Historical and Revision Notes
1948 Act

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., § 296 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, 187(a), as added Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 843, § 1, 54 Stat. 1101).

This section contains a part of section 296 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. Other provisions of such section are incorporated in sections 251, 252, 253, 456, 1581, 2071, 2639, and 2640 of this title.

Words “when in the opinion of such division or judge the ends of justice so require,” which followed the phrase “grant a rehearing or retrial,” were omitted as surplusage.

The term “chief judge” was substituted for “presiding judge.” (See reviser’s note under section 136 of this title.)

The phrase “petitions for remission of additional duties” was added to the first paragraph at the suggestion of the court to conform to existing practice.

Reappraisement appeals are heard by a single judge and reviewed by a division. (See sections 2631 and 2636 of this title.)

The provision of section 296 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., that the presiding judge shall designate one of the three judges of a division to preside over such division was omitted as in conflict with section 253 of this title (also taken from section 296 of title 28 U.S.C., 1940 ed.), which provides that judges shall preside according to the seniority of their commissions. The latter provision is in accord with present practice.

Changes were made in arrangement and phraseology.

1949 Act

This amendment clarifies section 254 of title 28, U.S.C., by restoring language of the original law.

Editorial Notes
Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those relating to the assignment of judges to hear and determine cases, and provisions similar to those authorizing the chief judge to designate judges to hear and determine cases within the jurisdiction of the United States, formerly contained in this section, are covered by sections 255 and 256 of this title, respectively.


1980—Pub. L. 96–417 redesignated the Customs Court as the Court of International Trade.

1970—Pub. L. 91–271 substituted in section catchline “Single-judge trials” for “Divisions; powers and assignments” and substituted provisions in text requiring the judicial power of the Customs Court with respect to any action, suit, or proceeding to be exercised by a single judge, for provisions setting forth the powers of the chief judge of the Customs Court with respect to the organization of such Court into divisions, and the assignment of judges to hear and determine pending cases.

1949—Act May 24, 1949, inserted “to hear or” before “to hear and determine” in third par.

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–417 effective Nov. 1, 1980, and applicable with respect to civil actions pending on or commenced on or after such date, see section 701(a) of Pub. L. 96–417, set out as a note under section 251 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–271 effective Oct. 1, 1970, see section 122 of Pub. L. 91–271, set out as a note under section 256 of this title.