View all text of Subchapter III [§ 1716 - § 1723i]

§ 1717.
Federal National Mortgage Association and Government National Mortgage Association
(a)
Creation; succession; principal and other offices
(1) There is created a body corporate to be known as the “Federal National Mortgage Association”, which shall be in the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The Association shall have succession until dissolved by Act of Congress. It shall maintain its principal office in the District of Columbia and shall be deemed, for purposes of venue in civil actions, to be a resident thereof. Agencies or offices may be established by the Association in such other place or places as it may deem necessary or appropriate in the conduct of its business.
(2)
On September 1, 1968, the body corporate described in the foregoing paragraph shall cease to exist in that form and is hereby partitioned into two separate and distinct bodies corporate, each of which shall have continuity and corporate succession as a separated portion of the previously existing body corporate, as follows:
(A) One of such separated portions shall be a body corporate without capital stock to be known as Government National Mortgage Association (hereinafter referred to as the “Association”), which shall be in the Department of Housing and Urban Development and which shall retain the assets and liabilities acquired and incurred under sections 1720 1
1 See References in Text note below.
and 1721 of this title prior to such date, including any and all liabilities incurred pursuant to subsection (c). The Association shall have succession until dissolved by Act of Congress. It shall maintain its principal office in the District of Columbia and shall be deemed, for purposes of venue in civil actions, to be a resident thereof. Agencies or offices may be established by the Association in such other place or places as it may deem necessary or appropriate in the conduct of its business.
(B) The other such separated portion shall be a body corporate to be known as Federal National Mortgage Association (hereinafter referred to as the “corporation”), which shall retain the assets and liabilities acquired and incurred under sections 1718 and 1719 of this title prior to such date. The corporation shall have succession until dissolved by Act of Congress. It shall maintain its principal office in the District of Columbia or the metropolitan area thereof and shall be deemed, for purposes of jurisdiction and venue in civil actions, to be a District of Columbia corporation.
(3) The partition transaction effected pursuant to the foregoing paragraph constitutes a reorganization within the meaning of section 368(a)(1)(E) of title 26; and for the purposes of such title 26, no gain or loss is recognized by the previously existing body corporate by reason of the partition, and the basis and holding period of the assets of the corporation immediately following such partition are the same as the basis and holding period of such assets immediately prior to such partition.
(b)
Purchase and sale of insured and conventional mortgages; transactions in loans and advances of credit
(1) For the purposes set forth in section 1716 of this title and subject to the limitations and restrictions of this subchapter, each of the bodies corporate named in subsection (a)(2) is authorized pursuant to commitments or otherwise, to purchase, service, sell, or otherwise deal in any mortgages which are insured under this chapter or title V of the Housing Act of 1949 [42 U.S.C. 1471 et seq.], or which are insured or guaranteed under the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 or chapter 37 of title 38; and to purchase, service, sell, or otherwise deal in any loans made or guaranteed under part B of title VI of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 291j–1 et seq.]; and the corporation is authorized to lend on the security of any such mortgages and to purchase, sell, or otherwise deal in any securities guaranteed by the Association under section 1721(g) of this title: Provided, That (1) the Association may not purchase any mortgage at a price exceeding 100 per centum of the unpaid principal amount thereof at the time of purchase, with adjustments for interest and any comparable items; (2) the Association may not purchase any mortgage, except a mortgage insured under title V of the Housing Act of 1949 [42 U.S.C. 1471 et seq.], if it is offered by, or covers property held by, a State, territorial, or municipal instrumentality; and (3) the Association may not purchase any mortgage under section 1720 1 of this title, except a mortgage insured under section 1715k of this title or subchapter VIII or section 1709(k) of this title, or under subchapter IX–A 1 with respect to a new community approved under section 1749cc–1 1 of this title, or insured under section 1715e of this title and covering property located in an urban renewal area, or a mortgage covering property located in Alaska, Guam, or Hawaii, if the original principal obligation thereof exceeds or exceeded $55,000 in the case of property upon which is located a dwelling designed principally for a one-family residence; or $60,000 in the case of a two- or three-family residence; or $68,750 in the case of a four-family residence; or, in the case of a property containing more than four dwelling units, $38,000 per dwelling unit (or such higher amount not in excess of $45,000 per dwelling unit as the Secretary may by regulation specify in any geographical area where the Secretary finds that cost levels so require) for that part of the property attributable to dwelling use. Notwithstanding the provisions of clause (3) of the preceding sentence, the Association may purchase a mortgage under section 1720 1 of this title with an original principal obligation which exceeds the otherwise applicable maximum amount per dwelling unit if the mortgage is insured under section 1713(c)(3), 1715e(b)(2), 1715k(d)(3)(B)(iii), 1715l(d)(3)(ii), 1715l(d)(4)(ii), 1715v(c)(2), 1715y(e)(3), or 1715z–1 of this title. For the purposes of this subchapter, the terms “mortgages” and “home mortgages” shall be inclusive of any mortgages or other loans insured under any of the provisions of this chapter or title V of the Housing Act of 1949 [42 U.S.C. 1471 et seq.].
(2) For the purposes set forth in section 1716(a) of this title, the corporation is authorized, pursuant to commitments or otherwise, to purchase, service, sell, lend on the security of, or otherwise deal in mortgages which are not insured or guaranteed as provided in paragraph (1) (such mortgages referred to hereinafter as “conventional mortgages”). No such purchase of a conventional mortgage secured by a property comprising one- to four-family dwelling units shall be made if the outstanding principal balance of the mortgage at the time of purchase exceeds 80 per centum of the value of the property securing the mortgage, unless (A) the seller retains a participation of not less than 10 per centum in the mortgage; (B) for such period and under such circumstances as the corporation may require, the seller agrees to repurchase or replace the mortgage upon demand of the corporation in the event that the mortgage is in default; or (C) that portion of the unpaid principal balance of the mortgage which is in excess of such 80 per centum is guaranteed or insured by a qualified insurer as determined by the corporation. The corporation shall not issue a commitment to purchase a conventional mortgage prior to the date the mortgage is originated, if such mortgage is eligible for purchase under the preceding sentence only by reason of compliance with the requirements of clause (A) of such sentence. The corporation may purchase a conventional mortgage which was originated more than one year prior to the purchase date only if the seller is the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Resolution Trust Corporation, the National Credit Union Administration, or any other seller currently engaged in mortgage lending or investing activities. For the purpose of this section, the term “conventional mortgages” shall include a mortgage, lien, or other security interest on the stock or membership certificate issued to a tenant-stockholder or resident-member of a cooperative housing corporation, as defined in section 216 of title 26, and on the proprietary lease, occupancy agreement, or right of tenancy in the dwelling unit of the tenant-stockholder or resident-member in such cooperative housing corporation. The corporation shall establish limitations governing the maximum original principal obligation of conventional mortgages that are purchased by it; in any case in which the corporation purchases a participation interest in such a mortgage, the limitation shall be calculated with respect to the total original principal obligation of the mortgage and not merely with respect to the interest purchased by the corporation. Such limitations shall not exceed $417,000 for a mortgage secured by a single-family residence, $533,850 for a mortgage secured by a 2-family residence, $645,300 for a mortgage secured by a 3-family residence, and $801,950 for a mortgage secured by a 4-family residence, except that such maximum limitations shall be adjusted effective January 1 of each year beginning after the effective date of the Federal Housing Finance Regulatory Reform Act of 2008, subject to the limitations in this paragraph. Each adjustment shall be made by adding to each such amount (as it may have been previously adjusted) a percentage thereof equal to the percentage increase, during the most recent 12-month or 4-quarter period ending before the time of determining such annual adjustment, in the housing price index maintained by the Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency (pursuant to section 4542 of this title). If the change in such house price index during the most recent 12-month or 4-quarter period ending before the time of determining such annual adjustment is a decrease, then no adjustment shall be made for the next year, and the next adjustment shall take into account prior declines in the house price index, so that any adjustment shall reflect the net change in the house price index since the last adjustment. Declines in the house price index shall be accumulated and then reduce increases until subsequent increases exceed prior declines. The foregoing limitations may be increased by not to exceed 50 per centum with respect to properties located in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, and the Virgin Islands. Such foregoing limitations shall also be increased, with respect to properties of a particular size located in any area for which 115 percent of the median house price for such size residence exceeds the foregoing limitation for such size residence, to the lesser of 150 percent of such limitation for such size residence or the amount that is equal to 115 percent of the median house price in such area for such size residence.
(3) The corporation is authorized to purchase, service, sell, lend on the security of, and otherwise deal in loans or advances of credit for the purchase and installation of home improvements, including energy conserving improvements or solar energy systems described in the last paragraph of section 1703(a) of this title and residential energy conservation measures as described in section 210(11) of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act [42 U.S.C. 8211(11)] 1 and financed by a public utility in accordance with the requirements of title II of such Act [42 U.S.C. 8211 et seq.]. To be eligible for purchase, any such loan or advance of credit (other than a loan or advance made with respect to energy conserving improvements or solar energy systems or residential energy conservation measures) not insured under subchapter I of this chapter shall be secured by a lien against the property to be improved.
(4) The corporation is authorized to purchase, service, sell, lend on the security of, and otherwise deal in loans or advances of credit secured by mortgages or other liens against manufactured homes.
(5)
(A) The corporation is authorized to purchase, service, sell, lend on the security of, and otherwise deal in (i) conventional mortgages that are secured by a subordinate lien against a one- to four-family residence that is the principal residence of the mortgagor; and (ii) conventional mortgages that are secured by a subordinate lien against a property comprising five or more family dwelling units. If the corporation, pursuant to paragraphs (1) through (4), shall have purchased, serviced, sold, or otherwise dealt with any other outstanding mortgage secured by the same residence, the aggregate original amount of such other mortgage and the mortgage authorized to be purchased, serviced, sold, or otherwise dealt with under this paragraph shall not exceed the applicable limitation determined under paragraph (2).
(B) The corporation shall establish limitations governing the maximum original principal obligation of conventional mortgages described in subparagraph (A). In any case in which the corporation purchases a participation interest in such a mortgage, the limitation shall be calculated with respect to the total original principal obligation of such mortgage described in subparagraph (A) and not merely with respect to the interest purchased by the corporation. Such limitations shall not exceed (i) with respect to mortgages described in subparagraph (A)(i), 50 per centum of the single-family residence mortgage limitation determined under paragraph (2); and (ii) with respect to mortgages described in subparagraph (A)(ii), the applicable limitation determined under paragraph (2).
(C) No subordinate mortgage against a one- to four-family residence shall be purchased by the corporation if the total outstanding indebtedness secured by the property as a result of such mortgage exceeds 80 per centum of the value of such property unless (i) that portion of such total outstanding indebtedness that exceeds such 80 per centum is guaranteed or insured by a qualified insurer as determined by the corporation; (ii) the seller retains a participation of not less than 10 per centum in the mortgage; or (iii) for such period and under such circumstances as the corporation may require, the seller agrees to repurchase or replace the mortgage upon demand of the corporation in the event that the mortgage is in default. The corporation shall not issue a commitment to purchase a subordinate mortgage prior to the date the mortgage is originated, if such mortgage is eligible for purchase under the preceding sentence only by reason of compliance with the requirements of clause (ii) of such sentence.
(6) The corporation may not implement any new program (as such term is defined in section 4502 of this title) before obtaining the approval of the Secretary under section 4542 1 of this title.
(7)
(A)
Definitions.—
In this paragraph—
(i) the term “credit score” means a numerical value or a categorization created by a third party derived from a statistical tool or modeling system used by a person who makes or arranges a loan to predict the likelihood of certain credit behaviors, including default; and
(ii) the term “residential mortgage” has the meaning given the term in section 1451 of this title.
(B)
Use of Credit Scores.—
The corporation shall condition purchase of a residential mortgage by the corporation under this subsection on the provision of a credit score for the borrower only if—
(i) the credit score is derived from any credit scoring model that has been validated and approved by the corporation under this paragraph; and
(ii) the corporation provides for the use of the credit score by all of the automated underwriting systems of the corporation and any other procedures and systems used by the corporation to purchase residential mortgages that use a credit score.
(C)
Validation and Approval Process.—
The corporation shall establish a validation and approval process for the use of credit score models, under which the corporation may not validate and approve a credit score model unless the credit score model—
(i) satisfies minimum requirements of integrity, reliability, and accuracy;
(ii) has a historical record of measuring and predicting default rates and other credit behaviors;
(iii) is consistent with the safe and sound operation of the corporation;
(iv) complies with any standards and criteria established by the Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency under section 4548(1) of this title; and
(v) satisfies any other requirements, as determined by the corporation.
(D)
Replacement of Credit Score Model.—
If the corporation has validated and approved 1 or more credit score models under subparagraph (C) and the corporation validates and approves an additional credit score model, the corporation may determine that—
(i) the additional credit score model has replaced the credit score model or credit score models previously validated and approved; and
(ii) the credit score model or credit score models previously validated and approved shall no longer be considered validated and approved for the purposes of subparagraph (B).
(E)
Public Disclosure.—
Upon establishing the validation and approval process required under subparagraph (C), the corporation shall make publicly available a description of the validation and approval process.
(F)
Application.—
Not later than 30 days after the effective date of this paragraph, the corporation shall solicit applications from developers of credit scoring models for the validation and approval of those models under the process required under subparagraph (C).
(G)
Timeframe for Determination; Notice.—
(i)
In general.—
The corporation shall make a determination with respect to any application submitted under subparagraph (F), and provide notice of that determination to the applicant, before a date established by the corporation that is not later than 180 days after the date on which an application is submitted to the corporation.
(ii)
Extensions.—
The Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency may authorize not more than 2 extensions of the date established under clause (i), each of which shall not exceed 30 days, upon a written request and a showing of good cause by the corporation.
(iii)
Status notice.—
The corporation shall provide notice to an applicant regarding the status of an application submitted under subparagraph (F) not later than 60 days after the date on which the application was submitted to the corporation.
(iv)
Reasons for disapproval.—
If an application submitted under subparagraph (F) is disapproved, the corporation shall provide to the applicant the reasons for the disapproval not later than 30 days after a determination is made under this subparagraph.
(H)
Authority of Director.—
If the corporation elects to use a credit score model under this paragraph, the Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency shall require the corporation to periodically review the validation and approval process required under subparagraph (C) as the Director determines necessary to ensure that the process remains appropriate and adequate and complies with any standards and criteria established pursuant to section 4548(1) of this title.
(I)
Extension.—
If, as of the effective date of this paragraph, a credit score model has not been approved under subparagraph (C), the corporation may use a credit score model that was in use before the effective date of this paragraph, if necessary to prevent substantial market disruptions, until the earlier of—
(i) the date on which a credit score model is validated and approved under subparagraph (C); or
(ii) the date that is 2 years after the effective date of this paragraph.
(c)
Administration of trusts; obligations of departments and agencies of the United States; exemption of interest income from taxation; authorization of appropriations for differential reimbursements
(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter or of any other law, the Association is authorized under section 1721 of this title to create, accept, execute, and otherwise administer in all respects such trusts, receiverships, conservatorships, liquidating or other agencies, or other fiduciary and representative undertakings and activities, hereinafter in this subsection called “trusts”, as might be appropriate for financing purposes; and in relation thereto the Association may acquire, hold and manage, dispose of, and otherwise deal in any mortgages or other types of obligations in which any department or agency of the United States listed in paragraph (2) of this subsection may have a financial interest. The Association may join in any such undertakings and activities, hereinafter in this subsection called “trusts”; notwithstanding that it is also serving in a fiduciary or representative capacity; and is authorized to guarantee any participations or other instruments, whether evidence of property rights or debt, issued for such financing purposes. Participations or other instruments issued by the Association pursuant to this subsection shall to the same extent as securities which are direct obligations of or obligations guaranteed as to principal or interest by the United States be deemed to be exempt securities within the meaning of laws administered by the Securities and Exchange Commission. The amounts of any mortgages and their obligations acquired by the Association under section 1721 of this title, pursuant to this subsection, shall not be included in the total amounts set forth in section 1721(c) of this title.
(2)
Subject to the limitations provided in paragraph (4) of this subsection, one or more trusts may be established as provided in this subsection by each of the following departments or agencies:
(A)
(B) The Department of Education, but only with respect to loans made by the Secretary of Education for construction of academic facilities, and loans to help finance student loan programs.
(C) The Department of Housing and Urban Development.
(D) The Department of Veterans Affairs.
(E) The Export-Import Bank.
(F) The Small Business Administration.
The head of each such department or agency, hereinafter in this subsection called the “trustor,” is authorized to set aside a part or all of any obligations held by the trustor and subject them to a trust or trusts and, incident thereto, shall guarantee to the trustee timely payment thereof. The trust instrument may provide for the issuance and sale of beneficial interests or participations, by the trustee, in such obligations or in the right to receive interest and principal collections therefrom; and may provide for the substitution or withdrawal of such obligations, or for the substitution of cash for obligations. The trust or trusts shall be exempt from all taxation. The trust instrument may also contain other appropriate provisions in keeping with the purposes of this subsection. The Association shall be named and shall act as trustee of any such trusts and, for the purposes thereof, the title to such obligations shall be deemed to have passed to the Association in trust. The trust instrument shall provide that custody, control, and administration of the obligations shall remain in the trustor subjecting the obligations to the trust, subject to transfer to the trustee in event of default or probable default, as determined by the trustee, in the payment of principal and interest of the beneficial interests or participations. Collections from obligations subject to the trust shall be dealt with as provided in the instrument creating the trust. The trust instrument shall provide that the trustee will promptly pay to the trustor the full net proceeds of any sale of beneficial interests or participations to the extent they are based upon such obligations or collections. Such proceeds shall be dealt with as otherwise provided by law for sales or repayment of such obligations. The effect of both past and future sales of any issue of beneficial interests or participations shall be the same, to the extent of the principal of such issue, as the direct sale with recourse of the obligations subject to the trust. Any trustor creating a trust or trusts hereunder is authorized to purchase, through the facilities of the trustee, outstanding beneficial interests or participations to the extent of the amount of the trustor’s responsibility to the trustee on beneficial interests or participations outstanding, and to pay the trustor’s proper share of the costs and expenses incurred by the Association as trustee pursuant to the trust instrument.
(3) When any trustor guarantees to the trustee the timely payment of obligations the trustor subjects to a trust pursuant to this subsection, and it becomes necessary for such trustor to meet his responsibilities under such guaranty, the trustor is authorized to fulfill such guaranty.
(4) Beneficial interests or participations shall not be issued for the account of any trustor in an aggregate principal amount greater than is authorized with respect to such trustor in an appropriation Act. Any such authorization shall remain available only for the fiscal year for which it is granted and for the succeeding fiscal year.
(5) The Association, as trustee, is authorized to issue and sell beneficial interests or participations under this subsection, notwithstanding that there may be an insufficiency in aggregate receipts from obligations subject to the related trust to provide for the payment by the trustee (on a timely basis out of current receipts or otherwise) of all interest or principal on such interests or participations (after provision for all costs and expenses incurred by the trustee, fairly prorated among trustors). There are authorized to be appropriated without fiscal year limitation such sums as may be necessary to enable any trustor to pay the trustee such insufficiency as the trustee may require on account of outstanding beneficial interests or participations authorized to be issued pursuant to paragraph (4) of this subsection. Such trustor shall make timely payments to the trustee from such appropriations, subject to and in accord with the trust instrument. In the event that the insufficiency required by the trustee is on account of principal maturities of outstanding beneficial interests or participations authorized to be issued pursuant to paragraph (4) of this subsection, or pursuant hereto, the trustee is authorized to elect to issue additional beneficial interests or participations for refinancing purposes in lieu of requiring any trustor or trustors to make payments to the trustee from appropriated funds or other sources. Each such issue of beneficial interests or participations shall be in an amount determined by the trustee but not in excess of the aggregate amount which the trustee would otherwise require the trustor or trustors to pay from appropriated funds or other sources, and may be issued without regard to the provisions of paragraph (4) of this subsection. All refinancing issues of beneficial interests or participations shall be deemed to have been issued pursuant to the authority contained in the appropriation Act or Acts under which the beneficial interests or participations were originally issued.
(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title III, § 302, 48 Stat. 1254; May 28, 1935, ch. 150, § 31, 49 Stat. 300; Feb. 3, 1938, ch. 13, § 6, 52 Stat. 24; Mar. 28, 1941, ch. 31, § 6, 55 Stat. 62; July 1, 1948, ch. 784, § 1, 62 Stat. 1208; July 19, 1949, ch. 351, § 1, 63 Stat. 446; Oct. 25, 1949, ch. 729, § 1(3), 63 Stat. 905; Apr. 20, 1950, ch. 94, title I, § 117, 64 Stat. 57; July 14, 1952, ch. 723, § 3(b), 66 Stat. 602; June 30, 1953, ch. 170, § 13(b), 67 Stat. 125; Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title II, § 201, 68 Stat. 613; Aug. 7, 1956, ch. 1029, title II, § 201, 70 Stat. 1096; Pub. L. 85–857, § 13(g), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1265; Pub. L. 86–372, title III, § 301, Sept. 23, 1959, 73 Stat. 669; Pub. L. 87–70, title I, § 102(c), title VI, §§ 602, 603(a), June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 158, 176; Pub. L. 88–560, title VII, §§ 701(a), 702, Sept. 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 800, 802; Pub. L. 89–117, title I, § 102(d), title II, § 201(b)(1), title VIII, §§ 802(a), 803, 804, title X, § 1004(a), Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 454, 465, 493, 494, 501; Pub. L. 89–429, § 2, May 24, 1966, 80 Stat. 164; Pub. L. 89–751, § 7, Nov. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 1236; Pub. L. 89–754, title IV, § 405, Nov. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 1273; Pub. L. 90–19, § 1(a)(2), (3), (j)(1), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17, 18; Pub. L. 90–448, title VIII, §§ 802(c)–(g), 803, Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 536, 537, 542; Pub. L. 91–152, title I, § 114, Dec. 24, 1969, 83 Stat. 385; Pub. L. 91–296, title II, § 202, June 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 350; Pub. L. 91–351, title II, § 201(a), title IV, § 402, July 24, 1970, 84 Stat. 450, 458; Pub. L. 91–609, title IX, § 901(d), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1807; Pub. L. 93–383, title VIII, §§ 806(a)–(f), 807, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 727, 728; Pub. L. 93–541, § 2, Dec. 26, 1974, 88 Stat. 1739; Pub. L. 95–128, title IV, § 408(a), Oct. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1138; Pub. L. 95–557, title I, § 101(c)(3), title III, § 318(a), Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2083, 2100; Pub. L. 95–619, title II, § 246, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3233; Pub. L. 96–153, title III, § 317, Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1119; Pub. L. 96–294, title V, § 534(b), June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 741; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §§ 309, 313(a), 339(a)(1), (b)(1), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641, 1644, 1657; Pub. L. 97–110, title II, § 202(c), Dec. 26, 1981, 95 Stat. 1514; Pub. L. 98–440, title II, §§ 201(a), 203(a), 205(a), 206(a), Oct. 3, 1984, 98 Stat. 1692, 1693, 1695; Pub. L. 98–479, title II, §§ 201(b), 204(a)(16), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2227, 2232; Pub. L. 99–514, § 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 100–122, § 2(b)(1), Sept. 30, 1987, 101 Stat. 793; Pub. L. 100–154, Nov. 5, 1987, 101 Stat. 890; Pub. L. 100–170, Nov. 17, 1987, 101 Stat. 914; Pub. L. 100–179, Dec. 3, 1987, 101 Stat. 1018; Pub. L. 100–200, Dec. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 1327; Pub. L. 100–242, title IV, § 443(a), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1922; Pub. L. 100–628, title X, § 1068(a), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3276; Pub. L. 101–73, title VII, § 731(f)(1), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 433; Pub. L. 102–54, § 13(d)(2)(A), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 274; Pub. L. 102–550, title XIII, § 1381(b), (c), (s)(1), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3995, 4001; Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 582(a)(14), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2644; Pub. L. 110–289, div. A, title I, § 1124(a)(1), (2), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2691, 2692; Pub. L. 115–174, title III, § 310(a), May 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 1351.)