United States Code
USC most recently checked for updates: Oct 16, 2019
Punitive damages may not be awarded against a teacher in an action brought for harm based on the act or omission of a teacher acting within the scope of the teacher’s employment or responsibilities to a school or governmental entity unless the claimant establishes by clear and convincing evidence that the harm was proximately caused by an act or omission of such teacher that constitutes willful or criminal misconduct, or a conscious, flagrant indifference to the rights or safety of the individual harmed.
Paragraph (1) does not create a cause of action for punitive damages and does not preempt or supersede any Federal or State law to the extent that such law would further limit the award of punitive damages.
The limitations on the liability of a teacher under this subpart shall not apply to misconduct during background investigations, or during other actions, involved in the hiring of a teacher.
Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect any civil action brought by any school or any governmental entity against any teacher of such school.
Nothing in this subpart shall be construed to affect any State or local law (including a rule or regulation) or policy pertaining to the use of corporal punishment.