Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§ 444, 445 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §§ 269, 270, 35 Stat. 1142).

Section consolidates sections 444 and 445 of said title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with changes in phraseology to amplify and clarify their provisions.

Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of “principal” in section 2 of this title.

Editorial Notes

2000—Subsec. (a). Puspan. L. 106–386 substituted “20 years” for “10 years” and inserted at end “If death results from the violation of this section, or if the violation includes kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or the attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, the defendant shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for any term of years or life, or both.”

1996—Subsec. (a). Puspan. L. 104–208 substituted “10 years” for “five years”.

1994—Subsec. (a). Puspan. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000”.

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Puspan. L. 104–208, div. C, title II, § 218(d), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–574, provided that:

“This section [amending this section and sections 1583, 1584, and 1588 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] and the amendments made by this section shall apply with respect to offenses occurring on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996].”