View all text of Part A [§ 351 - § 360n-1]

§ 355a.
Pediatric studies of drugs
(a)
Definitions

As used in this section, the term “pediatric studies” or “studies” means at least one clinical investigation (that, at the Secretary’s discretion, may include pharmacokinetic studies) in pediatric age groups (including neonates in appropriate cases) in which a drug is anticipated to be used, and, at the discretion of the Secretary, may include preclinical studies.

(b)
Market exclusivity for new drugs
(1)
In general
Except as provided in paragraph (2), if, prior to approval of an application that is submitted under section 355(b)(1) of this title, the Secretary determines that information relating to the use of a new drug in the pediatric population may produce health benefits in that population, the Secretary makes a written request for pediatric studies (which shall include a timeframe for completing such studies), the applicant agrees to the request, such studies are completed using appropriate formulations for each age group for which the study is requested within any such timeframe, and the reports thereof are submitted and accepted in accordance with subsection (d)(4)—
(A)
(i)(I) the period referred to in subsection (c)(3)(E)(ii) of section 355 of this title, and in subsection (j)(5)(F)(ii) of such section, is deemed to be five years and six months rather than five years, and the references in subsections (c)(3)(E)(ii) and (j)(5)(F)(ii) of such section to four years, to forty-eight months, and to seven and one-half years are deemed to be four and one-half years, fifty-four months, and eight years, respectively; or(II) the period referred to in clauses (iii) and (iv) of subsection (c)(3)(E) of such section, and in clauses (iii) and (iv) of subsection (j)(5)(F) of such section, is deemed to be three years and six months rather than three years; and
(ii) if the drug is designated under section 360bb of this title for a rare disease or condition, the period referred to in section 360cc(a) of this title is deemed to be seven years and six months rather than seven years; and
(B)
(i)
if the drug is the subject of—
(I) a listed patent for which a certification has been submitted under subsection (b)(2)(A)(ii) or (j)(2)(A)(vii)(II) of section 355 of this title and for which pediatric studies were submitted prior to the expiration of the patent (including any patent extensions); or(II) a listed patent for which a certification has been submitted under subsections (b)(2)(A)(iii) or (j)(2)(A)(vii)(III) of section 355 of this title,
the period during which an application may not be approved under section 355(c)(3) of this title or section 355(j)(5)(B) of this title shall be extended by a period of six months after the date the patent expires (including any patent extensions); or
(ii) if the drug is the subject of a listed patent for which a certification has been submitted under subsection (b)(2)(A)(iv) or (j)(2)(A)(vii)(IV) of section 355 of this title, and in the patent infringement litigation resulting from the certification the court determines that the patent is valid and would be infringed, the period during which an application may not be approved under section 355(c)(3) of this title or section 355(j)(5)(B) of this title shall be extended by a period of six months after the date the patent expires (including any patent extensions).
(2)
Exception

The Secretary shall not extend the period referred to in paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(B) if the determination made under subsection (d)(4) is made later than 9 months prior to the expiration of such period.

(c)
Market exclusivity for already-marketed drugs
(1)
In general
Except as provided in paragraph (2), if the Secretary determines that information relating to the use of an approved drug in the pediatric population may produce health benefits in that population and makes a written request to the holder of an approved application under section 355(b)(1) of this title for pediatric studies (which shall include a timeframe for completing such studies), the holder agrees to the request, such studies are completed using appropriate formulations for each age group for which the study is requested within any such timeframe, and the reports thereof are submitted and accepted in accordance with subsection (d)(4)—
(A)
(i)(I) the period referred to in subsection (c)(3)(E)(ii) of section 355 of this title, and in subsection (j)(5)(F)(ii) of such section, is deemed to be five years and six months rather than five years, and the references in subsections (c)(3)(E)(ii) and (j)(5)(F)(ii) of such section to four years, to forty-eight months, and to seven and one-half years are deemed to be four and one-half years, fifty-four months, and eight years, respectiv ely; or(II) the period referred to in clauses (iii) and (iv) of subsection (c)(3)(E) of such section, and in clauses (iii) and (iv) of subsection (j)(5)(F) of such section, is deemed to be three years and six months rather than three years; and
(ii) if the drug is designated under section 360bb of this title for a rare disease or condition, the period referred to in section 360cc(a) of this title is deemed to be seven years and six months rather than seven years; and
(B)
(i)
if the drug is the subject of—
(I) a listed patent for which a certification has been submitted under subsection (b)(2)(A)(ii) or (j)(2)(A)(vii)(II) of section 355 of this title and for which pediatric studies were submitted prior to the expiration of the patent (including any patent extensions); or(II) a listed patent for which a certification has been submitted under subsection (b)(2)(A)(iii) or (j)(2)(A)(vii)(III) of section 355 of this title,
the period during which an application may not be approved under section 355(c)(3) of this title or section 355(j)(5)(B)(ii) of this title shall be extended by a period of six months after the date the patent expires (including any patent extensions); or
(ii) if the drug is the subject of a listed patent for which a certification has been submitted under subsection (b)(2)(A)(iv) or (j)(2)(A)(vii)(IV) of section 355 of this title, and in the patent infringement litigation resulting from the certification the court determines that the patent is valid and would be infringed, the period during which an application may not be approved under section 355(c)(3) of this title or section 355(j)(5)(B) of this title shall be extended by a period of six months after the date the patent expires (including any patent extensions).
(2)
Exception

The Secretary shall not extend the period referred to in paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(B) if the determination made under subsection (d)(4) is made later than 9 months prior to the expiration of such period.

(d)
Conduct of pediatric studies
(1)
Request for studies
(A)
In general

The Secretary may, after consultation with the sponsor of an application for an investigational new drug under section 355(i) of this title, the sponsor of an application for a new drug under section 355(b)(1) of this title, or the holder of an approved application for a drug under section 355(b)(1) of this title, issue to the sponsor or holder a written request for the conduct of pediatric studies for such drug. In issuing such request, the Secretary shall take into account adequate representation of children of ethnic and racial minorities. Such request to conduct pediatric studies shall be in writing and shall include a timeframe for such studies and a request to the sponsor or holder to propose pediatric labeling resulting from such studies. If a request under this subparagraph does not request studies in neonates, such request shall include a statement describing the rationale for not requesting studies in neonates.

(B)
Single written request
A single written request—
(i) may relate to more than one use of a drug; and
(ii) may include uses that are both approved and unapproved.
(2)
Written request for pediatric studies
(A)
Request and response
(i)
In general
If the Secretary makes a written request for pediatric studies (including neonates, as appropriate) under subsection (b) or (c), the applicant or holder, not later than 180 days after receiving the written request, shall respond to the Secretary as to the intention of the applicant or holder to act on the request by—
(I) indicating when the pediatric studies will be initiated, if the applicant or holder agrees to the request; or(II) indicating that the applicant or holder does not agree to the request and stating the reasons for declining the request.
(ii)
Disagree with request

If, on or after September 27, 2007, the applicant or holder does not agree to the request on the grounds that it is not possible to develop the appropriate pediatric formulation, the applicant or holder shall submit to the Secretary the reasons such pediatric formulation cannot be developed.

(B)
Adverse event reports

An applicant or holder that, on or after September 27, 2007, agrees to the request for such studies shall provide the Secretary, at the same time as the submission of the reports of such studies, with all postmarket adverse event reports regarding the drug that is the subject of such studies and are available prior to submission of such reports.

(3)
Action on submissions

The Secretary shall review and act upon a submission by a sponsor or holder of a proposed pediatric study request or a proposed amendment to a written request for pediatric studies within 120 calendar days of the submission.

(4)
Meeting the studies requirement

Not later than 180 days after the submission of the reports of the studies, the Secretary shall accept or reject such reports and so notify the sponsor or holder. The Secretary’s only responsibility in accepting or rejecting the reports shall be to determine, within the 180-day period, whether the studies fairly respond to the written request, have been conducted in accordance with commonly accepted scientific principles and protocols, and have been reported in accordance with the requirements of the Secretary for filing.

(5)
Effect of subsection

Nothing in this subsection alters or amends section 331(j) of this title or section 552 of title 5 or section 1905 of title 18.

(6)
Consultation

With respect to a drug that is a qualified countermeasure (as defined in section 247d–6a of title 42), a security countermeasure (as defined in section 247d–6b of title 42), or a qualified pandemic or epidemic product (as defined in section 247d–6d of title 42), the Secretary shall solicit input from the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response regarding the need for and, from the Director of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority regarding the conduct of, pediatric studies under this section.

(e)
Notice of determinations on studies requirement
(1)
In general

The Secretary shall publish a notice of any determination, made on or after September 27, 2007, that the requirements of subsection (d) have been met and that submissions and approvals under subsection (b)(2) or (j) of section 355 of this title for a drug will be subject to the provisions of this section. Such notice shall be published not later than 30 days after the date of the Secretary’s determination regarding market exclusivity and shall include a copy of the written request made under subsection (b) or (c).

(2)
Identification of certain drugs

The Secretary shall publish a notice identifying any drug for which, on or after September 27, 2007, a pediatric formulation was developed, studied, and found to be safe and effective in the pediatric population (or specified subpopulation) if the pediatric formulation for such drug is not introduced onto the market within one year after the date that the Secretary publishes the notice described in paragraph (1). Such notice identifying such drug shall be published not later than 30 days after the date of the expiration of such one year period.

(f)
Internal review of written requests and pediatric studies
(1)
Internal review

The Secretary shall utilize the internal review committee established under section 355d of this title to review all written requests issued on or after September 27, 2007, in accordance with paragraph (2).

(2)
Review of written requests

The committee referred to in paragraph (1) shall review all written requests issued pursuant to this section prior to being issued.

(3)
Review of pediatric studies

The committee referred to in paragraph (1) may review studies conducted pursuant to this section to make a recommendation to the Secretary whether to accept or reject such reports under subsection (d)(4).

(4)
Activity by committee

The committee referred to in paragraph (1) may operate using appropriate members of such committee and need not convene all members of the committee.

(5)
Documentation of committee action

For each drug, the committee referred to in paragraph (1) shall document, for each activity described in paragraph (2) or (3), which members of the committee participated in such activity.

(6)
Tracking pediatric studies and labeling changes
The Secretary, in consultation with the committee referred to in paragraph (1), shall track and make available to the public, in an easily accessible manner, including through posting on the Web site of the Food and Drug Administration—
(A) the number of studies conducted under this section and under section 284m of title 42;
(B) the specific drugs and drug uses, including labeled and off-labeled indications, studied under such sections;
(C) the types of studies conducted under such sections, including trial design, the number of pediatric patients studied, and the number of centers and countries involved;
(D) the number of pediatric formulations developed and the number of pediatric formulations not developed and the reasons such formulations were not developed;
(E) the labeling changes made as a result of studies conducted under such sections;
(F) an annual summary of labeling changes made as a result of studies conducted under such sections for distribution pursuant to subsection (k)(2); and
(G) information regarding reports submitted on or after September 27, 2007.
(7)
Informing internal review committee

The Secretary shall provide to the committee referred to in paragraph (1) any response issued to an applicant or holder with respect to a proposed pediatric study request.

(g)
Limitations
Notwithstanding subsection (c)(2), a drug to which the six-month period under subsection (b) or (c) has already been applied—
(1) may receive an additional six-month period under subsection (c)(1)(A)(i)(II) for a supplemental application if all other requirements under this section are satisfied, except that such drug may not receive any additional such period under subsection (c)(1)(B); and
(2) may not receive any additional such period under subsection (c)(1)(A)(ii).
(h)
Relationship to pediatric research requirements

Exclusivity under this section shall only be granted for the completion of a study or studies that are the subject of a written request and for which reports are submitted and accepted in accordance with subsection (d)(4). Written requests under this section may consist of a study or studies required under section 355c of this title.

(i)
Labeling changes
(1)
Priority status for pediatric applications and supplements
Any application or supplement to an application under section 355 of this title proposing a labeling change as a result of any pediatric study conducted pursuant to this section—
(A) shall be considered to be a priority application or supplement; and
(B) shall be subject to the performance goals established by the Commissioner for priority drugs.
(2)
Dispute resolution
(A)
Request for labeling change and failure to agree
If, on or after September 27, 2007, the Commissioner determines that the sponsor and the Commissioner have been unable to reach agreement on appropriate changes to the labeling for the drug that is the subject of the application, not later than 180 days after the date of submission of the application—
(i) the Commissioner shall request that the sponsor of the application make any labeling change that the Commissioner determines to be appropriate; and
(ii) if the sponsor of the application does not agree within 30 days after the Commissioner’s request to make a labeling change requested by the Commissioner, the Commissioner shall refer the matter to the Pediatric Advisory Committee.
(B)
Action by the Pediatric Advisory Committee
Not later than 90 days after receiving a referral under subparagraph (A)(ii), the Pediatric Advisory Committee shall—
(i) review the pediatric study reports; and
(ii) make a recommendation to the Commissioner concerning appropriate labeling changes, if any.
(C)
Consideration of recommendations

The Commissioner shall consider the recommendations of the Pediatric Advisory Committee and, if appropriate, not later than 30 days after receiving the recommendation, make a request to the sponsor of the application to make any labeling change that the Commissioner determines to be appropriate.

(D)
Misbranding

If the sponsor of the application, within 30 days after receiving a request under subparagraph (C), does not agree to make a labeling change requested by the Commissioner, the Commissioner may deem the drug that is the subject of the application to be misbranded.

(E)
No effect on authority

Nothing in this subsection limits the authority of the United States to bring an enforcement action under this chapter when a drug lacks appropriate pediatric labeling. Neither course of action (the Pediatric Advisory Committee process or an enforcement action referred to in the preceding sentence) shall preclude, delay, or serve as the basis to stay the other course of action.

(j)
Other labeling changes

If, on or after September 27, 2007, the Secretary determines that a pediatric study conducted under this section does or does not demonstrate that the drug that is the subject of the study is safe and effective, including whether such study results are inconclusive, in pediatric populations or subpopulations, the Secretary shall order the labeling of such product to include information about the results of the study and a statement of the Secretary’s determination.

(k)
Dissemination of pediatric information
(1)
In general

Not later than 210 days after the date of submission of a report on a pediatric study under this section, the Secretary shall make available to the public the medical, statistical, and clinical pharmacology reviews of pediatric studies conducted under subsection (b) or (c).

(2)
Dissemination of information regarding labeling changes

Beginning on September 27, 2007, the Secretary shall include as a requirement of a written request that the sponsors of the studies that result in labeling changes that are reflected in the annual summary developed pursuant to subsection (f)(6)(F) distribute, at least annually (or more frequently if the Secretary determines that it would be beneficial to the public health), such information to physicians and other health care providers.

(3)
Effect of subsection

Nothing in this subsection alters or amends section 331(j) of this title or section 552 of title 5 or section 1905 of title 18.

(l)
Adverse event reporting
(1)
Reporting in first 18-month period

Beginning on September 27, 2007, during the 18-month period beginning on the date a labeling change is approved pursuant to subsection (i), the Secretary shall ensure that all adverse event reports that have been received for such drug (regardless of when such report was received) are referred to the Office of Pediatric Therapeutics established under section 393a of this title. In considering the reports, the Director of such Office shall provide for the review of the reports by the Pediatric Advisory Committee, including obtaining any recommendations of such Committee regarding whether the Secretary should take action under this chapter in response to such reports.

(2)
Reporting in subsequent periods

Following the 18-month period described in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall, as appropriate, refer to the Office of Pediatric Therapeutics all pediatric adverse event reports for a drug for which a pediatric study was conducted under this section. In considering such reports, the Director of such Office may provide for the review of such reports by the Pediatric Advisory Committee, including obtaining any recommendation of such Committee regarding whether the Secretary should take action in response to such reports.

(3)
Preservation of authority

Nothing in this subsection shall prohibit the Office of Pediatric Therapeutics from providing for the review of adverse event reports by the Pediatric Advisory Committee prior to the 18-month period referred to in paragraph (1), if such review is necessary to ensure safe use of a drug in a pediatric population.

(4)
Effect

The requirements of this subsection shall supplement, not supplant, other review of such adverse event reports by the Secretary.

(m)
Clarification of interaction of market exclusivity under this section and market exclusivity awarded to an applicant for approval of a drug under section 355(j) of this title
If a 180-day period under section 355(j)(5)(B)(iv) of this title overlaps with a 6-month exclusivity period under this section, so that the applicant for approval of a drug under section 355(j) of this title entitled to the 180-day period under that section loses a portion of the 180-day period to which the applicant is entitled for the drug, the 180-day period shall be extended from—
(1) the date on which the 180-day period would have expired by the number of days of the overlap, if the 180-day period would, but for the application of this subsection, expire after the 6-month exclusivity period; or
(2) the date on which the 6-month exclusivity period expires, by the number of days of the overlap if the 180-day period would, but for the application of this subsection, expire during the six-month exclusivity period.
(n)
Referral if pediatric studies not submitted
(1)
In general
Beginning on September 27, 2007, if pediatric studies of a drug have not been submitted by the date specified in the written request issued or if the applicant or holder does not agree to the request under subsection (d) and if the Secretary, through the committee established under section 355d of this title, determines that there is a continuing need for information relating to the use of the drug in the pediatric population (including neonates, as appropriate), the Secretary shall carry out the following:
(A) For a drug for which a listed patent has not expired, or for which a period of exclusivity eligible for extension under subsection (b)(1) or (c)(1) of this section or under subsection (m)(2) or (m)(3) of section 262 of title 42 has not ended, make a determination regarding whether an assessment shall be required to be submitted under section 355c(b) of this title.
(B) For a drug that has no unexpired listed patents and for which no unexpired periods of exclusivity eligible for extension under subsection (b)(1) or (c)(1) of this section or under subsection (m)(2) or (m)(3) of section 262 of title 42 apply, the Secretary shall refer the drug for inclusion on the list established under section 284m of title 42 for the conduct of studies.
(C) For a drug that is a qualified countermeasure (as defined in section 247d–6a of title 42), a security countermeasure (as defined in section 247d–6b of title 42), or a qualified pandemic or epidemic product (as defined in section 247d–6d of title 42), in addition to any action with respect to such drug under subparagraph (A) or (B), the Secretary shall notify the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response and the Director of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority of all pediatric studies in the written request issued by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs.
(2)
Public notice

The Secretary shall give the public notice of a decision under paragraph (1)(A) not to require an assessment under section 355c of this title and the basis for such decision.

(3)
Effect of subsection

Nothing in this subsection alters or amends section 331(j) of this title or section 552 of title 5 or section 1905 of title 18.

(o)
Prompt approval of drugs when pediatric information is added to labeling
(1)
General rule

A drug for which an application has been submitted or approved under subsection (b)(2) or (j) of section 355 of this title shall not be considered ineligible for approval under that section or misbranded under section 352 of this title on the basis that the labeling of the drug omits a pediatric indication or any other aspect of labeling pertaining to pediatric use when the omitted indication or other aspect is protected by patent, or by exclusivity under clause (iii) or (iv) of section 355(j)(5)(F) of this title, clause (iii) or (iv) of section 355(c)(3)(E) of this title, or section 360cc(a) of this title, or by an extension of such exclusivity under this section or section 355f of this title.

(2)
Labeling
Notwithstanding clauses (iii) and (iv) of section 355(j)(5)(F) of this title, clauses (iii) and (iv) of section 355(c)(3)(E) of this title, or section 360cc of this title, the Secretary may require that the labeling of a drug approved pursuant to an application submitted under subsection (b)(2) or (j) of section 355 of this title that omits a pediatric indication or other aspect of labeling as described in paragraph (1) include—
(A)
a statement that, because of marketing exclusivity for a manufacturer—
(i) the drug is not labeled for pediatric use; or
(ii) in the case of a drug for which there is an additional pediatric use not referred to in paragraph (1), the drug is not labeled for the pediatric use under paragraph (1); and
(B) a statement of any appropriate pediatric contraindications, warnings, precautions, or other information that the Secretary considers necessary to assure safe use.
(3)
Preservation of pediatric exclusivity and extensions
This subsection does not affect—
(A)
the availability or scope of exclusivity under—
(i) this section;
(ii)section 355 of this title for pediatric formulations; or
(iii)section 360cc of this title;
(B) the availability or scope of an extension to any such exclusivity, including an extension under this section or section 355f of this title;
(C)
the question of the eligibility for approval under section 355 of this title of any application described in subsection (b)(2) or (j) of such section that omits any other aspect of labeling protected by exclusivity under—
(i) clause (iii) or (iv) of section 355(j)(5)(F) of this title;
(ii) clause (iii) or (iv) of section 355(c)(3)(E) of this title; or
(iii)section 360cc(a) of this title; or
(D) except as expressly provided in paragraphs (1) and (2), the operation of section 355 of this title or section 360cc of this title.
(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, § 505A, as added Pub. L. 105–115, title I, § 111, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2305; amended Pub. L. 107–109, §§ 2, 4, 5(b)(2), 7–11(a), 18(a), 19, Jan. 4, 2002, 115 Stat. 1408, 1411, 1413–1415, 1423, 1424; Pub. L. 108–155, §§ 2(b)(2), 3(a), (b)(1), Dec. 3, 2003, 117 Stat. 1941; Pub. L. 108–173, title XI, § 1104, Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2461; Pub. L. 110–85, title V, § 502(a)(1), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 876; Pub. L. 111–148, title VII, § 7002(g)(2)(B), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 820; Pub. L. 112–144, title V, §§ 501(a), 502(a)(1), (b), 509(a), July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 1039, 1040, 1047; Pub. L. 113–5, title III, § 307(a), Mar. 13, 2013, 127 Stat. 191; Pub. L. 114–255, div. A, title III, § 3102(2), Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1156; Pub. L. 115–52, title V, § 505(a)–(b)(2)(A), title VI, § 608, Aug. 18, 2017, 131 Stat. 1046, 1050; Pub. L. 117–9, § 1(b)(2), Apr. 23, 2021, 135 Stat. 258.)