Collapse to view only § 1227. Deportable aliens

§ 1221. Lists of alien and citizen passengers arriving and departing
(a) Arrival manifests
(b) Departure manifests
(c) Contents of manifest
The information to be provided with respect to each person listed on a manifest required to be provided under subsection (a) or (b) shall include—
(1) complete name;
(2) date of birth;
(3) citizenship;
(4) sex;
(5) passport number and country of issuance;
(6) country of residence;
(7) United States visa number, date, and place of issuance, where applicable;
(8) alien registration number, where applicable;
(9) United States address while in the United States; and
(10) such other information the Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of State, and the Secretary of Treasury determines as being necessary for the identification of the persons transported and for the enforcement of the immigration laws and to protect safety and national security.
(d) Appropriate officials specified
(e) Deadline for requirement of electronic transmission of manifest information
(f) Prohibition
(g) Penalties against noncomplying shipments, aircraft, or carriers
(h) Waiver
(i) United States border officer defined
(j) Record of citizens and resident aliens leaving permanently for foreign countries
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 4, § 231, 66 Stat. 195; Pub. L. 97–116, § 18(g), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1620; Pub. L. 101–649, title V, § 543(a)(1), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5057; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, § 306(c)(4)(A), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1752; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 308(g)(1), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–622; Pub. L. 107–77, title I, § 115, Nov. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 768; Pub. L. 107–173, title IV, § 402(a), May 14, 2002, 116 Stat. 557.)
§ 1222. Detention of aliens for physical and mental examination
(a) Detention of aliens
(b) Physical and mental examination
(c) Certification of certain helpless aliens
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 4, § 232, 66 Stat. 196; Pub. L. 99–500, § 101(b) [title II, § 206(a), formerly § 206], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–39, 1783–56, renumbered § 206(a), Pub. L. 100–525, § 4(b)(1), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2615; Pub. L. 99–591, § 101(b) [title II, § 206], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–39, 3341–56; Pub. L. 100–525, § 4(b)(2), (d), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2615; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §§ 308(b)(2), (3)(C), (c)(2)(A), (d)(4)(H), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–615, 3009–616, 3009–618.)
§ 1223. Entry through or from foreign territory and adjacent islands
(a) Necessity of transportation contract
(b) Landing stations
(c) Landing agreements
(d) Definitions
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 4, § 233, formerly § 238, 66 Stat. 202; Pub. L. 99–653, § 7(b), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3657; renumbered § 233 and amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §§ 308(b)(4), (f)(4), 362, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–615, 3009–622, 3009–645.)
§ 1224. Designation of ports of entry for aliens arriving by aircraft

The Attorney General is authorized (1) by regulation to designate as ports of entry for aliens arriving by aircraft any of the ports of entry for civil aircraft designated as such in accordance with law; (2) by regulation to provide such reasonable requirements for aircraft in civil air navigation with respect to giving notice of intention to land in advance of landing, or notice of landing, as shall be deemed necessary for purposes of administration and enforcement of this chapter; and (3) by regulation to provide for the application to civil air navigation of the provisions of this chapter where not expressly so provided in this chapter to such extent and upon such conditions as he deems necessary. Any person who violates any regulation made under this section shall be subject to a civil penalty of $2,000 which may be remitted or mitigated by the Attorney General in accordance with such proceedings as the Attorney General shall by regulation prescribe. In case the violation is by the owner or person in command of the aircraft, the penalty shall be a lien upon the aircraft, and such aircraft may be libeled therefore in the appropriate United States court. The determination by the Attorney General and remission or mitigation of the civil penalty shall be final. In case the violation is by the owner or person in command of the ai

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 4, § 234, formerly § 239, 66 Stat. 203; Pub. L. 101–649, title V, § 543(a)(3), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5058; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, § 306(c)(2), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1752; renumbered § 234, Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 304(a)(1), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–587.)
§ 1225. Inspection by immigration officers; expedited removal of inadmissible arriving aliens; referral for hearing
(a) Inspection
(1) Aliens treated as applicants for admission
(2) Stowaways
(3) Inspection
(4) Withdrawal of application for admission
(5) Statements
(b) Inspection of applicants for admission
(1) Inspection of aliens arriving in the United States and certain other aliens who have not been admitted or paroled
(A) Screening
(i) In general
(ii) Claims for asylum
(iii) Application to certain other aliens(I) In general(II) Aliens described
(B) Asylum interviews
(i) Conduct by asylum officers
(ii) Referral of certain aliens
(iii) Removal without further review if no credible fear of persecution(I) In general(II) Record of determination(III) Review of determination(IV) Mandatory detention
(iv) Information about interviews
(v) “Credible fear of persecution” defined
(C) Limitation on administrative review
(D) Limit on collateral attacks
(E) “Asylum officer” definedAs used in this paragraph, the term “asylum officer” means an immigration officer who—
(i) has had professional training in country conditions, asylum law, and interview techniques comparable to that provided to full-time adjudicators of applications under section 1158 of this title, and
(ii) is supervised by an officer who meets the condition described in clause (i) and has had substantial experience adjudicating asylum applications.
(F) Exception
(G) Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
(2) Inspection of other aliens
(A) In general
(B) ExceptionSubparagraph (A) shall not apply to an alien—
(i) who is a crewman,
(ii) to whom paragraph (1) applies, or
(iii) who is a stowaway.
(C) Treatment of aliens arriving from contiguous territory
(3) Challenge of decision
(c) Removal of aliens inadmissible on security and related grounds
(1) Removal without further hearingIf an immigration officer or an immigration judge suspects that an arriving alien may be inadmissible under subparagraph (A) (other than clause (ii)), (B), or (C) of section 1182(a)(3) of this title, the officer or judge shall—
(A) order the alien removed, subject to review under paragraph (2);
(B) report the order of removal to the Attorney General; and
(C) not conduct any further inquiry or hearing until ordered by the Attorney General.
(2) Review of order
(A) The Attorney General shall review orders issued under paragraph (1).
(B) If the Attorney General—
(i) is satisfied on the basis of confidential information that the alien is inadmissible under subparagraph (A) (other than clause (ii)), (B), or (C) of section 1182(a)(3) of this title, and
(ii) after consulting with appropriate security agencies of the United States Government, concludes that disclosure of the information would be prejudicial to the public interest, safety, or security,
the Attorney General may order the alien removed without further inquiry or hearing by an immigration judge.
(C) If the Attorney General does not order the removal of the alien under subparagraph (B), the Attorney General shall specify the further inquiry or hearing that shall be conducted in the case.
(3) Submission of statement and information
(d) Authority relating to inspections
(1) Authority to search conveyances
(2) Authority to order detention and delivery of arriving aliens
(A) to detain the alien on the vessel or at the airport of arrival, and
(B) to deliver the alien to an immigration officer for inspection or to a medical officer for examination.
(3) Administration of oath and consideration of evidence
(4) Subpoena authority
(A) The Attorney General and any immigration officer shall have power to require by subpoena the attendance and testimony of witnesses before immigration officers and the production of books, papers, and documents relating to the privilege of any person to enter, reenter, reside in, or pass through the United States or concerning any matter which is material and relevant to the enforcement of this chapter and the administration of the Service, and to that end may invoke the aid of any court of the United States.
(B) Any United States district court within the jurisdiction of which investigations or inquiries are being conducted by an immigration officer may, in the event of neglect or refusal to respond to a subpoena issued under this paragraph or refusal to testify before an immigration officer, issue an order requiring such persons to appear before an immigration officer, produce books, papers, and documents if demanded, and testify, and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt thereof.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 4, § 235, 66 Stat. 198; Pub. L. 101–649, title VI, § 603(a)(11), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5083; Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, §§ 422(a), 423(b), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1270, 1272; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §§ 302(a), 308(d)(5), 371(b)(4), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–579, 3009–619, 3009–645; Pub. L. 110–229, title VII, § 702(j)(5), May 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 867.)
§ 1225a. Preinspection at foreign airports
(a) Establishment of preinspection stations
(1)New stations.—Subject to paragraph (5), not later than October 31, 1998, the Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall establish and maintain preinspection stations in at least 5 of the foreign airports that are among the 10 foreign airports which the Attorney General identifies as serving as last points of departure for the greatest numbers of inadmissible alien passengers who arrive from abroad by air at ports of entry within the United States. Such preinspection stations shall be in addition to any preinspection stations established prior to September 30, 1996.
(2)Report.—Not later than October 31, 1998, the Attorney General shall report to the Committees on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and of the Senate on the implementation of paragraph (1).
(3)Data collection.—Not later than November 1, 1997, and each subsequent November 1, the Attorney General shall compile data identifying—
(A) the foreign airports which served as last points of departure for aliens who arrived by air at United States ports of entry without valid documentation during the preceding fiscal years;
(B) the number and nationality of such aliens arriving from each such foreign airport; and
(C) the primary routes such aliens followed from their country of origin to the United States.
(4) Subject to paragraph (5), not later than January 1, 2008, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall establish preinspection stations in at least 25 additional foreign airports, which the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State, determines, based on the data compiled under paragraph (3) and such other information as may be available, would most effectively facilitate the travel of admissible aliens and reduce the number of inadmissible aliens, especially aliens who are potential terrorists, who arrive from abroad by air at points of entry within the United States. Such preinspection stations shall be in addition to those established before September 30, 1996, or pursuant to paragraph (1).
(5)Conditions.—Prior to the establishment of a preinspection station, the Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall ensure that—
(A) employees of the United States stationed at the preinspection station and their accompanying family members will receive appropriate protection;
(B) such employees and their families will not be subject to unreasonable risks to their welfare and safety; and
(C) the country in which the preinspection station is to be established maintains practices and procedures with respect to asylum seekers and refugees in accordance with the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (done at Geneva, July 28, 1951), or the Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees (done at New York, January 31, 1967), or that an alien in the country otherwise has recourse to avenues of protection from return to persecution.
(b) Establishment of carrier consultant program and immigration security initiative
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 4, § 235A, as added Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title I, § 123(a), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–560; amended Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §§ 7206(a), 7210(d)(1), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3817, 3825.)
§ 1226. Apprehension and detention of aliens
(a) Arrest, detention, and releaseOn a warrant issued by the Attorney General, an alien may be arrested and detained pending a decision on whether the alien is to be removed from the United States. Except as provided in subsection (c) and pending such decision, the Attorney General—
(1) may continue to detain the arrested alien; and
(2) may release the alien on—
(A) bond of at least $1,500 with security approved by, and containing conditions prescribed by, the Attorney General; or
(B) conditional parole; but
(3) may not provide the alien with work authorization (including an “employment authorized” endorsement or other appropriate work permit), unless the alien is lawfully admitted for permanent residence or otherwise would (without regard to removal proceedings) be provided such authorization.
(b) Revocation of bond or parole
(c) Detention of criminal aliens
(1) CustodyThe Attorney General shall take into custody any alien who—
(A) is inadmissible by reason of having committed any offense covered in section 1182(a)(2) of this title,
(B) is deportable by reason of having committed any offense covered in section 1227(a)(2)(A)(ii), (A)(iii), (B), (C), or (D) of this title,
(C) is deportable under section 1227(a)(2)(A)(i) of this title on the basis of an offense for which the alien has been sentence 1
1 So in original. Probably should be “sentenced”.
to a term of imprisonment of at least 1 year, or
(D) is inadmissible under section 1182(a)(3)(B) of this title or deportable under
when the alien is released, without regard to whether the alien is released on parole, supervised release, or probation, and without regard to whether the alien may be arrested or imprisoned again for the same offense.
(2) Release
(d) Identification of criminal aliens
(1) The Attorney General shall devise and implement a system—
(A) to make available, daily (on a 24-hour basis), to Federal, State, and local authorities the investigative resources of the Service to determine whether individuals arrested by such authorities for aggravated felonies are aliens;
(B) to designate and train officers and employees of the Service to serve as a liaison to Federal, State, and local law enforcement and correctional agencies and courts with respect to the arrest, conviction, and release of any alien charged with an aggravated felony; and
(C) which uses computer resources to maintain a current record of aliens who have been convicted of an aggravated felony, and indicates those who have been removed.
(2) The record under paragraph (1)(C) shall be made available—
(A) to inspectors at ports of entry and to border patrol agents at sector headquarters for purposes of immediate identification of any alien who was previously ordered removed and is seeking to reenter the United States, and
(B) to officials of the Department of State for use in its automated visa lookout system.
(3) Upon the request of the governor or chief executive officer of any State, the Service shall provide assistance to State courts in the identification of aliens unlawfully present in the United States pending criminal prosecution.
(e) Judicial review
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 4, § 236, 66 Stat. 200; Pub. L. 101–649, title V, § 504(b), title VI, § 603(a)(12), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5050, 5083; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, § 306(a)(5), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1751; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §§ 303(a), 371(b)(5), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–585, 3009–645.)
§ 1226a. Mandatory detention of suspected terrorists; habeas corpus; judicial review
(a) Detention of terrorist aliens
(1) Custody
(2) Release
(3) Certification
The Attorney General may certify an alien under this paragraph if the Attorney General has reasonable grounds to believe that the alien—
(A) is described in section 1182(a)(3)(A)(i), 1182(a)(3)(A)(iii), 1182(a)(3)(B), 1227(a)(4)(A)(i), 1227(a)(4)(A)(iii), or 1227(a)(4)(B) of this title; or
(B) is engaged in any other activity that endangers the national security of the United States.
(4) Nondelegation
(5) Commencement of proceedings
(6) Limitation on indefinite detention
(7)
(b) Habeas corpus and judicial review
(1) In general
(2) Application
(A) In general
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, including section 2241(a) of title 28, habeas corpus proceedings described in paragraph (1) may be initiated only by an application filed with—
(i) the Supreme Court;
(ii) any justice of the Supreme Court;
(iii) any circuit judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit; or
(iv) any district court otherwise having jurisdiction to entertain it.
(B) Application transfer
(3) Appeals
(4) Rule of decision
(c) Statutory construction
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 4, § 236A, as added Pub. L. 107–56, title IV, § 412(a), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 350.)
§ 1227. Deportable aliens
(a) Classes of deportable aliensAny alien (including an alien crewman) in and admitted to the United States shall, upon the order of the Attorney General, be removed if the alien is within one or more of the following classes of deportable aliens:
(1) Inadmissible at time of entry or of adjustment of status or violates status
(A) Inadmissible aliens
(B) Present in violation of law
(C) Violated nonimmigrant status or condition of entry
(i) Nonimmigrant status violators
(ii) Violators of conditions of entry
(D) Termination of conditional permanent residence
(i) In general
(ii) Exception
(E) Smuggling
(i) In general
(ii) Special rule in the case of family reunification
(iii) Waiver authorized
(F) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, § 671(d)(1)(C), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–723
(G) Marriage fraudAn alien shall be considered to be deportable as having procured a visa or other documentation by fraud (within the meaning of section 1182(a)(6)(C)(i) of this title) and to be in the United States in violation of this chapter (within the meaning of subparagraph (B)) if—
(i) the alien obtains any admission into the United States with an immigrant visa or other documentation procured on the basis of a marriage entered into less than 2 years prior to such admission of the alien and which, within 2 years subsequent to any admission of the alien in the United States, shall be judicially annulled or terminated, unless the alien establishes to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that such marriage was not contracted for the purpose of evading any provisions of the immigration laws, or
(ii) it appears to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that the alien has failed or refused to fulfill the alien’s marital agreement which in the opinion of the Attorney General was made for the purpose of procuring the alien’s admission as an immigrant.
(H) Waiver authorized for certain misrepresentationsThe provisions of this paragraph relating to the removal of aliens within the United States on the ground that they were inadmissible at the time of admission as aliens described in section 1182(a)(6)(C)(i) of this title, whether willful or innocent, may, in the discretion of the Attorney General, be waived for any alien (other than an alien described in paragraph (4)(D)) who—
(i)(I) is the spouse, parent, son, or daughter of a citizen of the United States or of an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence; and(II) was in possession of an immigrant visa or equivalent document and was otherwise admissible to the United States at the time of such admission except for those grounds of inadmissibility specified under paragraphs (5)(A) and (7)(A) of section 1182(a) of this title which were a direct result of that fraud or misrepresentation.
(ii) is a VAWA self-petitioner.
A waiver of removal for fraud or misrepresentation granted under this subparagraph shall also operate to waive removal based on the grounds of inadmissibility directly resulting from such fraud or misrepresentation.
(2) Criminal offenses
(A) General crimes
(i) Crimes of moral turpitudeAny alien who—(I) is convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude committed within five years (or 10 years in the case of an alien provided lawful permanent resident status under section 1255(j) of this title) after the date of admission, and(II) is convicted of a crime for which a sentence of one year or longer may be imposed,
 is deportable.
(ii) Multiple criminal convictions
(iii) Aggravated felony
(iv) High speed flight
(v) Failure to register as a sex offender
(vi) Waiver authorized
(B) Controlled substances
(i) Conviction
(ii) Drug abusers and addicts
(C) Certain firearm offenses
(D) Miscellaneous crimesAny alien who at any time has been convicted (the judgment on such conviction becoming final) of, or has been so convicted of a conspiracy or attempt to violate—
(i) any offense under chapter 37 (relating to espionage), chapter 105 (relating to sabotage), or chapter 115 (relating to treason and sedition) of title 18 for which a term of imprisonment of five or more years may be imposed;
(ii) any offense under section 871 or 960 of title 18;
(iii) a violation of any provision of the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.) [now 50 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.] or the Trading With the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App. 1 et seq.) [now 50 U.S.C. 4301 et seq.]; or
(iv) a violation of section 1185 or 1328 of this title,
is deportable.
(E) Crimes of domestic violence, stalking, or violation of protection order, crimes against children and
(i) Domestic violence, stalking, and child abuse
(ii) Violators of protection orders
(F) Trafficking
(3) Failure to register and falsification of documents
(A) Change of address
(B) Failure to register or falsification of documentsAny alien who at any time has been convicted—
(i) under section 1306(c) of this title or under section 36(c) of the Alien Registration Act, 1940,
(ii) of a violation of, or an attempt or a conspiracy to violate, any provision of the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938 (22 U.S.C. 611 et seq.), or
(iii) of a violation of, or an attempt or a conspiracy to violate, section 1546 of title 18 (relating to fraud and misuse of visas, permits, and other entry documents),
is deportable.
(C) Document fraud
(i) In general
(ii) Waiver authorized
(D) Falsely claiming citizenship
(i) In general
(ii) Exception
(4) Security and related grounds
(A) In generalAny alien who has engaged, is engaged, or at any time after admission engages in—
(i) any activity to violate any law of the United States relating to espionage or sabotage or to violate or evade any law prohibiting the export from the United States of goods, technology, or sensitive information,
(ii) any other criminal activity which endangers public safety or national security, or
(iii) any activity a purpose of which is the opposition to, or the control or overthrow of, the Government of the United States by force, violence, or other unlawful means,
is deportable.
(B) Terrorist activities
(C) Foreign policy
(i) In general
(ii) Exceptions
(D) Participated in Nazi persecution, genocide, or the commission of any act of torture or extrajudicial killing
(E) Participated in the commission of severe violations of religious freedom
(F) Recruitment or use of child soldiers
(5) Public charge
(6) Unlawful voters
(A) In general
(B) Exception
(7) Waiver for victims of domestic violence
(A) In generalThe Attorney General is not limited by the criminal court record and may waive the application of paragraph (2)(E)(i) (with respect to crimes of domestic violence and crimes of stalking) and (ii) in the case of an alien who has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty and who is not and was not the primary perpetrator of violence in the relationship—
(i)1
1 So in original. No cl. (ii) has been enacted.
upon a determination that—
(I) the alien was acting is 2
2 So in original. Probably should be “in”.
self-defense;
(II) the alien was found to have violated a protection order intended to protect the alien; or(III) the alien committed, was arrested for, was convicted of, or pled guilty to committing a crime—(aa) that did not result in serious bodily injury; and(bb) where there was a connection between the crime and the alien’s having been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty.
(B) Credible evidence considered
(b) Deportation of certain nonimmigrants
(c) Waiver of grounds for deportation
(d) Administrative stay
(1) If the Secretary of Homeland Security determines that an application for nonimmigrant status under subparagraph (T) or (U) of section 1101(a)(15) of this title filed for an alien in the United States sets forth a prima facie case for approval, the Secretary may grant the alien an administrative stay of a final order of removal under section 1231(c)(2) of this title until—
(A) the application for nonimmigrant status under such subparagraph (T) or (U) is approved; or
(B) there is a final administrative denial of the application for such nonimmigrant status after the exhaustion of administrative appeals.
(2) The denial of a request for an administrative stay of removal under this subsection shall not preclude the alien from applying for a stay of removal, deferred action, or a continuance or abeyance of removal proceedings under any other provision of the immigration laws of the United States.
(3) During any period in which the administrative stay of removal is in effect, the alien shall not be removed.
(4) Nothing in this subsection may be construed to limit the authority of the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General to grant a stay of removal or deportation in any case not described in this subsection.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 4, § 237, formerly ch. 5, § 241, 66 Stat. 204; July 18, 1956, ch. 629, title III, § 301(b), (c), 70 Stat. 575; Pub. L. 86–648, § 9, July 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 505; Pub. L. 87–301, § 16, Sept. 26, 1961, 75 Stat. 655; Pub. L. 89–236, § 11(e), Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 918; Pub. L. 94–571, § 7(e), Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2706; Pub. L. 95–549, title I, § 103, Oct. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 2065; Pub. L. 97–116, § 8, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1616; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, § 1751(b), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–47; Pub. L. 99–603, title III, § 303(b), Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3431; Pub. L. 99–639, § 2(b), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3541; Pub. L. 99–653, § 7(c), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3657; Pub. L. 100–525, §§ 2(n)(2), 9(m), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2613, 2620; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §§ 7344(a), 7348(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4470, 4473; Pub. L. 101–649, title I, § 153(b), title V, §§ 505(a), 508(a), 544(b), title VI, § 602(a), (b), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5006, 5050, 5051, 5061, 5077, 5081; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §§ 302(d)(3), 307(h), (k), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1745, 1755, 1756; Pub. L. 103–322, title XIII, § 130003(d), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2026; Pub. L. 103–416, title II, §§ 203(b), 219(g), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4311, 4317; Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, §§ 414(a), 435(a), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1270, 1274; renumbered ch. 4, § 237, and amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title I, § 108(c), title III, §§ 301(d), 305(a)(2), 308(d)(2), (3)(A), (e)(1)(E), (2)(C), (f)(1)(L)–(N), (5), 344(b), 345(b), 347(b), 350(a), 351(b), title VI, § 671(a)(4)(B), (d)(1)(C), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–558, 3009–579, 3009–598, 3009–617, 3009–619 to 3009–622, 3009–637 to 3009–640, 3009–721, 3009–723; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title V, § 1505(b)(1), (c)(2), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1525, 1526; Pub. L. 106–395, title II, § 201(c)(1), (2), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1634, 1635; Pub. L. 107–56, title IV, § 411(b)(1), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 348; Pub. L. 108–458, title V, §§ 5304(b), 5402, 5501(b), 5502(b), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3736, 3737, 3740, 3741; Pub. L. 109–13, div. B, title I, § 105(a)(1), (b), May 11, 2005, 119 Stat. 309, 310; Pub. L. 109–248, title IV, § 401, July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 622; Pub. L. 109–271, § 6(c), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 763; Pub. L. 110–340, § 2(c), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3736; Pub. L. 110–457, title II, §§ 204, 222(f)(2), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5060, 5071.)
§ 1228. Expedited removal of aliens convicted of committing aggravated felonies
(a) Removal of criminal aliens
(1) In general
(2) Implementation
(3) Expedited proceedings
(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Attorney General shall provide for the initiation and, to the extent possible, the completion of removal proceedings, and any administrative appeals thereof, in the case of any alien convicted of an aggravated felony before the alien’s release from incarceration for the underlying aggravated felony.
(B) Nothing in this section shall be construed as requiring the Attorney General to effect the removal of any alien sentenced to actual incarceration, before release from the penitentiary or correctional institution where such alien is confined.
(4) Review
(A) The Attorney General shall review and evaluate removal proceedings conducted under this section.
(B) The Comptroller General shall monitor, review, and evaluate removal proceedings conducted under this section. Within 18 months after the effective date of this section, the Comptroller General shall submit a report to such Committees concerning the extent to which removal proceedings conducted under this section may adversely affect the ability of such aliens to contest removal effectively.
(b) Removal of aliens who are not permanent residents
(1) The Attorney General may, in the case of an alien described in paragraph (2), determine the deportability of such alien under section 1227(a)(2)(A)(iii) of this title (relating to conviction of an aggravated felony) and issue an order of removal pursuant to the procedures set forth in this subsection or section 1229a of this title.
(2) An alien is described in this paragraph if the alien—
(A) was not lawfully admitted for permanent residence at the time at which proceedings under this section commenced; or
(B) had permanent resident status on a conditional basis (as described in section 1186a of this title) at the time that proceedings under this section commenced.
(3) The Attorney General may not execute any order described in paragraph (1) until 14 calendar days have passed from the date that such order was issued, unless waived by the alien, in order that the alien has an opportunity to apply for judicial review under section 1252 of this title.
(4) Proceedings before the Attorney General under this subsection shall be in accordance with such regulations as the Attorney General shall prescribe. The Attorney General shall provide that—
(A) the alien is given reasonable notice of the charges and of the opportunity described in subparagraph (C);
(B) the alien shall have the privilege of being represented (at no expense to the government) by such counsel, authorized to practice in such proceedings, as the alien shall choose;
(C) the alien has a reasonable opportunity to inspect the evidence and rebut the charges;
(D) a determination is made for the record that the individual upon whom the notice for the proceeding under this section is served (either in person or by mail) is, in fact, the alien named in such notice;
(E) a record is maintained for judicial review; and
(F) the final order of removal is not adjudicated by the same person who issues the charges.
(5) No alien described in this section shall be eligible for any relief from removal that the Attorney General may grant in the Attorney General’s discretion.
(c)1
1 So in original. Two subsecs. (c) have been enacted.
Presumption of deportability
(c)1 Judicial removal
(1) Authority
(2) Procedure
(A) The United States Attorney shall file with the United States district court, and serve upon the defendant and the Service, prior to commencement of the trial or entry of a guilty plea a notice of intent to request judicial removal.
(B) Notwithstanding section 1252b 2
2 See References in Text note below.
of this title, the United States Attorney, with the concurrence of the Commissioner, shall file at least 30 days prior to the date set for sentencing a charge containing factual allegations regarding the alienage of the defendant and identifying the crime or crimes which make the defendant deportable under section 1227(a)(2)(A) of this title.
(C) If the court determines that the defendant has presented substantial evidence to establish prima facie eligibility for relief from removal under this chapter, the Commissioner shall provide the court with a recommendation and report regarding the alien’s eligibility for relief. The court shall either grant or deny the relief sought.
(D)
(i) The alien shall have a reasonable opportunity to examine the evidence against him or her, to present evidence on his or her own behalf, and to cross-examine witnesses presented by the Government.
(ii) The court, for the purposes of determining whether to enter an order described in paragraph (1), shall only consider evidence that would be admissible in proceedings conducted pursuant to
(iii) Nothing in this subsection shall limit the information a court of the United States may receive or consider for the purposes of imposing an appropriate sentence.
(iv) The court may order the alien removed if the Attorney General demonstrates that the alien is deportable under this chapter.
(3) Notice, appeal, and execution of judicial order of removal
(A)
(i) A judicial order of removal or denial of such order may be appealed by either party to the court of appeals for the circuit in which the district court is located.
(ii) Except as provided in clause (iii), such appeal shall be considered consistent with the requirements described in section 1252 of this title.
(iii) Upon execution by the defendant of a valid waiver of the right to appeal the conviction on which the order of removal is based, the expiration of the period described in section 1252(b)(1) of this title, or the final dismissal of an appeal from such conviction, the order of removal shall become final and shall be executed at the end of the prison term in accordance with the terms of the order. If the conviction is reversed on direct appeal, the order entered pursuant to this section shall be void.
(B) As soon as is practicable after entry of a judicial order of removal, the Commissioner shall provide the defendant with written notice of the order of removal, which shall designate the defendant’s country of choice for removal and any alternate country pursuant to section 1253(a) 2 of this title.
(4) Denial of judicial order
(5) Stipulated judicial order of removal
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 4, § 238, formerly ch. 5, § 242A, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, § 7347(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4471; amended Pub. L. 101–649, title V, § 506(a), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5050; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, § 309(b)(10), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1759; Pub. L. 103–322, title XIII, § 130004(a), (c), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2026, 2027; Pub. L. 103–416, title II, §§ 223(a), 224(a), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4322; Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, §§ 440(g), 442(a), (c), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1278–1280; renumbered ch. 4, § 238, and amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §§ 304(c)(1), 306(d), 308(b)(5), (c)(1), (4)(A), (e)(1)(F), (2)(D), (10), (g)(1), (2)(A), (C), (5)(A)(ii), (C), (D), (10)(H), 374(a), title VI, § 671(b)(13), (c)(5), (6), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–597, 3009–612, 3009–615, 3009–616, 3009–619, 3009–620, 3009–622, 3009–623, 3009–625, 3009–647, 3009–722, 3009–723.)
§ 1229. Initiation of removal proceedings
(a) Notice to appear
(1) In general
In removal proceedings under section 1229a of this title, written notice (in this section referred to as a “notice to appear”) shall be given in person to the alien (or, if personal service is not practicable, through service by mail to the alien or to the alien’s counsel of record, if any) specifying the following:
(A) The nature of the proceedings against the alien.
(B) The legal authority under which the proceedings are conducted.
(C) The acts or conduct alleged to be in violation of law.
(D) The charges against the alien and the statutory provisions alleged to have been violated.
(E) The alien may be represented by counsel and the alien will be provided (i) a period of time to secure counsel under subsection (b)(1) and (ii) a current list of counsel prepared under subsection (b)(2).
(F)
(i) The requirement that the alien must immediately provide (or have provided) the Attorney General with a written record of an address and telephone number (if any) at which the alien may be contacted respecting proceedings under section 1229a of this title.
(ii) The requirement that the alien must provide the Attorney General immediately with a written record of any change of the alien’s address or telephone number.
(iii) The consequences under section 1229a(b)(5) of this title of failure to provide address and telephone information pursuant to this subparagraph.
(G)
(i) The time and place at which the proceedings will be held.
(ii) The consequences under section 1229a(b)(5) of this title of the failure, except under exceptional circumstances, to appear at such proceedings.
(2) Notice of change in time or place of proceedings
(A) In general
In removal proceedings under section 1229a of this title, in the case of any change or postponement in the time and place of such proceedings, subject to subparagraph (B) a written notice shall be given in person to the alien (or, if personal service is not practicable, through service by mail to the alien or to the alien’s counsel of record, if any) specifying—
(i) the new time or place of the proceedings, and
(ii) the consequences under section 1229a(b)(5) of this title of failing, except under exceptional circumstances, to attend such proceedings.
(B) Exception
(3) Central address files
(b) Securing of counsel
(1) In general
(2) Current lists of counsel
(3) Rule of construction
(c) Service by mail
(d) Prompt initiation of removal
(1) In the case of an alien who is convicted of an offense which makes the alien deportable, the Attorney General shall begin any removal proceeding as expeditiously as possible after the date of the conviction.
(2) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to create any substantive or procedural right or benefit that is legally enforceable by any party against the United States or its agencies or officers or any other person.
(e) Certification of compliance with restrictions on disclosure
(1) In general
(2) Locations
The locations specified in this paragraph are as follows:
(A) At a domestic violence shelter, a rape crisis center, supervised visitation center, family justice center, a victim services, or victim services provider, or a community-based organization.
(B) At a courthouse (or in connection with that appearance of the alien at a courthouse) if the alien is appearing in connection with a protection order case, child custody case, or other civil or criminal case relating to domestic violence, sexual assault, trafficking, or stalking in which the alien has been battered or subject to extreme cruelty or if the alien is described in subparagraph (T) or (U) of section 1101(a)(15) of this title.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 4, § 239, as added Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 304(a)(3), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–587; amended Pub. L. 109–162, title VIII, § 825(c)(1), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3065; Pub. L. 109–271, § 6(d), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 763.)
§ 1229a. Removal proceedings
(a) Proceeding
(1) In general
(2) Charges
(3) Exclusive procedures
(b) Conduct of proceeding
(1) Authority of immigration judge
(2) Form of proceeding
(A) In general
The proceeding may take place—
(i) in person,
(ii) where agreed to by the parties, in the absence of the alien,
(iii) through video conference, or
(iv) subject to subparagraph (B), through telephone conference.
(B) Consent required in certain cases
(3) Presence of alien
(4) Alien’s rights in proceeding
In proceedings under this section, under regulations of the Attorney General—
(A) the alien shall have the privilege of being represented, at no expense to the Government, by counsel of the alien’s choosing who is authorized to practice in such proceedings,
(B) the alien shall have a reasonable opportunity to examine the evidence against the alien, to present evidence on the alien’s own behalf, and to cross-examine witnesses presented by the Government but these rights shall not entitle the alien to examine such national security information as the Government may proffer in opposition to the alien’s admission to the United States or to an application by the alien for discretionary relief under this chapter, and
(C) a complete record shall be kept of all testimony and evidence produced at the proceeding.
(5) Consequences of failure to appear
(A)
(B) No notice if failure to provide address information
(C) Rescission of order
Such an order may be rescinded only—
(i) upon a motion to reopen filed within 180 days after the date of the order of removal if the alien demonstrates that the failure to appear was because of exceptional circumstances (as defined in subsection (e)(1)), or
(ii) upon a motion to reopen filed at any time if the alien demonstrates that the alien did not receive notice in accordance with paragraph (1) or (2) of section 1229(a) of this title or the alien demonstrates that the alien was in Federal or State custody and the failure to appear was through no fault of the alien.
The filing of the motion to reopen described in clause (i) or (ii) shall stay the removal of the alien pending disposition of the motion by the immigration judge.
(D) Effect on judicial review
(E) Additional application to certain aliens in contiguous territory
(6) Treatment of frivolous behavior
The Attorney General shall, by regulation—
(A) define in a proceeding before an immigration judge or before an appellate administrative body under this subchapter, frivolous behavior for which attorneys may be sanctioned,
(B) specify the circumstances under which an administrative appeal of a decision or ruling will be considered frivolous and will be summarily dismissed, and
(C) impose appropriate sanctions (which may include suspension and disbarment) in the case of frivolous behavior.
Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as limiting the authority of the Attorney General to take actions with respect to inappropriate behavior.
(7) Limitation on discretionary relief for failure to appear
(c) Decision and burden of proof
(1) Decision
(A) In general
(B) Certain medical decisions
(2) Burden on alien
In the proceeding the alien has the burden of establishing—
(A) if the alien is an applicant for admission, that the alien is clearly and beyond doubt entitled to be admitted and is not inadmissible under section 1182 of this title; or
(B) by clear and convincing evidence, that the alien is lawfully present in the United States pursuant to a prior admission.
In meeting the burden of proof under subparagraph (B), the alien shall have access to the alien’s visa or other entry document, if any, and any other records and documents, not considered by the Attorney General to be confidential, pertaining to the alien’s admission or presence in the United States.
(3) Burden on service in cases of deportable aliens
(A) In general
(B) Proof of convictions
In any proceeding under this chapter, any of the following documents or records (or a certified copy of such an official document or record) shall constitute proof of a criminal conviction:
(i) An official record of judgment and conviction.
(ii) An official record of plea, verdict, and sentence.
(iii) A docket entry from court records that indicates the existence of the conviction.
(iv) Official minutes of a court proceeding or a transcript of a court hearing in which the court takes notice of the existence of the conviction.
(v) An abstract of a record of conviction prepared by the court in which the conviction was entered, or by a State official associated with the State’s repository of criminal justice records, that indicates the charge or section of law violated, the disposition of the case, the existence and date of conviction, and the sentence.
(vi) Any document or record prepared by, or under the direction of, the court in which the conviction was entered that indicates the existence of a conviction.
(vii) Any document or record attesting to the conviction that is maintained by an official of a State or Federal penal institution, which is the basis for that institution’s authority to assume custody of the individual named in the record.
(C) Electronic records
In any proceeding under this chapter, any record of conviction or abstract that has been submitted by electronic means to the Service from a State or court shall be admissible as evidence to prove a criminal conviction if it is—
(i) certified by a State official associated with the State’s repository of criminal justice records as an official record from its repository or by a court official from the court in which the conviction was entered as an official record from its repository, and
(ii) certified in writing by a Service official as having been received electronically from the State’s record repository or the court’s record repository.
A certification under clause (i) may be by means of a computer-generated signature and statement of authenticity.
(4) Applications for relief from removal
(A) In general
An alien applying for relief or protection from removal has the burden of proof to establish that the alien—
(i) satisfies the applicable eligibility requirements; and
(ii) with respect to any form of relief that is granted in the exercise of discretion, that the alien merits a favorable exercise of discretion.
(B) Sustaining burden
(C) Credibility determination
(5) Notice
(6) Motions to reconsider
(A) In general
(B) Deadline
(C) Contents
(7) Motions to reopen
(A) In general
(B) Contents
(C) Deadline
(i) In general
(ii) Asylum
(iii) Failure to appear
(iv) Special rule for battered spouses, children, and parents
Any limitation under this section on the deadlines for filing such motions shall not apply—
(I) if the basis for the motion is to apply for relief under clause (iii) or (iv) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title, clause (ii) or (iii) of section 1154(a)(1)(B) of this title,,1 section 1229b(b) of this title, or section 1254(a)(3) of this title (as in effect on March 31, 1997);(II) if the motion is accompanied by a cancellation of removal application to be filed with the Attorney General or by a copy of the self-petition that has been or will be filed with the Immigration and Naturalization Service upon the granting of the motion to reopen;(III) if the motion to reopen is filed within 1 year of the entry of the final order of removal, except that the Attorney General may, in the Attorney General’s discretion, waive this time limitation in the case of an alien who demonstrates extraordinary circumstances or extreme hardship to the alien’s child; and(IV) if the alien is physically present in the United States at the time of filing the motion.
 The filing of a motion to reopen under this clause shall only stay the removal of a qualified alien (as defined in section 1641(c)(1)(B) of this title 2
2 So in original. A closing parenthesis probably should appear.
pending the final disposition of the motion, including exhaustion of all appeals if the motion establishes that the alien is a qualified alien.
(d) Stipulated removal
(e) Definitions
In this section and section 1229b of this title:
(1) Exceptional circumstances
(2) Removable
The term “removable” means—
(A) in the case of an alien not admitted to the United States, that the alien is inadmissible under section 1182 of this title, or
(B) in the case of an alien admitted to the United States, that the alien is deportable under section 1227 of this title.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 4, § 240, as added Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 304(a)(3), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–589; amended Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title V, § 1506(c)(1)(A), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1528; Pub. L. 109–13, div. B, title I, § 101(d), May 11, 2005, 119 Stat. 304; Pub. L. 109–162, title VIII, §§ 813(a)(1), 825(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3057, 3063.)
§ 1229b. Cancellation of removal; adjustment of status
(a) Cancellation of removal for certain permanent residentsThe Attorney General may cancel removal in the case of an alien who is inadmissible or deportable from the United States if the alien—
(1) has been an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence for not less than 5 years,
(2) has resided in the United States continuously for 7 years after having been admitted in any status, and
(3) has not been convicted of any aggravated felony.
(b) Cancellation of removal and adjustment of status for certain nonpermanent residents
(1) In generalThe Attorney General may cancel removal of, and adjust to the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, an alien who is inadmissible or deportable from the United States if the alien—
(A) has been physically present in the United States for a continuous period of not less than 10 years immediately preceding the date of such application;
(B) has been a person of good moral character during such period;
(C) has not been convicted of an offense under section 1182(a)(2), 1227(a)(2), or 1227(a)(3) of this title, subject to paragraph (5); and
(D) establishes that removal would result in exceptional and extremely unusual hardship to the alien’s spouse, parent, or child, who is a citizen of the United States or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.
(2) Special rule for battered spouse or child
(A) AuthorityThe Attorney General may cancel removal of, and adjust to the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, an alien who is inadmissible or deportable from the United States if the alien demonstrates that—
(i)(I) the alien has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty by a spouse or parent who is or was a United States citizen (or is the parent of a child of a United States citizen and the child has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty by such citizen parent);(II) the alien has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty by a spouse or parent who is or was a lawful permanent resident (or is the parent of a child of an alien who is or was a lawful permanent resident and the child has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty by such permanent resident parent); or(III) the alien has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty by a United States citizen or lawful permanent resident whom the alien intended to marry, but whose marriage is not legitimate because of that United States citizen’s or lawful permanent resident’s bigamy;
(ii) the alien has been physically present in the United States for a continuous period of not less than 3 years immediately preceding the date of such application, and the issuance of a charging document for removal proceedings shall not toll the 3-year period of continuous physical presence in the United States;
(iii) the alien has been a person of good moral character during such period, subject to the provisions of subparagraph (C);
(iv) the alien is not inadmissible under paragraph (2) or (3) of section 1182(a) of this title, is not deportable under paragraphs (1)(G) or (2) through (4) of section 1227(a) of this title, subject to paragraph (5), and has not been convicted of an aggravated felony; and
(v) the removal would result in extreme hardship to the alien, the alien’s child, or the alien’s parent.
(B) Physical presence
(C) Good moral character
(D) Credible evidence considered
(3) Recordation of date
(4) Children of battered aliens and parents of battered alien children
(A) In generalThe Attorney General shall grant parole under section 1182(d)(5) of this title to any alien who is a—
(i) child of an alien granted relief under section 1229b(b)(2) or 1254(a)(3) of this title (as in effect before the title III–A effective date in section 309 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996); or
(ii) parent of a child alien granted relief under section 1229b(b)(2) or 1254(a)(3) of this title (as in effect before the title III–A effective date in section 309 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996).
(B) Duration of parole
(5) Application of domestic violence waiver authority
(6) Relatives of trafficking victims
(A) In generalUpon written request by a law enforcement official, the Secretary of Homeland Security may parole under section 1182(d)(5) of this title any alien who is a relative of an alien granted continued presence under section 7105(c)(3)(A) of title 22, if the relative—
(i) was, on the date on which law enforcement applied for such continued presence—(I) in the case of an alien granted continued presence who is under 21 years of age, the spouse, child, parent, or unmarried sibling under 18 years of age, of the alien; or(II) in the case of an alien granted continued presence who is 21 years of age or older, the spouse or child of the alien; or
(ii) is a parent or sibling of the alien who the requesting law enforcement official, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, as appropriate, determines to be in present danger of retaliation as a result of the alien’s escape from the severe form of trafficking or cooperation with law enforcement, irrespective of age.
(B) Duration of parole
(i) In general
(ii) Other limits on durationIf an application described in clause (i) is not filed, the parole granted under subparagraph (A) may extend until the later of—(I) the date on which the principal alien’s authority to remain in the United States under section 7105(c)(3)(A) of title 22 is terminated; or(II) the date on which a civil action filed by the principal alien under section 1595 of title 18 is concluded.
(iii) Due diligence
(C) Other limitationsA relative may not be granted parole under this paragraph if—
(i) the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General has reason to believe that the relative was knowingly complicit in the trafficking of an alien permitted to remain in the United States under section 7105(c)(3)(A) of title 22; or
(ii) the relative is an alien described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 1182(a) of this title or paragraph (2) or (4) of section 1227(a) of this title.
(c) Aliens ineligible for reliefThe provisions of subsections (a) and (b)(1) shall not apply to any of the following aliens:
(1) An alien who entered the United States as a crewman subsequent to June 30, 1964.
(2) An alien who was admitted to the United States as a nonimmigrant exchange alien as defined in section 1101(a)(15)(J) of this title, or has acquired the status of such a nonimmigrant exchange alien after admission, in order to receive graduate medical education or training, regardless of whether or not the alien is subject to or has fulfilled the two-year foreign residence requirement of section 1182(e) of this title.
(3) An alien who—
(A) was admitted to the United States as a nonimmigrant exchange alien as defined in section 1101(a)(15)(J) of this title or has acquired the status of such a nonimmigrant exchange alien after admission other than to receive graduate medical education or training,
(B) is subject to the two-year foreign residence requirement of section 1182(e) of this title, and
(C) has not fulfilled that requirement or received a waiver thereof.
(4) An alien who is inadmissible under section 1182(a)(3) of this title or deportable under section 1227(a)(4) of this title.
(5) An alien who is described in section 1231(b)(3)(B)(i) of this title.
(6) An alien whose removal has previously been cancelled under this section or whose deportation was suspended under section 1254(a) of this title or who has been granted relief under section 1182(c) of this title, as such sections were in effect before September 30, 1996.
(d) Special rules relating to continuous residence or physical presence
(1) Termination of continuous period
(2) Treatment of certain breaks in presence
(3) Continuity not required because of honorable service in Armed Forces and presence upon entry into serviceThe requirements of continuous residence or continuous physical presence in the United States under subsections (a) and (b) shall not apply to an alien who—
(A) has served for a minimum period of 24 months in an active-duty status in the Armed Forces of the United States and, if separated from such service, was separated under honorable conditions, and
(B) at the time of the alien’s enlistment or induction was in the United States.
(e) Annual limitation
(1) Aggregate limitation
(2) Fiscal year 1997
(3) Exception for certain aliensParagraph (1) shall not apply to the following:
(A) Aliens described in section 309(c)(5)(C)(i) of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (as amended by the Nicaraguan Adjustment and Central American Relief Act).
(B) Aliens in deportation proceedings prior to April 1, 1997, who applied for suspension of deportation under section 1254(a)(3) of this title (as in effect before September 30, 1996).
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 4, § 240A, as added Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 304(a)(3), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–594; amended Pub. L. 105–100, title II, § 204(a)–(c), Nov. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 2200, 2201; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title V, §§ 1504(a), (b), 1505(b)(2), 1506(b)(1), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1522, 1524, 1525, 1527; Pub. L. 109–162, title VIII, §§ 813(c)(1), 822(a), (b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3058, 3062, 3063; Pub. L. 109–271, § 6(e), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 763; Pub. L. 110–457, title II, § 205(b), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5062.)
§ 1229c. Voluntary departure
(a) Certain conditions
(1) In general
(2) Period
(A) In general
(B) Three-year pilot program waiverDuring the period October 1, 2000, through September 30, 2003, and subject to subparagraphs (C) and (D)(ii), the Attorney General may, in the discretion of the Attorney General for humanitarian purposes, waive application of subparagraph (A) in the case of an alien—
(i) who was admitted to the United States as a nonimmigrant visitor (described in section 1101(a)(15)(B) of this title) under the provisions of the visa waiver pilot program established pursuant to section 1187 of this title, seeks the waiver for the purpose of continuing to receive medical treatment in the United States from a physician associated with a health care facility, and submits to the Attorney General—(I) a detailed diagnosis statement from the physician, which includes the treatment being sought and the expected time period the alien will be required to remain in the United States;(II) a statement from the health care facility containing an assurance that the alien’s treatment is not being paid through any Federal or State public health assistance, that the alien’s account has no outstanding balance, and that such facility will notify the Service when the alien is released or treatment is terminated; and(III) evidence of financial ability to support the alien’s day-to-day expenses while in the United States (including the expenses of any family member described in clause (ii)) and evidence that any such alien or family member is not receiving any form of public assistance; or
(ii) who—(I) is a spouse, parent, brother, sister, son, daughter, or other family member of a principal alien described in clause (i); and(II) entered the United States accompanying, and with the same status as, such principal alien.
(C) Waiver limitations
(i) Waivers under subparagraph (B) may be granted only upon a request submitted by a Service district office to Service headquarters.
(ii) Not more than 300 waivers may be granted for any fiscal year for a principal alien under subparagraph (B)(i).
(iii)(I) Except as provided in subclause (II), in the case of each principal alien described in subparagraph (B)(i) not more than one adult may be granted a waiver under subparagraph (B)(ii).(II) Not more than two adults may be granted a waiver under subparagraph (B)(ii) in a case in which—(aa) the principal alien described in subparagraph (B)(i) is a dependent under the age of 18; or(bb) one such adult is age 55 or older or is physically handicapped.
(D) Report to Congress; suspension of waiver authority
(i) Not later than March 30 of each year, the Commissioner shall submit to the Congress an annual report regarding all waivers granted under subparagraph (B) during the preceding fiscal year.
(ii) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the authority of the Attorney General under subparagraph (B) shall be suspended during any period in which an annual report under clause (i) is past due and has not been submitted.
(3) Bond
(4) Treatment of aliens arriving in the United States
(b) At conclusion of proceedings
(1) In generalThe Attorney General may permit an alien voluntarily to depart the United States at the alien’s own expense if, at the conclusion of a proceeding under section 1229a of this title, the immigration judge enters an order granting voluntary departure in lieu of removal and finds that—
(A) the alien has been physically present in the United States for a period of at least one year immediately preceding the date the notice to appear was served under section 1229(a) of this title;
(B) the alien is, and has been, a person of good moral character for at least 5 years immediately preceding the alien’s application for voluntary departure;
(C) the alien is not deportable under section 1227(a)(2)(A)(iii) or section 1227(a)(4) of this title; and
(D) the alien has established by clear and convincing evidence that the alien has the means to depart the United States and intends to do so.
(2) Period
(3) Bond
(c) Aliens not eligible
(d) Civil penalty for failure to depart
(1) In generalSubject to paragraph (2), if an alien is permitted to depart voluntarily under this section and voluntarily fails to depart the United States within the time period specified, the alien—
(A) shall be subject to a civil penalty of not less than $1,000 and not more than $5,000; and
(B) shall be ineligible, for a period of 10 years, to receive any further relief under this section and sections 1229b, 1255, 1258, and 1259 of this title.
(2) Application of VAWA protections
(3) Notice of penalties
(e) Additional conditions
(f) Judicial review
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 4, § 240B, as added Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 304(a)(3), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–596; amended Pub. L. 106–406, § 2, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1755; Pub. L. 109–162, title VIII, § 812, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3057.)
§ 1230. Records of admission
(a) The Attorney General shall cause to be filed, as a record of admission of each immigrant, the immigrant visa required by section 1201(e) of this title to be surrendered at the port of entry by the arriving alien to an immigration officer.
(b) The Attorney General shall cause to be filed such record of the admission into the United States of each immigrant admitted under section 1181(b) of this title and of each nonimmigrant as the Attorney General deems necessary for the enforcement of the immigration laws.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 4, § 240C, formerly § 240, 66 Stat. 204; renumbered § 240C and amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §§ 304(a)(2), 308(f)(1)(K), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–587, 3009–621.)
§ 1231. Detention and removal of aliens ordered removed
(a) Detention, release, and removal of aliens ordered removed
(1) Removal period
(A) In general
(B) Beginning of periodThe removal period begins on the latest of the following:
(i) The date the order of removal becomes administratively final.
(ii) If the removal order is judicially reviewed and if a court orders a stay of the removal of the alien, the date of the court’s final order.
(iii) If the alien is detained or confined (except under an immigration process), the date the alien is released from detention or confinement.
(C) Suspension of period
(2) Detention
(3) Supervision after 90-day periodIf the alien does not leave or is not removed within the removal period, the alien, pending removal, shall be subject to supervision under regulations prescribed by the Attorney General. The regulations shall include provisions requiring the alien—
(A) to appear before an immigration officer periodically for identification;
(B) to submit, if necessary, to a medical and psychiatric examination at the expense of the United States Government;
(C) to give information under oath about the alien’s nationality, circumstances, habits, associations, and activities, and other information the Attorney General considers appropriate; and
(D) to obey reasonable written restrictions on the alien’s conduct or activities that the Attorney General prescribes for the alien.
(4) Aliens imprisoned, arrested, or on parole, supervised release, or probation
(A) In general
(B) Exception for removal of nonviolent offenders prior to completion of sentence of imprisonmentThe Attorney General is authorized to remove an alien in accordance with applicable procedures under this chapter before the alien has completed a sentence of imprisonment—
(i) in the case of an alien in the custody of the Attorney General, if the Attorney General determines that (I) the alien is confined pursuant to a final conviction for a nonviolent offense (other than an offense related to smuggling or harboring of aliens or an offense described in section 1101(a)(43)(B), (C), (E), (I), or (L) of this title 3
3 So in original. Probably should be followed by a closing parenthesis.
and (II) the removal of the alien is appropriate and in the best interest of the United States; or
(ii) in the case of an alien in the custody of a State (or a political subdivision of a State), if the chief State official exercising authority with respect to the incarceration of the alien determines that (I) the alien is confined pursuant to a final conviction for a nonviolent offense (other than an offense described in section 1101(a)(43)(C) or (E) of this title), (II) the removal is appropriate and in the best interest of the State, and (III) submits a written request to the Attorney General that such alien be so removed.
(C) Notice
(D) No private right
(5) Reinstatement of removal orders against aliens illegally reentering
(6) Inadmissible or criminal aliens
(7) Employment authorizationNo alien ordered removed shall be eligible to receive authorization to be employed in the United States unless the Attorney General makes a specific finding that—
(A) the alien cannot be removed due to the refusal of all countries designated by the alien or under this section to receive the alien, or
(B) the removal of the alien is otherwise impracticable or contrary to the public interest.
(b) Countries to which aliens may be removed
(1) Aliens arriving at the United StatesSubject to paragraph (3)—
(A) In general
(B) Travel from contiguous territory
(C) Alternative countriesIf the government of the country designated in subparagraph (A) or (B) is unwilling to accept the alien into that country’s territory, removal shall be to any of the following countries, as directed by the Attorney General:
(i) The country of which the alien is a citizen, subject, or national.
(ii) The country in which the alien was born.
(iii) The country in which the alien has a residence.
(iv) A country with a government that will accept the alien into the country’s territory if removal to each country described in a previous clause of this subparagraph is impracticable, inadvisable, or impossible.
(2) Other aliensSubject to paragraph (3)—
(A) Selection of country by alienExcept as otherwise provided in this paragraph—
(i) any alien not described in paragraph (1) who has been ordered removed may designate one country to which the alien wants to be removed, and
(ii) the Attorney General shall remove the alien to the country the alien so designates.
(B) Limitation on designation
(C) Disregarding designationThe Attorney General may disregard a designation under subparagraph (A)(i) if—
(i) the alien fails to designate a country promptly;
(ii) the government of the country does not inform the Attorney General finally, within 30 days after the date the Attorney General first inquires, whether the government will accept the alien into the country;
(iii) the government of the country is not willing to accept the alien into the country; or
(iv) the Attorney General decides that removing the alien to the country is prejudicial to the United States.
(D) Alternative countryIf an alien is not removed to a country designated under subparagraph (A)(i), the Attorney General shall remove the alien to a country of which the alien is a subject, national, or citizen unless the government of the country—
(i) does not inform the Attorney General or the alien finally, within 30 days after the date the Attorney General first inquires or within another period of time the Attorney General decides is reasonable, whether the government will accept the alien into the country; or
(ii) is not willing to accept the alien into the country.
(E) Additional removal countriesIf an alien is not removed to a country under the previous subparagraphs of this paragraph, the Attorney General shall remove the alien to any of the following countries:
(i) The country from which the alien was admitted to the United States.
(ii) The country in which is located the foreign port from which the alien left for the United States or for a foreign territory contiguous to the United States.
(iii) A country in which the alien resided before the alien entered the country from which the alien entered the United States.
(iv) The country in which the alien was born.
(v) The country that had sovereignty over the alien’s birthplace when the alien was born.
(vi) The country in which the alien’s birthplace is located when the alien is ordered removed.
(vii) If impracticable, inadvisable, or impossible to remove the alien to each country described in a previous clause of this subparagraph, another country whose government will accept the alien into that country.
(F) Removal country when United States is at warWhen the United States is at war and the Attorney General decides that it is impracticable, inadvisable, inconvenient, or impossible to remove an alien under this subsection because of the war, the Attorney General may remove the alien—
(i) to the country that is host to a government in exile of the country of which the alien is a citizen or subject if the government of the host country will permit the alien’s entry; or
(ii) if the recognized government of the country of which the alien is a citizen or subject is not in exile, to a country, or a political or territorial subdivision of a country, that is very near the country of which the alien is a citizen or subject, or, with the consent of the government of the country of which the alien is a citizen or subject, to another country.
(3) Restriction on removal to a country where alien’s life or freedom would be threatened
(A) In general
(B) ExceptionSubparagraph (A) does not apply to an alien deportable under section 1227(a)(4)(D) of this title or if the Attorney General decides that—
(i) the alien ordered, incited, assisted, or otherwise participated in the persecution of an individual because of the individual’s race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion;
(ii) the alien, having been convicted by a final judgment of a particularly serious crime is a danger to the community of the United States;
(iii) there are serious reasons to believe that the alien committed a serious nonpolitical crime outside the United States before the alien arrived in the United States; or
(iv) there are reasonable grounds to believe that the alien is a danger to the security of the United States.
For purposes of clause (ii), an alien who has been convicted of an aggravated felony (or felonies) for which the alien has been sentenced to an aggregate term of imprisonment of at least 5 years shall be considered to have committed a particularly serious crime. The previous sentence shall not preclude the Attorney General from determining that, notwithstanding the length of sentence imposed, an alien has been convicted of a particularly serious crime. For purposes of clause (iv), an alien who is described in section 1227(a)(4)(B) of this title shall be considered to be an alien with respect to whom there are reasonable grounds for regarding as a danger to the security of the United States.
(C) Sustaining burden of proof; credibility determinations
(c) Removal of aliens arriving at port of entry
(1) Vessels and aircraftAn alien arriving at a port of entry of the United States who is ordered removed either without a hearing under section 1225(b)(1) or 1225(c) of this title or pursuant to proceedings under section 1229a of this title initiated at the time of such alien’s arrival shall be removed immediately on a vessel or aircraft owned by the owner of the vessel or aircraft on which the alien arrived in the United States, unless—
(A) it is impracticable to remove the alien on one of those vessels or aircraft within a reasonable time, or
(B) the alien is a stowaway—
(i) who has been ordered removed in accordance with section 1225(a)(1) of this title,
(ii) who has requested asylum, and
(iii) whose application has not been adjudicated or whose asylum application has been denied but who has not exhausted all appeal rights.
(2) Stay of removal
(A) In generalThe Attorney General may stay the removal of an alien under this subsection if the Attorney General decides that—
(i) immediate removal is not practicable or proper; or
(ii) the alien is needed to testify in the prosecution of a person for a violation of a law of the United States or of any State.
(B) Payment of detention costsDuring the period an alien is detained because of a stay of removal under subparagraph (A)(ii), the Attorney General may pay from the appropriation “Immigration and Naturalization Service—Salaries and Expenses”—
(i) the cost of maintenance of the alien; and
(ii) a witness fee of $1 a day.
(C) Release during stayThe Attorney General may release an alien whose removal is stayed under subparagraph (A)(ii) on—
(i) the alien’s filing a bond of at least $500 with security approved by the Attorney General;
(ii) condition that the alien appear when required as a witness and for removal; and
(iii) other conditions the Attorney General may prescribe.
(3) Costs of detention and maintenance pending removal
(A) In generalExcept as provided in subparagraph (B) and subsection (d),4
4 So in original. Probably should be subsection “(e),”.
an owner of a vessel or aircraft bringing an alien to the United States shall pay the costs of detaining and maintaining the alien—
(i) while the alien is detained under subsection (d)(1), and
(ii) in the case of an alien who is a stowaway, while the alien is being detained pursuant to—(I) subsection (d)(2)(A) or (d)(2)(B)(i),(II) subsection (d)(2)(B)(ii) or (iii) for the period of time reasonably necessary for the owner to arrange for repatriation or removal of the stowaway, including obtaining necessary travel documents, but not to extend beyond the date on which it is ascertained that such travel documents cannot be obtained from the country to which the stowaway is to be returned, or(III)section 1225(b)(1)(B)(ii) of this title, for a period not to exceed 15 days (excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays) commencing on the first such day which begins on the earlier of 72 hours after the time of the initial presentation of the stowaway for inspection or at the time the stowaway is determined to have a credible fear of persecution.
(B) NonapplicationSubparagraph (A) shall not apply if—
(i) the alien is a crewmember;
(ii) the alien has an immigrant visa;
(iii) the alien has a nonimmigrant visa or other documentation authorizing the alien to apply for temporary admission to the United States and applies for admission not later than 120 days after the date the visa or documentation was issued;
(iv) the alien has a reentry permit and applies for admission not later than 120 days after the date of the alien’s last inspection and admission;
(v)(I) the alien has a nonimmigrant visa or other documentation authorizing the alien to apply for temporary admission to the United States or a reentry permit;(II) the alien applies for admission more than 120 days after the date the visa or documentation was issued or after the date of the last inspection and admission under the reentry permit; and(III) the owner of the vessel or aircraft satisfies the Attorney General that the existence of the condition relating to inadmissibility could not have been discovered by exercising reasonable care before the alien boarded the vessel or aircraft; or
(vi) the individual claims to be a national of the United States and has a United States passport.
(d) Requirements of persons providing transportation
(1) Removal at time of arrivalAn owner, agent, master, commanding officer, person in charge, purser, or consignee of a vessel or aircraft bringing an alien (except an alien crewmember) to the United States shall—
(A) receive an alien back on the vessel or aircraft or another vessel or aircraft owned or operated by the same interests if the alien is ordered removed under this part; and
(B) take the alien to the foreign country to which the alien is ordered removed.
(2) Alien stowawaysAn owner, agent, master, commanding officer, charterer, or consignee of a vessel or aircraft arriving in the United States with an alien stowaway—
(A) shall detain the alien on board the vessel or aircraft, or at such place as the Attorney General shall designate, until completion of the inspection of the alien by an immigration officer;
(B) may not permit the stowaway to land in the United States, except pursuant to regulations of the Attorney General temporarily—
(i) for medical treatment,
(ii) for detention of the stowaway by the Attorney General, or
(iii) for departure or removal of the stowaway; and
(C) if ordered by an immigration officer, shall remove the stowaway on the vessel or aircraft or on another vessel or aircraft.
The Attorney General shall grant a timely request to remove the stowaway under subparagraph (C) on a vessel or aircraft other than that on which the stowaway arrived if the requester has obtained any travel documents necessary for departure or repatriation of the stowaway and removal of the stowaway will not be unreasonably delayed.
(3) Removal upon order
(e) Payment of expenses of removal
(1) Costs of removal at time of arrivalIn the case of an alien who is a stowaway or who is ordered removed either without a hearing under section 1225(a)(1) 5
5 So in original. Probably should be “1225(b)(1)”.
or 1225(c) of this title or pursuant to proceedings under section 1229a of this title initiated at the time of such alien’s arrival, the owner of the vessel or aircraft (if any) on which the alien arrived in the United States shall pay the transportation cost of removing the alien. If removal is on a vessel or aircraft not owned by the owner of the vessel or aircraft on which the alien arrived in the United States, the Attorney General may—
(A) pay the cost from the appropriation “Immigration and Naturalization Service—Salaries and Expenses”; and
(B) recover the amount of the cost in a civil action from the owner, agent, or consignee of the vessel or aircraft (if any) on which the alien arrived in the United States.
(2) Costs of removal to port of removal for aliens admitted or permitted to land
(3) Costs of removal from port of removal for aliens admitted or permitted to land
(A) Through appropriation
(B) Through owner
(i) In general
(ii) Aliens describedAn alien described in this clause is an alien who—(I) is admitted to the United States (other than lawfully admitted for permanent residence) and is ordered removed within 5 years of the date of admission based on a ground that existed before or at the time of admission, or(II) is an alien crewman permitted to land temporarily under section 1282 of this title and is ordered removed within 5 years of the date of landing.
(C) Costs of removal of certain aliens granted voluntary departure
(f) Aliens requiring personal care during removal
(1) In general
(2) Costs
(g) Places of detention
(1) In general
(2) Detention facilities of the Immigration and Naturalization Service
(h) Statutory construction
(i) Incarceration
(1) If the chief executive officer of a State (or, if appropriate, a political subdivision of the State) exercising authority with respect to the incarceration of an undocumented criminal alien submits a written request to the Attorney General, the Attorney General shall, as determined by the Attorney General—
(A) enter into a contractual arrangement which provides for compensation to the State or a political subdivision of the State, as may be appropriate, with respect to the incarceration of the undocumented criminal alien; or
(B) take the undocumented criminal alien into the custody of the Federal Government and incarcerate the alien.
(2) Compensation under paragraph (1)(A) shall be the average cost of incarceration of a prisoner in the relevant State as determined by the Attorney General.
(3) For purposes of this subsection, the term “undocumented criminal alien” means an alien who—
(A) has been convicted of a felony or two or more misdemeanors; and
(B)
(i) entered the United States without inspection or at any time or place other than as designated by the Attorney General;
(ii) was the subject of exclusion or deportation proceedings at the time he or she was taken into custody by the State or a political subdivision of the State; or
(iii) was admitted as a nonimmigrant and at the time he or she was taken into custody by the State or a political subdivision of the State has failed to maintain the nonimmigrant status in which the alien was admitted or to which it was changed under section 1258 of this title, or to comply with the conditions of any such status.
(4)
(A) In carrying out paragraph (1), the Attorney General shall give priority to the Federal incarceration of undocumented criminal aliens who have committed aggravated felonies.
(B) The Attorney General shall ensure that undocumented criminal aliens incarcerated in Federal facilities pursuant to this subsection are held in facilities which provide a level of security appropriate to the crimes for which they were convicted.
(5) There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subsection—
(A) $750,000,000 for fiscal year 2006;
(B) $850,000,000 for fiscal year 2007; and
(C) $950,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2011.
(6) Amounts appropriated pursuant to the authorization of appropriations in paragraph (5) that are distributed to a State or political subdivision of a State, including a municipality, may be used only for correctional purposes.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 4, § 241, as added and amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §§ 305(a)(3), 306(a)(1), 328(a)(1), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–598, 3009–607, 3009–630; Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title I, § 11014, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1824; Pub. L. 109–13, div. B, title I, § 101(c), May 11, 2005, 119 Stat. 303; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, § 1196(a), (b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3130.)
§ 1232. Enhancing efforts to combat the trafficking of children
(a) Combating child trafficking at the border and ports of entry of the United States
(1) Policies and procedures
(2) Special rules for children from contiguous countries
(A) Determinations
Any unaccompanied alien child who is a national or habitual resident of a country that is contiguous with the United States shall be treated in accordance with subparagraph (B), if the Secretary of Homeland Security determines, on a case-by-case basis, that—
(i) such child has not been a victim of a severe form of trafficking in persons, and there is no credible evidence that such child is at risk of being trafficked upon return to the child’s country of nationality or of last habitual residence;
(ii) such child does not have a fear of returning to the child’s country of nationality or of last habitual residence owing to a credible fear of persecution; and
(iii) the child is able to make an independent decision to withdraw the child’s application for admission to the United States.
(B) Return
An immigration officer who finds an unaccompanied alien child described in subparagraph (A) at a land border or port of entry of the United States and determines that such child is inadmissible under the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.) may—
(i) permit such child to withdraw the child’s application for admission pursuant to section 235(a)(4) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1225(a)(4)); and
(ii) return such child to the child’s country of nationality or country of last habitual residence.
(C) Contiguous country agreements
The Secretary of State shall negotiate agreements between the United States and countries contiguous to the United States with respect to the repatriation of children. Such agreements shall be designed to protect children from severe forms of trafficking in persons, and shall, at a minimum, provide that—
(i) no child shall be returned to the child’s country of nationality or of last habitual residence unless returned to appropriate employees or officials, including child welfare officials where available, of the accepting country’s government;
(ii) no child shall be returned to the child’s country of nationality or of last habitual residence outside of reasonable business hours; and
(iii) border personnel of the countries that are parties to such agreements are trained in the terms of such agreements.
(3) Rule for other children
(4) Screening
(5) Ensuring the safe repatriation of children
(A) Repatriation pilot program
(B) Assessment of country conditions
(C) Report on repatriation of unaccompanied alien children
Not later than 18 months after December 23, 2008, and annually thereafter, the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, with assistance from the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall submit a report to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives on efforts to improve repatriation programs for unaccompanied alien children. Such report shall include—
(i) the number of unaccompanied alien children ordered removed and the number of such children actually removed from the United States;
(ii) a statement of the nationalities, ages, and gender of such children;
(iii) a description of the policies and procedures used to effect the removal of such children from the United States and the steps taken to ensure that such children were safely and humanely repatriated to their country of nationality or of last habitual residence, including a description of the repatriation pilot program created pursuant to subparagraph (A);
(iv) a description of the type of immigration relief sought and denied to such children;
(v) any information gathered in assessments of country and local conditions pursuant to paragraph (2); and
(vi) statistical information and other data on unaccompanied alien children as provided for in section 279(b)(1)(J) of title 6.
(D) Placement in removal proceedings
Any unaccompanied alien child sought to be removed by the Department of Homeland Security, except for an unaccompanied alien child from a contiguous country subject to exceptions under subsection (a)(2), shall be—
(i) placed in removal proceedings under section 240 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1229a);
(ii) eligible for relief under section 240B of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1229c) at no cost to the child; and
(iii) provided access to counsel in accordance with subsection (c)(5).
(b) Combating child trafficking and exploitation in the United States
(1) Care and custody of unaccompanied alien children
(2) Notification
Each department or agency of the Federal Government shall notify the Department of Health and Human services 1
1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.
within 48 hours upon—
(A) the apprehension or discovery of an unaccompanied alien child; or
(B) any claim or suspicion that an alien in the custody of such department or agency is under 18 years of age.
(3) Transfers of unaccompanied alien children
(4) Age determinations
(c) Providing safe and secure placements for children
(1) Policies and programs
(2) Safe and secure placements
(A) Minors in department of health and human services custody
(B) Aliens transferred from Department of Health and Human Services to Department of Homeland Security custody
(3) Safety and suitability assessments
(A) In general
(B) Home studies
(C) Access to information
(4) Legal orientation presentations
(5) Access to counsel
(6) Child advocates
(A) In general
(B) Appointment of child advocates
(i) Initial sites
(ii) Additional sites
(iii) Selection of sites
Sites at which child advocate programs will be established under this subparagraph shall be located at immigration detention sites at which more than 50 children are held in immigration custody, and shall be selected sequentially, with priority given to locations with—
(I) the largest number of unaccompanied alien children; and(II) the most vulnerable populations of unaccompanied children.
(C) Restrictions
(i) Administrative expenses
(ii) Nonexclusivity
(iii) Contribution of funds
(D) Annual report to Congress
(E) Assessment of Child Advocate Program
(i) In general
(ii) Matters to be studied
In the study required under clause (i), the Comptroller General shall— 2
2 So in original.
collect information and analyze the following:
(I) analyze the effectiveness of existing child advocate programs in improving outcomes for trafficking victims and other vulnerable unaccompanied alien children;(II) evaluate the implementation of child advocate programs in new sites pursuant to subparagraph (B);(III) evaluate the extent to which eligible trafficking victims and other vulnerable unaccompanied children are receiving child advocate services and assess the possible budgetary implications of increased participation in the program;(IV) evaluate the barriers to improving outcomes for trafficking victims and other vulnerable unaccompanied children; and(V) make recommendations on statutory changes to improve the Child Advocate Program in relation to the matters analyzed under subclauses (I) through (IV).
(iii) GAO report
Not later than 3 years after March 7, 2013, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit the results of the study required under this subparagraph to—
(I) the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate;(II) the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate;(III) the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives; and(IV) the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives.
(F) Authorization of appropriations
There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Health and Human Services to carry out this subsection—
(i) $1,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2014 and 2015; and
(ii) $2,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2018 through 2021.
(d) Permanent protection for certain at-risk children
(1) Omitted
(2) Expeditious adjudication
(3) Omitted
(4) Eligibility for assistance
(A) In general
A child who has been granted special immigrant status under section 101(a)(27)(J) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(27)(J)) and who was in the custody of the Secretary of Health and Human Services at the time a dependency order was granted for such child, was receiving services pursuant to section 501(a) of the Refugee Education Assistance Act of 1980 (8 U.S.C. 1522 note) at the time such dependency order was granted, or has been granted status under section 101(a)(15)(U) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(U)),,2 shall be eligible for placement and services under section 412(d) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1522(d)) until the earlier of—
(i) the date on which the child reaches the age designated in section 412(d)(2)(B) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1522(d)(2)(B)); or
(ii) the date on which the child is placed in a permanent adoptive home.
(B) State reimbursement
(5) State courts acting in loco parentis
(6) Transition rule
(7) Omitted
(8) Specialized needs of unaccompanied alien children
(e) Training
(f) Omitted
(g) Definition of unaccompanied alien child
(h) Effective date
This section—
(1) shall take effect on the date that is 90 days after December 23, 2008; and
(2) shall also apply to all aliens in the United States in pending proceedings before the Department of Homeland Security or the Executive Office for Immigration Review, or related administrative or Federal appeals, on December 23, 2008.
(i) Grants and contracts
(Pub. L. 110–457, title II, § 235, Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5074; Pub. L. 113–4, title XII, §§ 1261–1263, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 156–159; Pub. L. 115–393, title III, § 301(d), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5272.)