General powers of Government National Mortgage Association and Federal National Mortgage Association
Seal, and other matters incident to operation
Each of the bodies corporate named in section 1717(a)(2) of this title shall have power to adopt, alter, and use a corporate seal, which shall be judicially noticed; to enter into and perform contracts, leases, cooperative agreements, or other transactions, on such terms as it may deem appropriate, with any agency or instrumentality of the United States, or with any State, Territory, or possession, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or with any political subdivision thereof, or with any person, firm, association, or corporation; to execute, in accordance with its bylaws, all instruments necessary or appropriate in the exercise of any of its powers; in its corporate name, to sue and to be sued, and to complain and to defend, in any court of competent jurisdiction, State or Federal, but no attachment, injunction, or other similar process, mesne or final, shall be issued against the property of the Association or against the Association with respect to its property; to conduct its business without regard to any qualification or similar statute in any State of the United States, including the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Territories and possessions of the United States; to lease, purchase, or acquire any property, real, personal, or mixed, or any interest therein, to hold, rent, maintain, modernize, renovate, improve, use, and operate such property, and to sell, for cash or credit, lease, or otherwise dispose of the same, at such time and in such manner as and to the extent that it may deem necessary or appropriate; to prescribe, repeal, and amend or modify, rules, regulations, or requirements governing the manner in which its general business may be conducted; to accept gifts or donations of services, or of property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible, or intangible, in aid of any of its purposes; and to do all things as are necessary or incidental to the proper management of its affairs and the proper conduct of its business.
Determination with respect to obligations and expenditures
Except as may be otherwise provided in this subchapter, in chapter 91 of title 31, or in other laws specifically applicable to Government corporations, the Association shall determine the necessity for and the character and amount of its obligations and expenditures and the manner in which they shall be incurred, allowed, paid, and accounted for.
Exemption from taxation
(1) The Association, including its franchise, capital, reserves, surplus, mortgages or other security holdings, and income shall be exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed by the United States, by any territory, dependency, or possession thereof, or by any State, county, municipality, or local taxing authority, except that any real property of the Association shall be subject to State, territorial, county, municipal, or local taxation to the same extent according to its value as other real property is taxed.
(2) The corporation, including its franchise, capital, reserves, surplus, mortgages or other security holdings, and income, shall be exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed by any State, territory, possession, Commonwealth, or dependency of the United States, or by the District of Columbia, or by any county, municipality, or local taxing authority, except that any real property of the corporation shall be subject to State, territorial, county, municipal, or local taxation to the same extent as other real property is taxed.
Appointment and compensation of personnel; use of services of other agencies
(1) Subject to the provisions of section 1723(a) of this title, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall have power to select and appoint or employ such officers, attorneys, employees, and agents of the Association, to vest them with such powers and duties, and to fix and to cause the Association to pay such compensation to them for their services, as he may determine, subject to the civil service and classification laws. With the consent of any Government corporation or Federal Reserve bank, or of any board, commission, independent establishment, or executive department of the Government, the Association may avail itself on a reimbursable basis of the use of information, services, facilities, officers, and employees thereof, including any field service thereof, in carrying out the provisions of the subchapter.
(2) The board of directors of the corporation shall have the power to select and appoint or employ such officers, attorneys, employees, and agents, to vest them with such powers and duties, and to fix and to cause the corporation to pay such compensation to them for their services, as the board of directors determines reasonable and comparable with compensation for employment in other similar businesses (including other publicly held financial institutions or major financial services companies) involving similar duties and responsibilities, except that a significant portion of potential compensation of all executive officers (as such term is defined in paragraph (3)(C)) of the corporation shall be based on the performance of the corporation; and any such action shall be without regard to the Federal civil service and classification laws. Appointments, promotions, and separations so made shall be based on merit and efficiency, and no political tests or qualifications shall be permitted or given consideration. Each officer and employee of the corporation who is employed by the corporation prior to January 31, 1972, and who on the day previous to the beginning of such employment will have been subject to the civil service retirement law (subch. III of ch. 83 of title 5) shall, so long as the employment of such officer or employee by the corporation continues without a break in continuity of service, continue to be subject to such law; and for the purpose of such law the employment of such officer or employee by the corporation without a break in continuity of service shall be deemed to be employment by the Government of the United States. The corporation shall contribute to the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund a sum as provided by section 8334(a) of title 5, except that such sum shall be determined by applying to the total basic pay (as defined in section 8331(3) of title 5 and except as hereinafter provided) paid to the employees of the corporation who are covered by the civil service retirement law, the per centum rate determined annually by the Director of the Office of Personnel Management to be the excess of the total normal cost per centum rate of the civil service retirement system over the employee deduction rate specified in section 8334(a) of title 5. The corporation shall also pay into the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund such portion of the cost of administration of the fund as is determined by the Director of the Office of Personnel Management to be attributable to its employees. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, there shall not be considered for the purposes of the civil service retirement law that portion of the basic pay in any one year of any officer or employee of the corporation which exceeds the basic pay provided for positions listed in section 5312 of title 5 on the last day of such year: Provided, That with respect to any person whose employment is made subject to the civil service retirement law by section 806 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, there shall not be considered for the purposes of such law that portion of the basic pay of such person in any one year which exceeds the basic pay provided for positions listed in section 5316 of such title 5 on the last day of such year. Except as provided in this subsection, the corporation shall not be subject to the provisions of title 5.
(A) Not later than June 30, 1993, and annually thereafter, the corporation shall submit a report to the Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate on (i) the comparability of the compensation policies of the corporation with the compensation policies of other similar businesses, (ii) in the aggregate, the percentage of total cash compensation and payments under employee benefit plans (which shall be defined in a manner consistent with the corporation’s proxy statement for the annual meeting of shareholders for the preceding year) earned by executive officers of the corporation during the preceding year that was based on the corporation’s performance, and (iii) the comparability of the corporation’s financial performance with the performance of other similar businesses. The report shall include a copy of the corporation’s proxy statement for the annual meeting of shareholders for the preceding year.
(B) Notwithstanding the first sentence of paragraph (2), after October 28, 1992, the corporation may not enter into any agreement or contract to provide any payment of money or other thing of current or potential value in connection with the termination of employment of any executive officer of the corporation, unless such agreement or contract is approved in advance by the Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency. The Director may not approve any such agreement or contract unless the Director determines that the benefits provided under the agreement or contract are comparable to benefits under such agreements for officers of other public and private entities involved in financial services and housing interests who have comparable duties and responsibilities. For purposes of this subparagraph, any renegotiation, amendment, or change after October 28, 1992, to any such agreement or contract entered into on or before October 28, 1992, shall be considered entering into an agreement or contract.
(C) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “executive officer” has the meaning given the term in section 1303 of the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992 [12 U.S.C. 4502]. (4) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the corporation shall not transfer, disburse, or pay compensation to any executive officer, or enter into an agreement with such executive officer, without the approval of the Director, for matters being reviewed under section 1318 of the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992 (12 U.S.C. 4518). (e)
Prohibition against use of names; injunction; damages
No individual, association, partnership, or corporation, except the bodies corporate named in section 1717(a)(2) of this title, shall hereafter use the words “Federal National Mortgage Association,” “Government National Mortgage Association,” or any combination of such words, as the name or a part thereof under which the individual, association, partnership, or corporation shall do business. Violations of the foregoing sentence may be enjoined by any court of general jurisdiction at the suit of the proper body corporate. In any such suit, the plaintiff may recover any actual damages flowing from such violation, and, in addition, shall be entitled to punitive damages (regardless of the existence or nonexistence of actual damages) of not exceeding $100 for each day during which such violation is committed or repeated.
Preparation of forms of obligations and certificates
In order that the Association may be supplied with such forms of obligations or certificates as it may need for issuance under this subchapter, the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized, upon request of the Association, to prepare such forms as shall be suitable and approved by the Association, to be held in the Treasury subject to delivery, upon order of the Association. The engraved plates, dies, bed pieces, and other material executed in connection therewith shall remain in the custody of the Secretary of the Treasury. The Association shall reimburse the Secretary of the Treasury for any expenses incurred in the preparation, custody, and delivery of such forms.
Depositaries, custodians, and fiscal agents
The Federal Reserve banks are authorized and directed to act as depositaries, custodians, and fiscal agents for each of the bodies corporate named in section 1717(a)(2) of this title, for its own account or as fiduciary, and such banks shall be reimbursed for such services in such manner as may be agreed upon; and each of such bodies corporate may itself act in such capacities, for its own account or as fiduciary, and for the account of others.
, (i) Repealed. Pub. L. 102–550, title XIII, § 1381(k), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3997
Audit; access to books, etc.; report of audit
(1) The programs, activities, receipts, expenditures, and financial transactions of the corporation shall be subject to audit by the Comptroller General of the United States under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Comptroller General. The representatives of the Government Accountability Office shall have access to such books, accounts, financial records, reports, files, and such other papers, things, or property belonging to or in use by the corporation and necessary to facilitate the audit, and they shall be afforded full facilities for verifying transactions with the balances or securities held by depositories, fiscal agents, and custodians. A report on each such audit shall be made by the Comptroller General to the Congress. The corporation shall reimburse the Government Accountability Office for the full cost of any such audit as billed therefor by the Comptroller General.
(2) To carry out this subsection, the representatives of the Government Accountability Office shall have access, upon request to the corporation or any auditor for an audit of the corporation under subsection (l), to any books, accounts, financial records, reports, files, or other papers, things, or property belonging to or in use by the corporation and used in any such audit and to any papers, records, files, and reports of the auditor used in such an audit.
Financial reports; submission to Director; contents
(1) The corporation shall submit to the Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency annual and quarterly reports of the financial condition and operations of the corporation which shall be in such form, contain such information, and be submitted on such dates as the Director shall require.
Each such annual report shall include—
(A) financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;
(B) any supplemental information or alternative presentation that the Director may require; and
an assessment (as of the end of the corporation’s most recent fiscal year), signed by the chief executive officer and chief accounting or financial officer of the corporation, of—
(i) the effectiveness of the internal control structure and procedures of the corporation; and
(ii) the compliance of the corporation with designated safety and soundness laws.
(3) The corporation shall also submit to the Director any other reports required by the Director pursuant to section 1314 of the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992 [12 U.S.C. 4514].
(4) Each report of financial condition shall contain a declaration by the president, vice president, treasurer, or any other officer designated by the board of directors of the corporation to make such declaration, that the report is true and correct to the best of such officer’s knowledge and belief.
Independent audits of financial statements
(1) The corporation shall have an annual independent audit made of its financial statements by an independent public accountant in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards.
(2) In conducting an audit under this subsection, the independent public accountant shall determine and report on whether the financial statements of the corporation (A) are presented fairly in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and (B) to the extent determined necessary by the Director, comply with any disclosure requirements imposed under subsection (k)(2)(B).
Mortgage data collection and reporting requirements
The corporation shall collect, maintain, and provide to the Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency, in a form determined by the Director, data relating to its mortgages on housing consisting of 1 to 4 dwelling units. Such data shall include—
(A) the income, census tract location, race, and gender of mortgagors under such mortgages;
(B) the loan-to-value ratios of purchased mortgages at the time of origination;
(C) whether a particular mortgage purchased is newly originated or seasoned;
(D) the number of units in the housing subject to the mortgage and whether the units are owner-occupied; and
(E) any other characteristics that the Secretary considers appropriate, to the extent practicable.
The corporation shall collect, maintain, and provide to the Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency, in a form determined by the Director, data relating to its mortgages on housing consisting of more than 4 dwelling units. Such data shall include—
(A) census tract location of the housing;
(B) income levels and characteristics of tenants of the housing (to the extent practicable);
(C) rent levels for units in the housing;
(D) mortgage characteristics (such as the number of units financed per mortgage and the amount of loans);
(E) mortgagor characteristics (such as nonprofit, for-profit, limited equity cooperatives);
(F) use of funds (such as new construction, rehabilitation, refinancing);
(G) type of originating institution; and
(H) any other information that the Secretary considers appropriate, to the extent practicable.
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), this subsection shall apply only to mortgages purchased by the corporation after December 31, 1992.
(B) This subsection shall apply to any mortgage purchased by the corporation after the date determined under subparagraph (A) if the mortgage was originated before such date, but only to the extent that the data referred in paragraph (1) or (2), as applicable, is available to the corporation.
Report on housing activities; contents; public disclosure
(1) The corporation shall submit to the Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate, and the Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency a report on its activities under subpart B of part 2 of subtitle A of the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992 [12 U.S.C. 4561 et seq.]. (2)
The report under this subsection shall—
(A) include, in aggregate form and by appropriate category, statements of the dollar volume and number of mortgages on owner-occupied and rental properties purchased which relate to each of the annual housing goals established under such subpart;
(B) include, in aggregate form and by appropriate category, statements of the number of families served by the corporation, the income class, race, and gender of homebuyers served, the income class of tenants of rental housing (to the extent such information is available), the characteristics of the census tracts, and the geographic distribution of the housing financed;
(C) include a statement of the extent to which the mortgages purchased by the corporation have been used in conjunction with public subsidy programs under Federal law;
(D) include statements of the proportion of mortgages on housing consisting of 1 to 4 dwelling units purchased by the corporation that have been made to first-time homebuyers, as soon as providing such data is practicable, and identifying any special programs (or revisions to conventional practices) facilitating homeownership opportunities for first-time homebuyers;
(E) include, in aggregate form and by appropriate category, the data provided to the Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency under subsection (m)(1)(B);
(F) compare the level of securitization versus portfolio activity;
(G) assess underwriting standards, business practices, repurchase requirements, pricing, fees, and procedures, that affect the purchase of mortgages for low- and moderate-income families, or that may yield disparate results based on the race of the borrower, including revisions thereto to promote affordable housing or fair lending;
(H) describe trends in both the primary and secondary multifamily housing mortgage markets, including a description of the progress made, and any factors impeding progress toward standardization and securitization of mortgage products for multifamily housing;
(I) describe trends in the delinquency and default rates of mortgages secured by housing for low- and moderate-income families that have been purchased by the corporation, including a comparison of such trends with delinquency and default information for mortgage products serving households with incomes above the median level that have been purchased by the corporation, and evaluate the impact of such trends on the standards and levels of risk of mortgage products serving low- and moderate-income families;
(J) describe in the aggregate the seller and servicer network of the corporation, including the volume of mortgages purchased from minority-owned, women-owned, and community-oriented lenders, and any efforts to facilitate relationships with such lenders;
(K) describe the activities undertaken by the corporation with nonprofit and for-profit organizations and with State and local governments and housing finance agencies, including how the corporation’s activities support the objectives of comprehensive housing affordability strategies under section 12705 of title 42; and
(L) include any other information that the Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency considers appropriate.
(A) The corporation shall make each report under this subsection available to the public at the principal and regional offices of the corporation.
(B) Before making a report under this subsection available to the public, the corporation may exclude from the report information that the Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency has determined is proprietary information under section 1326 of the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992 [12 U.S.C. 4546]. (o)
Affordable Housing Advisory Council
(1) Not later than 4 months after October 28, 1992, the corporation shall appoint an Affordable Housing Advisory Council to advise the corporation regarding possible methods for promoting affordable housing for low- and moderate-income families.
(2) The Affordable Housing Advisory Council shall consist of 15 individuals, who shall include representatives of community-based and other nonprofit and for-profit organizations and State and local government agencies actively engaged in the promotion, development, or financing of housing for low- and moderate-income families.
(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title III, § 309, as added Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title II, § 201, 68 Stat. 620; amended Pub. L. 87–70, title VI, § 603(e), June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 177; Pub. L. 90–448, title VIII, § 802(z)–(ee), Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 540, 541; Pub. L. 92–310, title II, § 223(c), June 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 206; Pub. L. 93–383, title VIII, § 806(k), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 728; Pub. L. 94–375, § 17(b), Aug. 3, 1976, 90 Stat. 1076; Pub. L. 95–128, title IV, § 408(c), Oct. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1138; 1978 Reorg. Plan No. 2, § 102, eff. Jan. 1, 1979, 43 F.R. 36037, 92 Stat. 3783; Pub. L. 98–440, title II, §§ 208, 209, 213(a), Oct. 3, 1984, 98 Stat. 1696, 1698; Pub. L. 98–479, title II, § 203(a)(3), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2229; Pub. L. 100–242, title IV, § 444, Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1922; Pub. L. 101–73, title VII, § 731(m)(3), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 436; Pub. L. 102–550, title XIII, § 1381(j)–(q), (s)(3), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3996–4001; Pub. L. 108–271, § 8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814; Pub. L. 110–289, div. A, title I, §§ 1113(b)(1), 1161(b), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2678, 2779.)