necessary to carry out such audits and investigations.
For purposes of audits and investigations under this section, the President and Comptroller General may inspect any books, documents, papers, and records of any person relating to any activity undertaken or funded under this chapter.
The President may require audits by State and local governments in connection with assistance under this chapter when necessary to assure compliance with this chapter or related regulations.
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall not reimburse a State or local government, an Indian tribal government (as defined in section 5122 of this title), or the owner or operator of a private nonprofit facility (as defined in section 5122 of this title) for any activities made pursuant to a contract entered into after August 1, 2017, that prohibits the Administrator or the Comptroller General of the United States from auditing or otherwise reviewing all aspects relating to the contract.
Any loan or advance under this section shall be repaid to the United States.
Loans and advances under this section shall bear interest at a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, taking into consideration the current market yields on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States with remaining periods to maturity comparable to the reimbursement period of the loan or advance.
The President shall issue regulations describing the terms and conditions under which any loan or advance authorized by this section may be made.
No geographic area shall be precluded from receiving assistance under this chapter solely by virtue of an arithmetic formula or sliding scale based on income or population.
The President may prescribe such rules and regulations as may be necessary and proper to carry out the provisions of this chapter, and may exercise, either directly or through such Federal agency as the President may designate, any power or authority conferred to the President by this chapter.
As a condition of receipt of an increased Federal share for hazard mitigation measures under subsection (e), a State, local, or tribal government shall develop and submit for approval to the President a mitigation plan that outlines processes for identifying the natural hazards, risks, and vulnerabilities of the area under the jurisdiction of the government.
Federal contributions under section 5170c of this title may be used to fund the development and updating of mitigation plans under this section.
With respect to any mitigation plan, a State, local, or tribal government may use an amount of Federal contributions under section 5170c of this title not to exceed 7 percent of the amount of such contributions available to the government as of a date determined by the government.
If, at the time of the declaration of a major disaster or event under section 5187 of this title, a State has in effect an approved mitigation plan under this section, the President may increase to 20 percent, with respect to the major disaster or event under section 5187 of this title, the maximum percentage specified in the last sentence of section 5170c(a) of this title.
A recipient of a disaster loan or grant under this chapter shall provide such evidence of compliance with this section as the President may require by regulation.
In this section, the term “management cost” includes any indirect cost, any direct administrative cost, and any other administrative expense associated with a specific project under a major disaster, emergency, or disaster preparedness or mitigation activity or measure.
Notwithstanding any other provision of law (including any administrative rule or guidance), the President shall by regulation implement management cost rates, for grantees and subgrantees, that shall be used to determine contributions under this chapter for management costs.
A grantee under section 5170c of this title may be reimbursed not more than 15 percent of the total amount of the grant award under such section of which not more than 10 percent may be used by the grantee and 5 percent by the subgrantee for such costs.
A grantee under sections 5170b, 5172, 5173, and 5192 of this title may be reimbursed not more than 12 percent of the total award amount under such sections, of which not more than 7 percent may be used by the grantee and 5 percent by the subgrantee for such costs.
The President shall review the management cost rates established under subsection (b) not later than 3 years after the date of establishment of the rates and periodically thereafter.
Any policy adopted under paragraph (1) shall apply only to a major disaster or emergency declared on or after the date on which the policy is adopted.
Nothing in this subsection confers a legal right of action on any party.
The President shall promote public access to policies governing the implementation of the public assistance program.
The President shall designate in the Federal Emergency Management Agency a Small State and Rural Advocate.
The Small State and Rural Advocate shall be an advocate for the fair treatment of small States and rural communities in the provision of assistance under this chapter.
Not later than 90 days after February 29, 2016, the Administrator shall brief the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives on the plan required to be developed under subsection (a)(1).
If the Administrator modifies the plan or the timetable under subsection (a), the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report notifying Congress of the modification, which shall include the details of the modification.
The term “Administrator” means the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
The term “Agency” means the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
The term “hazard” has the meaning given the term in section 5195a of this title.
The term “nonemployee System member” means a System member not employed by a sponsoring agency or participating agency.
The term “participating agency” means a State or local government, nonprofit organization, or private organization that has executed an agreement with a sponsoring agency to participate in the System.
The term “sponsoring agency” means a State or local government that is the sponsor of a task force designated by the Administrator to participate in the System.
The term “System” means the National Urban Search and Rescue Response System to be administered under this section.
The term “System member” means an individual who is not a full-time employee of the Federal Government and who serves on a task force or on a System management or other technical team.
The term “task force” means an urban search and rescue team designated by the Administrator to participate in the System.
Subject to the requirements of this section, the Administrator shall continue to administer the emergency response system known as the National Urban Search and Rescue Response System.
In administering the System, the Administrator shall provide for a national network of standardized search and rescue resources to assist States and local governments in responding to hazards.
The Administrator shall designate task forces to participate in the System. The Administration shall determine the criteria for such participation.
Each task force shall have a sponsoring agency. The Administrator shall enter into an agreement with the sponsoring agency with respect to the participation of each task force in the System.
A task force may include, at the discretion of the sponsoring agency, one or more participating agencies. The sponsoring agency shall enter into an agreement with each participating agency with respect to the participation of the participating agency on the task force.
A task force may also include, at the discretion of the sponsoring agency, other individuals not otherwise associated with the sponsoring agency or a participating agency. The sponsoring agency of a task force may enter into a separate agreement with each such individual with respect to the participation of the individual on the task force.
The Administrator shall maintain such management teams and other technical teams as the Administrator determines are necessary to administer the System.
The Administrator may appoint a System member into Federal service for a period of service to provide for the participation of the System member in exercises, preincident staging, major disaster and emergency response activities, and training events sponsored or sanctioned by the Administrator.
The Administrator may make appointments under paragraph (1) without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service.
The authority of the Administrator to make appointments under this subsection shall not affect any other authority of the Administrator under this chapter.
A System member who is appointed into Federal service under paragraph (1) shall not be considered an employee of the United States for purposes other than those specifically set forth in this section.
Subject to such terms and conditions as the Administrator may impose by regulation, the Administrator shall make payments to the sponsoring agency of a task force to be used to reimburse each employer of a System member on the task force for compensation paid by the employer to an employee filling a position normally filled by the System member for any period during which the System member is appointed into Federal service under subsection (f)(1).
Costs incurred by an employer shall be eligible for reimbursement under subparagraph (A) only to the extent that the costs are in excess of the costs that would have been incurred by the employer had the System member not been appointed into Federal service under subsection (f)(1).
A System member shall not be entitled to pay directly from the Agency for a period during which the System member is appointed into Federal Service under subsection (f)(1).
A System member who is appointed into Federal service under subsection (f)(1) and who suffers personal injury, illness, disability, or death as a result of a personal injury sustained while acting in the scope of such appointment, shall, for the purposes of subchapter I of chapter 81 of title 5, be treated as though the member were an employee (as defined by section 8101 of that title) who had sustained the injury in the performance of duty.
A System member or dependent shall make an election of benefits under subparagraph (A) not later than 1 year after the date of the personal injury, illness, disability, or death that is the reason for the benefits, or until such later date as the Secretary of Labor may allow for reasonable cause shown.
An election of benefits made under this paragraph is irrevocable unless otherwise provided by law.
Subject to such terms and conditions as the Administrator may impose by regulation, if a System member or dependent elects to receive benefits from a State or local government under paragraph (2)(A), the Administrator shall reimburse the State or local government for the value of the benefits.
Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to bar any claim by, or with respect to, any System member who is a public safety officer, as defined in section 1204 of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 [34 U.S.C. 10284], for any benefits authorized under part L of title I of that Act (42 U.S.C. 3796 et seq.).1
A System member appointed into Federal service under subsection (f)(1), while acting within the scope of the appointment, shall be considered to be an employee of the Federal Government under section 1346(b) of title 28 and chapter 171 of that title, relating to tort claims procedure.
Service as a System member shall be considered to be “service in the uniformed services” for purposes of chapter 43 of title 38 relating to employment and reemployment rights of individuals who have performed service in the uniformed services (regardless of whether the individual receives compensation for such participation). All rights and obligations of such persons and procedures for assistance, enforcement, and investigation shall be as provided for in such chapter.
Preclusion of giving notice of service by necessity of appointment under this section shall be considered to be preclusion by “military necessity” for purposes of section 4312(b) of title 38 pertaining to giving notice of absence from a position of employment. A determination of such necessity shall be made by the Administrator and shall not be subject to judicial review.
If a System member holds a valid license, certificate, or other permit issued by any State or other governmental jurisdiction evidencing the member’s qualifications in any professional, mechanical, or other skill or type of assistance required by the System, the System member is deemed to be performing a Federal activity when rendering aid involving such skill or assistance during a period of appointment into Federal service under subsection (f)(1).
The Administrator shall enter into a response cooperative agreement with each sponsoring agency, as appropriate, under which the Administrator agrees to reimburse the sponsoring agency for costs incurred by the sponsoring agency in responding to a major disaster or emergency.
The Administrator may incur all necessary obligations consistent with this section in order to ensure the effectiveness of the System.
Not later than 180 days after December 16, 2016, the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees (as defined in section 101 of title 6) a report on the development of a plan, including implementation steps and timeframes, to finance, maintain, and replace System equipment.
Nothing in this section shall be construed to mean that a task force may not include Federal employees. In the case of a Federal employee detailed to a task force, the sponsoring agency shall enter into an agreement with the relevant employing Federal agency.
The Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency may establish one or more national veterinary emergency teams at accredited colleges of veterinary medicine.