View all text of Chapter 2 [§ 111 - § 120]

§ 113.
Secretary of Defense
(a) There is a Secretary of Defense, who is the head of the Department of Defense, appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. A person may not be appointed as Secretary of Defense within seven years after relief from active duty as a commissioned officer of a regular component of an armed force.
(b) The Secretary is the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to the Department of Defense. Subject to the direction of the President and to this title and section 2 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3002) he has authority, direction, and control over the Department of Defense.
(c)
The Secretary shall report annually in writing to the President and the Congress on the expenditures, work, and accomplishments of the Department of Defense during the period covered by the report, together with—
(1) a report from each military department on the expenditures, work, and accomplishments of that department;
(2) itemized statements showing the savings of public funds, and the eliminations of unnecessary duplications, made under sections 125 and 191 of this title; and
(3) such recommendations as he considers appropriate.
(d) Unless specifically prohibited by law, the Secretary may, without being relieved of his responsibility, perform any of his functions or duties, or exercise any of his powers through, or with the aid of, such persons in, or organizations of, the Department of Defense as he may designate.
(e)
(1)
The Secretary shall include in his annual report to Congress under subsection (c)—
(A) a description of the major military missions and of the military force structure of the United States for the next fiscal year;
(B) an explanation of the relationship of those military missions to that force structure; and
(C) the justification for those military missions and that force structure.
(2) In preparing the matter referred to in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall take into consideration the content of the annual national security strategy report of the President under section 108 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3043) for the fiscal year concerned.
(f) When a vacancy occurs in an office within the Department of Defense and the office is to be filled by a person appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, the Secretary of Defense shall inform the President of the qualifications needed by a person serving in that office to carry out effectively the duties and responsibilities of that office.
(g)
(1)
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (E), in January every four years, and intermittently otherwise as may be appropriate, the Secretary of Defense shall provide to the Secretaries of the military departments, the Chiefs of Staff of the armed forces, the commanders of the unified and specified combatant commands, and the heads of all Defense Agencies and Field Activities of the Department of Defense and other elements of the Department specified in paragraphs (1) through (10) of section 111(b) of this title, and to the congressional defense committees, a defense strategy. Each strategy shall be known as the “national defense strategy”, and shall support the most recent national security strategy report of the President under section 108 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3043).
(B)
Each national defense strategy shall including the following:
(i) The priority missions of the Department of Defense, and the assumed force planning scenarios and constructs.
(ii) The assumed strategic environment, including the most critical and enduring threats to the national security of the United States and its allies posed by state or non-state actors, and the strategies that the Department will employ to counter such threats and provide for the national defense.
(iii) A strategic framework prescribed by the Secretary that guides how the Department will prioritize among the threats described in clause (ii) and the missions specified pursuant to clause (i), how the Department will allocate and mitigate the resulting risks, and how the Department will make resource investments.
(iv) The roles and missions of the armed forces to carry out the missions described in clause (i), and the assumed roles and capabilities provided by other United States Government agencies and by allies and international partners.
(v) The force size and shape, force posture, defense capabilities, force readiness, infrastructure, organization, personnel, technological innovation, and other elements of the defense program necessary to support such strategy.
(vi) The major investments in defense capabilities, force structure, force readiness, force posture, and technological innovation that the Department will make over the following five-year period in accordance with the strategic framework described in clause (iii).
(C) The Secretary shall seek the military advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in preparing each national defense strategy required by this subsection.
(D) Each national defense strategy under this subsection shall be presented to the congressional defense committees in classified form with an unclassified summary.
(E) In a year following an election for President, which election results in the appointment by the President of a new Secretary of Defense, the Secretary shall present the national defense strategy required by this subsection as soon as possible after appointment by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.
(F) In February of each year in which the Secretary does not submit a new defense strategy as required by paragraph (A), the Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees an assessment of the current national defense strategy, including an assessment of the implementation of the strategy by the Department and an assessment whether the strategy requires revision as a result of changes in assumptions, policy, or other factors.
(2)
(A)
In implementing the requirement in paragraph (1), the Secretary, with the advice of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, shall each year provide to the officials and officers referred in paragraph (1)(A) written guidance (to be known as “Defense Planning Guidance”) establishing goals, priorities, and objectives, including fiscal constraints, to direct the preparation and review of the program and budget recommendations of all elements of the Department, including—
(i) the priority military missions of the Department, including the assumed force planning scenarios and constructs;
(ii) the force size and shape, force posture, defense capabilities, force readiness, infrastructure, organization, personnel, technological innovation, and other elements of the defense program necessary to support the strategy required by paragraph (1);
(iii) the resource levels projected to be available for the period of time for which such recommendations and proposals are to be effective; and
(iv) a discussion of any changes in the strategy required by paragraph (1) and assumptions underpinning the strategy, as required by paragraph (1).
(B) The guidance required by this paragraph shall be produced in February each year in order to support the planning and budget process. A comprehensive briefing on the guidance shall be provided to the congressional defense committees at the same time as the submission of the budget of the President (as submitted to Congress pursuant to section 1105(a) of title 31) for the fiscal year beginning in the year in which such guidance is produced.
(3)
(A) In implementing the requirement in paragraph (1) and in conjunction with the reporting requirement in section 2687a of this title, the Secretary, with the approval of the President and the advice of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, shall, on the basis provided in subparagraph (E), provide to the officials and officers referred to in paragraph (1)(A) written guidance (to be known as “Contingency Planning Guidance” or “Guidance for Employment of the Force”) on the preparation and review of contingency and campaign plans, including plans for providing support to civil authorities in an incident of national significance or a catastrophic incident, for homeland defense, and for military support to civil authorities.
(B)
The guidance required by this paragraph shall include the following:
(i) A description of the manner in which limited existing forces and resources shall be prioritized and apportioned to achieve the objectives described in the strategy required by paragraph (1).
(ii) A description of the relative priority of contingency and campaign plans, specific force levels, and supporting resource levels projected to be available for the period of time for which such plans are to be effective.
(C)
The guidance required by this paragraph shall include the following:
(i) Prioritized global, regional, and functional policy objectives that the armed forces should plan to achieve, including plans for deliberate and contingency scenarios.
(ii) Policy and strategic assumptions that should guide military planning, including the role of foreign partners.
(iii) Guidance on global posture and global force management.
(iv) Security cooperation priorities.
(v) Specific guidance on United States and Department nuclear policy.
(D)
The guidance required by this paragraph shall be the primary source document to be used by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in—
(i) executing the global military integration responsibilities described in section 153 of this title; and
(ii) developing implementation guidance for the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the commanders of the combatant commands.
(E) The guidance required by this paragraph shall be produced every two years, or more frequently as needed.
(4)
(A)
In implementing the requirement in paragraph (1), the Secretary, with the advice of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, shall each year produce, and submit to the congressional defense committees, a report (to be known as the “Global Defense Posture Report”) that shall include the following:
(i) A description of major changes to United States forces, capabilities, and equipment assigned and allocated outside the United States, focused on significant alterations, additions, or reductions to such global defense posture that are required to execute the strategy and plans of the Department.
(ii) A description of the supporting network of infrastructure, facilities, pre-positioned stocks, and war reserve materiel required for execution of major contingency plans of the Department.
(iii) A list of all enduring locations, including main operating bases, forward operating sites, and cooperative security locations.
(iv) A description of the status of treaty, access, cost-sharing, and status-protection agreements with foreign nations.
(v) A summary of the priority posture initiatives for each region by the commanders of the combatant commands.
(vi) For each military department, a summary of the implications for overseas posture of any force structure changes.
(vii) A description of the costs incurred outside the United States during the preceding fiscal year in connection with operating, maintaining, and supporting United States forces outside the United States for each military department, broken out by country, and whether for operation and maintenance, infrastructure, or transportation.
(viii) A description of the amount of direct support for the stationing of United States forces provided by each host nation during the preceding fiscal year.
(B) The report required by this paragraph shall be submitted to the congressional defense committees as required by subparagraph (A) by not later than April 30 each year.
(C) In this paragraph, the term “United States”, when used in a geographic sense, includes the territories and possessions of the United States.
(h) The Secretary of Defense shall keep the Secretaries of the military departments informed with respect to military operations and activities of the Department of Defense that directly affect their respective responsibilities.
(i)
(1) The Secretary of Defense shall transmit to Congress each year a report that contains a comprehensive net assessment of the defense capabilities and programs of the armed forces of the United States and its allies as compared with those of their potential adversaries.
(2)
Each such report shall—
(A) include a comparison of the defense capabilities and programs of the armed forces of the United States and its allies with the armed forces of potential adversaries of the United States and allies of the United States;
(B) include an examination of the trends experienced in those capabilities and programs during the five years immediately preceding the year in which the report is transmitted and an examination of the expected trends in those capabilities and programs during the period covered by the future-years defense program submitted to Congress during that year pursuant to section 221 of this title;
(C) include a description of the means by which the Department of Defense will maintain the capability to reconstitute or expand the defense capabilities and programs of the armed forces of the United States on short notice to meet a resurgent or increased threat to the national security of the United States;
(D) reflect, in the overall assessment and in the strategic and regional assessments, the defense capabilities and programs of the armed forces of the United States specified in the budget submitted to Congress under
(E) identify the deficiencies in the defense capabilities of the armed forces of the United States in such budget and such five-year defense program.
(3) The Secretary shall transmit to Congress the report required for each year under paragraph (1) at the same time that the President submits the budget to Congress under section 1105 of title 31 in that year. Such report shall be transmitted in both classified and unclassified form.
(j)
(1)
Not later than April 8 of each year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees a report on the cost of stationing United States forces outside of the United States. Each such report shall include a detailed statement of the following:
(A) The costs incurred outside the United States in connection with operating, maintaining, and supporting United States forces outside the United States, including all direct and indirect expenditures of United States funds in connection with such stationing.
(B) The amount of direct and indirect support for the stationing of United States forces provided by each host nation.
(2) In this subsection, the term “United States”, when used in a geographic sense, includes the territories and possessions of the United States.
(k) The Secretary of Defense, with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, shall provide annually to the Secretaries of the military departments and to the commanders of the combatant commands written guidelines to direct the effective detection and monitoring of all potential aerial and maritime threats to the national security of the United States. Those guidelines shall include guidance on the specific force levels and specific supporting resources to be made available for the period of time for which the guidelines are to be in effect.
[(l) Repealed. Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, § 1051(a)(1)(B), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1560.]
(m)
Information To Accompany Funding Request for Contingency Operation.—
Whenever the President submits to Congress a request for appropriations for costs associated with a contingency operation that involves, or likely will involve, the deployment of more than 500 members of the armed forces, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report on the objectives of the operation. The report shall include a discussion of the following:
(1) What clear and distinct objectives guide the activities of United States forces in the operation.
(2) What the President has identified on the basis of those objectives as the date, or the set of conditions, that defines the endpoint of the operation.
(n)
Notification of Certain Overseas Contingency Operations for Purposes of Inspector General Act of 1978.—
The Secretary of Defense shall provide the Chair of the Council of Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency written notification of the commencement or designation of a military operation as an overseas contingency operation upon the earlier of—
(1) a determination by the Secretary that the overseas contingency operation is expected to exceed 60 days; or
(2) the date on which the overseas contingency operation exceeds 60 days.
(Added Pub. L. 87–651, title II, § 202, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 517, § 133; amended Pub. L. 96–513, title V, § 511(3), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2920; Pub. L. 97–252, title XI, § 1105, Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 739; Pub. L. 97–295, § 1(1), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1287; renumbered § 113 and amended Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §§ 101(a)(2), 102, 110(b)(2), (d)(2), title III, § 301(b)(2), title VI, § 603(b), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 994, 996, 1002, 1022, 1075; Pub. L. 100–26, § 7(d)(1), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 280; Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XII, § 1214, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1157; Pub. L. 100–370, § 1(o)(1), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 850; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VII, § 731, title XI, § 1101, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2003, 2042; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XVI, § 1622(c)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1604; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIII, § 1322(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1671; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title III, § 341, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1343; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, § 1070(a)(1), title XVI, § 1671(c)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2855, 3014; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §§ 1501(a)(8)(B), 1502(a)(3), 1503(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 495, 502, 510; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XII, § 1255(c), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2698; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title IX, § 903, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1854; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IX, § 915(a), title XII, § 1212(b), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2101, 2152; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, § 1067(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title IX, § 903(a), title XVIII, § 1815(e), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 273, 500; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, § 514(b), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4213; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title IX, § 933(a), title X, § 1064(1), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1543, 1586; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, § 1076(f)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1951; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, § 1071(c)(1), (2), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3508; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title X, § 1060(a), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 987; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title IX, § 941(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2365; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §§ 1051(a)(1), 1081(a)(1), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1560, 1594; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title X, § 1041, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1954; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title XVII, §§ 1731(a)(3), 1732(a), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1812, 1816.)