1 So in original. The term “health care economic information” appears only in par. (1).
the term “health care economic information” means any analysis (including the clinical data, inputs, clinical or other assumptions, methods, results, and other components underlying or comprising the analysis) that identifies, measures, or describes the economic consequences, which may be based on the separate or aggregated clinical consequences of the represented health outcomes, of the use of a drug. Such analysis may be comparative to the use of another drug, to another health care intervention, or to no intervention.
Applicability of Amendment

Amendment of section by section 303(a) of Pub. L. 115–234 applicable beginning on Sept. 30, 2023. See 2018 Amendment note below.

Editorial Notes
Amendments

2020—Subsecs. (ee), (ff). Pub. L. 116–136 added subsecs. (ee) and (ff).

2018—Subsec. (w)(3). Pub. L. 115–234 added par. (3).

2016—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–255, § 3037, designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “a payor, formulary committee, or other similar entity with knowledge and expertise in the area of health care economic analysis, carrying out its responsibilities for the selection of drugs for coverage or reimbursement” for “a formulary committee, or other similar entity, in the course of the committee or the entity carrying out its responsibilities for the selection of drugs for managed care or other similar organizations”, “relates” for “directly relates”, and “, is based on competent and reliable scientific evidence, and includes, where applicable, a conspicuous and prominent statement describing any material differences between the health care economic information and the labeling approved for the drug under section 355 of this title or under section 262 of title 42. The requirements set forth in section 355(a) of this title or in subsections (a) and (k) of section 262 of title 42 shall not apply to health care economic information provided to such a payor, committee, or entity in accordance with this paragraph” for “and is based on competent and reliable scientific evidence. The requirements set forth in section 355(a) of this title or in section 262(a) of title 42 shall not apply to health care economic information provided to such a committee or entity in accordance with this paragraph”, struck out “In this paragraph, the term ‘health care economic information’ means any analysis that identifies, measures, or compares the economic consequences, including the costs of the represented health outcomes, of the use of a drug to the use of another drug, to another health care intervention, or to no intervention.” at end, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (dd). Pub. L. 114–255, § 3044(b)(2), added subsec. (dd).

2013—Par. (bb). Pub. L. 113–54, § 103(b), added par. (bb).

Par. (cc). Pub. L. 113–54, § 206(b), added par. (cc).

2012—Par. (o). Pub. L. 112–144, § 714(c), inserted “if it is a drug and was imported or offered for import by a commercial importer of drugs not duly registered under section 381(s) of this title,” after “not duly registered under section 360 of this title,”.

Pub. L. 112–144, § 702(a), struck out “in any State” after “establishment”.

Par. (aa). Pub. L. 112–193 substituted “379j–42(a)(4)” for “379j–41(a)(4)”.

Pub. L. 112–144, § 306, added par. (aa).

2007—Par. (n). Pub. L. 110–85, § 906(a), inserted “and in the case of published direct-to-consumer advertisements the following statement printed in conspicuous text: ‘You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch, or call 1–800-FDA-1088.’,” after “section 371(a) of this title,”.

Pub. L. 110–85, § 901(d)(6), substituted “section 371(a) of this title” for “the procedure specified in section 371(e) of this title”.

Pub. L. 110–85, § 901(d)(3)(A), inserted at end “In the case of an advertisement for a drug subject to section 353(b)(1) of this title presented directly to consumers in television or radio format and stating the name of the drug and its conditions of use, the major statement relating to side effects and contraindications shall be presented in a clear, conspicuous, and neutral manner.”

Pars. (y), (z). Pub. L. 110–85, § 902(a), added pars. (y) and (z).

2006—Par. (x). Pub. L. 109–462 added par. (x).

2005—Par. (u). Pub. L. 109–43 amended par. (u) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (u) read as follows: “If it is a device, unless it, or an attachment thereto, prominently and conspicuously bears the name of the manufacturer of the device, a generally recognized abbreviation of such name, or a unique and generally recognized symbol identifying such manufacturer, except that the Secretary may waive any requirement under this paragraph for the device if the Secretary determines that compliance with the requirement is not feasible for the device or would compromise the provision of reasonable assurance of the safety or effectiveness of the device.”

2004—Par. (f). Pub. L. 108–214, in last sentence, inserted “or by a health care professional and required labeling for in vitro diagnostic devices intended for use by health care professionals or in blood establishments” after “in health care facilities”, inserted comma after “means”, substituted “requirements of law, and that the manufacturer affords such users the opportunity” for “requirements of law and, that the manufacturer affords health care facilities the opportunity”, and struck out “the health care facility” after “promptly provides”.

Par. (w). Pub. L. 108–282 added par. (w).

2002—Par. (f). Pub. L. 107–250, § 206, inserted at end “Required labeling for prescription devices intended for use in health care facilities may be made available solely by electronic means provided that the labeling complies with all applicable requirements of law and, that the manufacturer affords health care facilities the opportunity to request the labeling in paper form, and after such request, promptly provides the health care facility the requested information without additional cost.”

Par. (u). Pub. L. 107–250, § 301(a), which directed amendment of section by adding par. (u) at end, was executed by adding par. (u) before par. (v) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Par. (v). Pub. L. 107–250, § 302(a)(1), added par. (v).

1997—Par. (a). Pub. L. 105–115, § 114(a), inserted at end “Health care economic information provided to a formulary committee, or other similar entity, in the course of the committee or the entity carrying out its responsibilities for the selection of drugs for managed care or other similar organizations, shall not be considered to be false or misleading under this paragraph if the health care economic information directly relates to an indication approved under section 355 of this title or under section 262(a) of title 42 for such drug and is based on competent and reliable scientific evidence. The requirements set forth in section 355(a) of this title or in section 262(a) of title 42 shall not apply to health care economic information provided to such a committee or entity in accordance with this paragraph. Information that is relevant to the substantiation of the health care economic information presented pursuant to this paragraph shall be made available to the Secretary upon request. In this paragraph, the term ‘health care economic information’ means any analysis that identifies, measures, or compares the economic consequences, including the costs of the represented health outcomes, of the use of a drug to the use of another drug, to another health care intervention, or to no intervention.”

Par. (d). Pub. L. 105–115, § 126(b), struck out par. (d) which read as follows: “If it is for use by man and contains any quantity of the narcotic or hypnotic substance alpha eucaine, barbituric acid, betaeucaine, bromal, cannabis, carbromal, chloral, coca, cocaine, codeine, heroin, marihuana, morphine, opium, paraldehyde, peyote, or sulphonmethane; or any chemical derivative of such substance, which derivative has been by the Secretary, after investigation, found to be, and by regulations designated as, habit forming; unless its label bears the name and quantity or proportion of such substance or derivative and in juxtaposition therewith the statement ‘Warning—May be habit forming.’ ”

Par. (e)(1). Pub. L. 105–115, § 412(c), amended subpar. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (1) read as follows: “If it is a drug, unless (A) its label bears, to the exclusion of any other nonproprietary name (except the applicable systematic chemical name or the chemical formula), (i) the established name (as defined in subparagraph (3)) of the drug, if such there be, and (ii), in case it is fabricated from two or more ingredients, the established name and quantity of each active ingredient, including the quantity, kind, and proportion of any alcohol, and also including, whether active or not, the established name and quantity or proportion of any bromides, ether, chloroform, acetanilid, acetphenetidin, amidopyrine, antipyrine, atropine, hyo­scine, hyoscyamine, arsenic, digitalis, digitalis glucosides, mercury ouabain strophanthin, strychnine, thyroid, or any derivative or preparation of any such substances, contained therein; Provided, That the requirement for stating the quantity of the active ingredients, other than the quantity of those specifically named in this paragraph, shall apply only to prescription drugs; and (B) for any prescription drug the established name of such drug or ingredient, as the case may be, on such label (and on any labeling on which a name for such drug or ingredient is used) is printed prominently and in type at least half as large as that used thereon for any proprietary name or designation for such drug or ingredient: Provided, That to the extent that compliance with the requirements of clause (A)(ii) or clause (B) of this subparagraph is impracticable, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary.”

Par. (k). Pub. L. 105–115, § 125(a)(2)(B), struck out par. (k) which read as follows: “If it is, or purports to be, or is represented as a drug composed wholly or partly of insulin, unless (1) it is from a batch with respect to which a certificate or release has been issued pursuant to section 356 of this title, and (2) such certificate or release is in effect with respect to such drug.”

Par. (l). Pub. L. 105–115, § 125(b)(2)(D), struck out par. (l) which read as follows: “If it is, or purports to be, or is represented as a drug (except a drug for use in animals other than man) composed wholly or partly of any kind of penicillin, streptomycin, chlortetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, or any other antibiotic drug, or any derivative thereof, unless (1) it is from a batch with respect to which a certificate or release has been issued pursuant to section 357 of this title, and (2) such certificate or release is in effect with respect to such drug: Provided, That this paragraph shall not apply to any drug or class of drugs exempted by regulations promulgated under section 357(c) or (d) of this title.”

1993—Par. (e)(3). Pub. L. 103–80, § 3(m)(1), substituted “of such ingredient, except that” for “of such ingredient: Provided, That”.

Par. (f). Pub. L. 103–80, § 3(m)(2), substituted “users, except that where” for “users: Provided, That where”.

Par. (g). Pub. L. 103–80, § 3(m)(3), substituted “prescribed therein. The method” for “prescribed therein: Provided, That the method” and “Pharmacopoeia, except that” for “Pharmacopoeia: Provided further, That,”.

Par. (n). Pub. L. 103–80, § 3(m)(4), substituted “, except that (A)” for “: Provided, That (A)”.

1992—Par. (m). Pub. L. 102–571 substituted “379e” for “376”.

Par. (t)(3). Pub. L. 102–300 added cl. (3).

1978—Par. (n). Pub. L. 95–633 inserted provision relating to the construction of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

1976—Par. (e). Pub. L. 94–295, § 5(a), substituted “subparagraph (3)” for “subparagraph (2)” in subpar. (1), added subpar. (2), redesignated former subpar. (2) as (3) and in subpar. (3) as so redesignated substituted “subparagraph (1)” for “this paragraph (e)”, and added subpar. (4).

Par. (j). Pub. L. 94–295, § 3(e)(2), substituted “dosage or manner,” for “dosage,”.

Par. (m). Pub. L. 94–295, § 9(b)(2), substituted “the intended use of which is for” for “the intended use of which in or on drugs is for”.

Par. (o). Pub. L. 94–295, § 4(b)(2), substituted “If it was manufactured” for “If it is a drug and was manufactured” and inserted “, if it was not included in a list required by section 360(j) of this title, if a notice or other information respecting it was not provided as required by such section or section 360(k) of this title, or if it does not bear such symbols from the uniform system for identification of devices prescribed under section 360(e) of this title as the Secretary by regulation requires”.

Pars. (q) to (t). Pub. L. 94–295, § 3(e)(1), added pars. (q) to (t).

1970—Par. (p). Pub. L. 91–601 added par. (p).

1968—Par. (l). Pub. L. 90–399 inserted “(except a drug for use in animals other than man)” after “represented as a drug”.

1962—Par. (e). Pub. L. 87–781, § 112(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (1), substituted “, unless (A) its label bears, to the exclusion of any other nonproprietary name (except the applicable systematic chemical name or the chemical formula), (i) the established name (as defined in subparagraph (2) of this subsection) of the drug, if such there be, and (ii), in case it is fabricated from two or more ingredients, the established name and quantity” for “and is not designated solely by a name recognized in an official compendium unless its label bears (1) the common or usual name of the drug, if such there be; and (2), in case it is fabricated from two or more ingredients, the common or usual name”, and “the established name” for “the name”, provided that the requirement for stating the quantity of active ingredients, other than those specified in this par., applies only to prescription drugs, and that the established name of a drug on a label is to be printed prominently and in type at least half as large as used for any proprietary designation, and added subpar. (2) defining “established name”.

Par. (g). Pub. L. 87–781, § 112(b), provided that if there is an inconsistency between the provisions of this par. and those of par. (e), as to the name of a drug, the requirements of par. (e) should prevail.

Par. (l). Pub. L. 87–781, § 105(c), substituted “bacitracin, or any other antibiotic drug” for “or bacitracin.”

Par. (n). Pub. L. 87–781, § 131(a), added par. (n).

Par. (o). Pub. L. 87–781, § 305, added par. (o).

1960—Par. (m). Pub. L. 86–618 added par. (m).

1953—Par. (l). Act Aug. 5, 1953, substituted “chlortetracycline” for “aureomycin”.

1949—Par. (l). Act July 13, 1949, inserted “, aureomycin, chloramphenicol, or bacitracin” after “streptomycin”.

1947—Par. (l). Act Mar. 10, 1947, inserted “or streptomycin” after “penicillin”.

1945—Par. (l). Act July 6, 1945, added par. (l).

1941—Par. (k). Act Dec. 22, 1941, added par. (k).

1939—Par. (d). Act June 29, 1939, substituted “name, and quality or proportion” for “name, quantity, and percentage”.

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–234, title III, § 303(b), Aug. 14, 2018, 132 Stat. 2436, provided that:

“Section 502(w)(3) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 352(w)(3)], as added by subsection (a), shall apply beginning on September 30, 2023.”

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by section 306 of Pub. L. 112–144 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 305 of Pub. L. 112–144, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates note under section 379j–41 of this title.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–85 effective 180 days after Sept. 27, 2007, see section 909 of Pub. L. 110–85, set out as a note under section 331 of this title.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–462, § 2(e)(1), (2), Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3472, provided that:

“(1)
In general.—
Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting section 379aa of this title and amending this section and section 331 of this title] shall take effect 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 22, 2006].
“(2)
Misbranding.—
Section 502(x) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 352(x)] (as added by this section) shall apply to any nonprescription drug (as defined in such section 502(x)) labeled on or after the date that is 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 22, 2006].”

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–250, title III, § 301(b), Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1616, as amended by Pub. L. 108–214, § 2(c)(1), Apr. 1, 2004, 118 Stat. 575; Pub. L. 109–43, § 2(d), Aug. 1, 2005, 119 Stat. 441, provided that:

“Section 502(u) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 352(u)] (as amended by section 2(c) of the Medical Device User Fee Stabilization Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–43])—
“(1)
shall be effective—
“(A) with respect to devices described under paragraph (1) of such section, 12 months after the date of enactment of the Medical Device User Fee Stabilization Act of 2005 [Aug. 1, 2005], or the date on which the original device first bears the name of the manufacturer of the original device, a generally recognized abbreviation of such name, or a unique and generally recognized symbol identifying such manufacturer, whichever is later; and
“(B) with respect to devices described under paragraph (2) of such section 502(u), 12 months after such date of enactment; and
“(2) shall apply only to devices reprocessed and introduced or delivered for introduction in interstate commerce after such applicable effective date.”

Pub. L. 107–250, title III, § 302(a)(2), Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1616, provided that:

“The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] takes effect 15 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 26, 2002], and only applies to devices introduced or delivered for introduction into interstate commerce after such effective date.”

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by sections 114(a), 126(b), and 412(c) of Pub. L. 105–115 effective 90 days after Nov. 21, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–633 effective on date the Convention on Psychotropic Substances enters into force in the United States [July 15, 1980], see section 112 of Pub. L. 95–633, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801a of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–601 effective Dec. 30, 1970, and regulations establishing special packaging standards effective no sooner than 180 days or later than one year from date regulations are final, or an earlier date published in Federal Register, see section 8 of Pub. L. 91–601, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1471 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–399 effective on first day of thirteenth calendar month after July 13, 1968, see section 108(a) of Pub. L. 90–399, set out as an Effective Date and Transitional Provisions note under section 360b of this title.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Pub. L. 87–781, title I, § 112(c), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 791, provided that:

“This section [amending this section] shall take effect on the first day of the seventh calendar month following the month in which this Act is enacted [October 1962].”

Pub. L. 87–781, title I, § 131(b), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 792, provided that:

“No drug which was being commercially distributed prior to the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 10, 1962] shall be deemed to be misbranded under paragraph (n) of section 502 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 352(n)], as added by this section, until the earlier of the following dates: (1) the first day of the seventh month following the month in which this Act is enacted; or (2) the effective date of regulations first issued under clause (3) of such paragraph (n) in accordance with the procedure specified in section 701(e) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 371(e)].”

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–781 effective on first day of seventh calendar month following October 1962, see section 107 of Pub. L. 87–781, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–618 effective July 12, 1960, subject to the provisions of section 203 of Pub. L. 86–618, see section 202 of Pub. L. 86–618, set out as a note under section 379e of this title.

Effective Date; Postponement

Pars. (b) and (d) to (h) effective Jan. 1, 1940, and such paragraphs effective July 1, 1940, as provided by regulations for certain lithographed labeling and containers bearing certain labeling, see act June 23, 1939, ch. 242, 53 Stat. 853, set out as an Effective Date: Postponement in Certain Cases note under section 301 of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 110–85, title IX, § 901(d)(3)(B), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 940, provided that:

“Not later than 30 months after the date of the enactment of the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 [Sept. 27, 2007], the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall by regulation establish standards for determining whether a major statement relating to side effects and contraindications of a drug, described in section 502(n) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 352(n)) (as amended by subparagraph (A)) is presented in the manner required under such section.”

Construction of 2016 Amendment

Nothing in amendment by section 3044(b)(2) of Pub. L. 114–255 to be construed to restrict the prescribing of antimicrobial drugs or other products, including drugs approved under section 356(h) of this title, by health care professionals, or to limit the practice of health care, see section 3043 of Pub. L. 114–255, set out as a note under section 356 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

Presentation of Prescription Drug Benefit and Risk Information

Pub. L. 111–148, title III, § 3507, Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 530, provided that:

“(a)
In General.—
The Secretary of Health and Human Services (referred to in this section as the ‘Secretary’), acting through the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, shall determine whether the addition of quantitative summaries of the benefits and risks of prescription drugs in a standardized format (such as a table or drug facts box) to the promotional labeling or print advertising of such drugs would improve health care decisionmaking by clinicians and patients and consumers.
“(b)
Review and Consultation.—
In making the determination under subsection (a), the Secretary shall review all available scientific evidence and research on decisionmaking and social and cognitive psychology and consult with drug manufacturers, clinicians, patients and consumers, experts in health literacy, representatives of racial and ethnic minorities, and experts in women’s and pediatric health.
“(c)
Report.—
Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Mar. 23, 2010], the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report that provides—
“(1) the determination by the Secretary under subsection (a); and
“(2) the reasoning and analysis underlying that determination.
“(d)
Authority.—
If the Secretary determines under subsection (a) that the addition of quantitative summaries of the benefits and risks of prescription drugs in a standardized format (such as a table or drug facts box) to the promotional labeling or print advertising of such drugs would improve health care decisionmaking by clinicians and patients and consumers, then the Secretary, not later than 3 years after the date of submission of the report under subsection (c), shall promulgate proposed regulations as necessary to implement such format.
“(e)
Clarification.—
Nothing in this section shall be construed to restrict the existing authorities of the Secretary with respect to benefit and risk information.”

Guidance; Misbranded Devices

Pub. L. 109–43, § 2(c)(2), Aug. 1, 2005, 119 Stat. 441, provided that:

“Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 1, 2005], the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall issue guidance to identify circumstances in which the name of the manufacturer of the original device, a generally recognized abbreviation of such name, or a unique and generally recognized symbol identifying such manufacturer, is not ‘prominent and conspicuous’, as used in section 502(u) of Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 352(u)] (as amended by paragraph (1)).”

Studies

Pub. L. 110–85, title IX, § 906(b), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 950, provided that:

“(1)
In general.—
In the case of direct-to-consumer television advertisements, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, in consultation with the Advisory Committee on Risk Communication under section 567 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 360bbb–6] (as added by section 917), shall, not later than 6 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 27, 2007], conduct a study to determine if the statement in section 502(n) of such Act [21 U.S.C. 352(n)] (as added by subsection (a)) required with respect to published direct-to-consumer advertisements is appropriate for inclusion in such television advertisements.
“(2)
Content.—
As part of the study under paragraph (1), such Secretary shall consider whether the information in the statement described in paragraph (1) would detract from the presentation of risk information in a direct-to-consumer television advertisement. If such Secretary determines the inclusion of such statement is appropriate in direct-to-consumer television advertisements, such Secretary shall issue regulations requiring the implementation of such statement in direct-to-consumer television advertisements, including determining a reasonable length of time for displaying the statement in such advertisements. The Secretary shall report to the appropriate committees of Congress the findings of such study and any plans to issue regulations under this paragraph.”

Pub. L. 108–173, title I, § 107(f), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2171, directed the Secretary of Health and Human Services to undertake a study of how to make prescription pharmaceutical information, including drug labels and usage instructions, accessible to blind and visually-impaired individuals, and to submit a report to Congress not later than 18 months after Dec. 8, 2003.

Pub. L. 105–115, title I, § 114(b), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2312, provided that:

“The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a study of the implementation of the provisions added by the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section]. Not later than 4 years and 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 21, 1997], the Comptroller General of the United States shall prepare and submit to Congress a report containing the findings of the study.”

Counterfeiting of Drugs; Congressional Findings and Declaration of Policy

Pub. L. 89–74, § 9(a), July 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 234, provided that:

“The Congress finds and declares that there is a substantial traffic in counterfeit drugs simulating the brand or other identifying mark or device of the manufacturer of the genuine article; that such traffic poses a serious hazard to the health of innocent consumers of such drugs because of the lack of proper qualifications, facilities, and manufacturing controls on the part of the counterfeiter, whose operations are clandestine; that, while such drugs are deemed misbranded within the meaning of section 502(i) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 352(i)], the controls for the suppression of the traffic in such drugs are inadequate because of the difficulty of determining the place of interstate origin of such drugs and, if that place is discovered, the fact that the implements for counterfeiting are not subject to seizure, and that these factors require enactment of additional controls with respect to such drugs without regard to their interstate or intrastate origins.”

Provisions as effective Feb. 1, 1966, see section 11 of Pub. L. 89–74, set out as an Effective Date of 1965 Amendment note under section 321 of this title.