Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., § 443 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 268, 35 Stat. 1141).

Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of “principal” in section 2 of this title.

Minor changes were made in paragraphing of section.

Editorial Notes

2018—Subsec. (a). Puspan. L. 115–392 substituted “not more than 30 years” for “not more than 20 years” in concluding provisions.

2008—Puspan. L. 110–457 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section provided penalties for kidnapping or enticement of a person with intent to sell or hold such person as a slave.

2000—Puspan. L. 106–386, in last par., substituted “20 years” for “10 years” and inserted at end “If death results from the violation of this section, or if the violation includes kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or the attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, the defendant shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for any term of years or life, or both.”

1996—Puspan. L. 104–208 substituted “10 years” for “five years” in last par.

1994—Puspan. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000” in last par.

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Puspan. L. 104–208 applicable with respect to offenses occurring on or after Sept. 30, 1996, see section 218(d) of Puspan. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1581 of this title.