Historical and Revision Notes
Revised Statutes and
Statutes at Large
The second paragraph of former section 509 is omitted as it was superseded by the Travel Expense Act of 1949, which is codified in subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code.
The second paragraph was based in part on former section 73 of title 5, 1940 ed., which was superseded by the Subsistence Expense Act of 1926.
Section 6 of the Travel Expense Act of 1949, which is codified in section 5706 of title 5, United States Code, substantially reenacted former section 73 of title 5, 1940 ed., which was repealed by the Act of June 25, 1948, ch. 646, by which title 28 was originally enacted. The purpose of section 6 was to allow reimbursement for only such actual and necessary travel expenses incurred unless otherwise permitted by the Act of 1949 itself or by laws relating to the military. Section 6 did not, however, provide for the exception of United States attorneys as did former section 73.
Sections 2 and 3 of the Act of 1949, which are codified in sections 5701 and 5702 of title 5, United States Code, defined the coverage of the Act and allowed for specific exclusions in the legislative and judicial branches but did not mention an exclusion in the executive branch for United States attorneys.
Section 7 of the 1949 Act, which is codified in section 5707 of title 5, United States Code, expressly vested in the Director of the Bureau of the Budget the authority to prescribe regulations covering travel allowances and the reimbursement of travel expenses.
Section 8 of the 1949 Act, which is codified in section 5708(1), (2) of title 5, United States Code, made specific exclusions from the coverage of the Act, and United States attorneys were not so excluded.
Section 9 of the 1949 Act, which is codified in section 5708(3), (4) of title 5, United States Code, modified acts inconsistent with the 1949 Act, and specifically mentioned acts which authorize reimbursement of “actual and necessary” expenses.
Prior section 509.—Based on sections 73 and 318 of title 5, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, and title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§ 586, 587 and 592 (R.S. §§ 368, 833, 834; Mar. 3, 1875, ch. 133, § 1, 18 Stat. 452; May 28, 1896, ch. 252, §§ 13, 14, 24, 29 Stat. 183, 186; Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2918, § 1, 34 Stat. 1360; May 27, 1908, ch. 200, § 1, 35 Stat. 375; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, § 291, 36 Stat. 1167; July 1, 1918, ch. 113, § 1, 40 Stat. 683; July 19, 1919, ch. 24, § 1, 41 Stat. 209; Dec. 24, 1942, ch. 825, § 3, 56 Stat. 1089).
Section consolidates parts of sections 73 and 318 of title 5, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and of sections 586, 587, and 592 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.
First paragraph of this section is from section 587 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., which did not apply to Alaska because of the restriction in section 591 of said title 28. However, the latter section has been superseded, in that respect, by subsequent appropriation acts, the latest being act July 5, 1946, ch. 541, title II, 60 Stat. 460, which specifically allows office expenses for United States attorneys in Alaska. This section applies to all United States attorneys.
Section 73 of title 5, U.S.C., 1940 ed., allowed only actual traveling expenses to Government employees, except “district attorneys,” marshals and clerks of courts and their deputies. It has been superseded by the Subsistence Expense Act of 1926. See sections 821 et seq. of said title 5.
References in section 592 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., to absence “from their respective official residences” and to going to and returning from attendance before courts, etc., were omitted as surplusage and covered by the phrase “on official business.” Language relating to Standardized Government Travel Regulations was also omitted as the reference in this section is to the provision in the Subsistence Expense Act, supra, authorizing those regulations. Verification under oath provision was omitted as covered by section 553 [see Prior Provisions note for that section] of this title which simplifies procedure by requiring payment upon certification by the payee. The penal provisions of title 18 are ample protection against fraud and an oath alone is no deterrent.
The requirement in section 592 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., that the marshals should include such payments in their accounts for auditing and allowance, was omitted as unnecessary. See section 541 et seq. [now section 561 et seq.] of this title and section 71 et seq. of title 31, U.S.C., 1940 ed.
Section 318 of title 5, U.S.C., 1940 ed., required the Attorney General to supervise the accounts of “district” attorneys, marshals, clerks, and other court officers. The language of this section covers that requirement. The provision as to marshals is incorporated in section 547 [see Prior Provisions note under that section] of this title.
Quarterly expense accounts were required of United States attorneys and marshals by section 586 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. Such provision is omitted as unnecessary in view of this section and section 547 [see Prior Provisions note under that section] of this title. Further provisions of said section 586 that office expenses of United States attorneys, assistants, and marshals should be allowed under regulations of the Attorney General and verified under oath, are simplified by this section and section 550 [see Prior Provisions note under that section] of this title. Another provision that accounts therefor should be submitted to, examined by the district court and, when approved by the court then audited and allowed by law, was omitted. The power of the Attorney General is sufficient. The reference to audit and allowance was unnecessary as covered by section 71 et seq. of title 31, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Money and Finance. Said section 586 applied also to marshals and deputies and those provisions are incorporated in section 550 [see Prior Provisions note under that section] of this title.
The exception in sections 586 and 591 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., that the former should not apply in Alaska was omitted as unnecessary. Section 114 of title 48, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Territories and Insular Possessions, requires travel expense accounts to be rendered and paid as in other districts.
Changes were made in phraseology.
A prior section 549, act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 912, related to the marshal’s power as a sheriff, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 89–554, § 8(a), and reenactment in section 570 of this title by section 4(c) of Pub. L. 89–554.