United States Code

USC most recently checked for updates: Aug 10, 2020

§ 9802.
ESEA definitions

Unless otherwise specified in this chapter, the terms used in this chapter have the meanings given the terms in section 7801 of this title.

Other definitions
In this chapter:
Critical foreign language

The term “critical foreign language” means a foreign language that the Secretary determines, in consultation with the heads of such Federal departments and agencies as the Secretary determines appropriate, is critical to the national security and economic competitiveness of the United States.

Institution of higher education

The term “institution of higher education” has the meaning given the term in section 1001(a) of this title.


The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Education.

Scientifically valid research

The term “scientifically valid research” includes applied research, basic research, and field-initiated research in which the rationale, design, and interpretation are soundly developed in accordance with accepted principles of scientific research.

(Pub. L. 110–69, title VI, § 6001, formerly § 6002, Aug. 9, 2007, 121 Stat. 625; renumbered § 6001, Pub. L. 111–358, title X, § 1002(b)(1), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 4048; Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, § 9215(i)(1), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2167.)
cite as: 20 USC 9802