1 See References in Text note below.
of this title) shall apply to the production and disclosure of financial records pursuant to requests from—
2 So in original. Probably should be “counterintelligence”.
purposes to protect against international terrorism or clandestine intelligence activities, provided that such an investigation of a United States person is not conducted solely upon the basis of activities protected by the first amendment to the Constitution of the United States.
Editorial Notes
References in Text

Section 3421 of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 104–66, title III, § 3001(d), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 734.

Public Law 90–331, as amended, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(B), is Pub. L. 90–331, June 6, 1968, 82 Stat. 170, as amended, which was set out as a note under section 3056 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 98–587, § 2, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3111. See 18 U.S.C. 3056(a)(7).

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 114–23, § 501(b), inserted before period at end “and a term that specifically identifies a customer, entity, or account to be used as the basis for the production and disclosure of financial records”.

Subsec. (a)(5)(D). Pub. L. 114–23, § 502(b)(1), struck out subpar. (D) which related to prohibition of certain disclosure.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–23, § 502(b)(2), added subsec. (c).

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 114–23, § 503(b), added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

2006—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 109–177, § 605(e)(1), which directed the amendment of section 3414 of title 12, United States Code, by substituting “18 U.S.C. 3056A” for “3 U.S.C. 202” in subsec. (a)(1)(B), was executed to this section, which is section 1114 of the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 109–177, § 116(d), which directed the general amendment of section 1114(a)(3) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act, was executed to subsec. (a)(3) of this section, which is section 1114 of the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “No financial institution, or officer, employee, or agent of such institution, shall disclose to any person that a Government authority described in paragraph (1) has sought or obtained access to a customer’s financial records.”

Subsec. (a)(3)(D). Pub. L. 109–178, § 4(d)(1), which directed the general amendment of subsec. (a)(3)(D) of section 1114(a)(3) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act, was executed to subsec. (a)(3)(D) of this section, which is section 1114 of the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to amendment, subpar. (D) read as follows: “At the request of the authorized Government agency or the Secret Service, any person making or intending to make a disclosure under this section shall identify to the requesting official of the authorized Government agency or the Secret Service the person to whom such disclosure will be made or to whom such disclosure was made prior to the request, but in no circumstance shall a person be required to inform such requesting official that the person intends to consult an attorney to obtain legal advice or legal assistance.”

Subsec. (a)(5)(D). Pub. L. 109–177, § 116(e), which directed the general amendment of section 1114(a)(5)(D) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act, was executed to subsec. (a)(5)(D) of this section, which is section 1114 of the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to amendment, subpar. (D) read as follows: “No financial institution, or officer, employee, or agent of such institution, shall disclose to any person that the Federal Bureau of Investigation has sought or obtained access to a customer’s or entity’s financial records under this paragraph.”

Subsec. (a)(5)(D)(iv). Pub. L. 109–178, § 4(d)(2), which directed the general amendment of clause (iv) of section 1114(a)(5)(D) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act, was executed to clause (iv) of subsec. (a)(5)(D) of this section, which is section 1114 of the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to amendment, cl. (iv) read as follows: “At the request of the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the designee of the Director, any person making or intending to make a disclosure under this section shall identify to the Director or such designee the person to whom such disclosure will be made or to whom such disclosure was made prior to the request, but in no circumstance shall a person be required to inform the Director or such designee that the person intends to consult an attorney to obtain legal advice or legal assistance.”

2003—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108–177 added subsec. (d).

2002—Subsec. (a)(5)(C). Pub. L. 107–306 substituted “On the dates provided in section 415b of title 50, the Attorney General shall fully inform the congressional intelligence committees (as defined in section 401a of title 50)” for “On a semiannual basis the Attorney General shall fully inform the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate”.

2001—Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 107–56, § 358(f)(2), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(5)(A). Pub. L. 107–56, § 505(b), inserted “in a position not lower than Deputy Assistant Director at Bureau headquarters or a Special Agent in Charge in a Bureau field office designated by the Director” after “Director’s designee” and substituted “sought for foreign counter intelligence purposes to protect against international terrorism or clandestine intelligence activities, provided that such an investigation of a United States person is not conducted solely upon the basis of activities protected by the first amendment to the Constitution of the United States” for “sought for foreign counterintelligence purposes and that there are specific and articulable facts giving reason to believe that the customer or entity whose records are sought is a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power as defined in section 1801 of title 50”.

1986—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 99–569 added par. (5).

1982—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–320 struck out “of” after “financial institution”.

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–178, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 282, provided in part that:

“This Act [amending this section, sections 1681u and 1681v of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 2709 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and sections 436 and 1861 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1 of Title 18] shall become effective immediately upon enactment [Mar. 9, 2006].”

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by section 358(f)(2) of Pub. L. 107–56 applicable with respect to reports filed or records maintained on, before, or after Oct. 26, 2001, see section 358(h) of Pub. L. 107–56, set out as a note under section 1829b of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective upon the expiration of 120 days after Nov. 10, 1978, see section 2101 of Pub. L. 95–630, set out as a note under section 375b of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of the functions, personnel, assets, and obligations of the United States Secret Service, including the functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 381, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Termination Procedures

Pub. L. 114–23, title V, § 502(f), June 2, 2015, 129 Stat. 288, provided that:

“(1)
In general.—
Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [June 2, 2015], the Attorney General shall adopt procedures with respect to nondisclosure requirements issued pursuant to section 2709 of title 18, United States Code, section 626 or 627 of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681u and 1681v), section 1114 of the Right to Financial Privacy Act [of 1978] (12 U.S.C. 3414), or section 802 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3162), as amended by this Act, to require—
“(A) the review at appropriate intervals of such a nondisclosure requirement to assess whether the facts supporting nondisclosure continue to exist;
“(B) the termination of such a nondisclosure requirement if the facts no longer support nondisclosure; and
“(C) appropriate notice to the recipient of the national security letter, or officer, employee, or agent thereof, subject to the nondisclosure requirement, and the applicable court as appropriate, that the nondisclosure requirement has been terminated.
“(2)
Reporting.—
Upon adopting the procedures required under paragraph (1), the Attorney General shall submit the procedures to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives.”