This subsection shall not limit or affect the authority of the Government under section 1001 of title 18.
The amount of the civil penalty shall be assessed by the Secretary or Administrator, as appropriate, by written notice.
A civil penalty imposed under subsection (a) against the owner or operator of a recreational vessel, as that term is defined in section 2101 of title 46, for a violation of the Convention, this chapter, or any regulation prescribed under this chapter involving that recreational vessel, may not exceed $5,000 for each violation.
For purposes of penalties under this section, each day of a continuing violation constitutes a separate violation. In determining the amount of the penalty, the Secretary or Administrator shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the prohibited acts committed and, with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, any history of prior offenses, the economic impact of the penalty on the violator, the economic benefit to the violator and other matters as justice may require.
An amount equal to not more than one-half of any civil penalty assessed by the Secretary or Administrator under this section may, subject to the availability of appropriations, be paid by the Secretary or Administrator, respectively, to any person who provided information that led to the assessment or imposition of the penalty.
If any person fails to pay a civil penalty assessed under this section after it has become final, or comply with an order issued under this chapter, the Secretary or Administrator, as appropriate, may refer the matter to the Attorney General of the United States for collection in any appropriate district court of the United States.
Before referring any civil penalty that is subject to assessment or has been assessed under this section to the Attorney General, the Secretary, or Administrator, as appropriate, may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, the civil penalty.
Any person who fails to pay on a timely basis a civil penalty assessed under this section shall also be liable to the United States for interest on the penalty at an annual rate equal to 11 percent compounded quarterly, attorney fees and costs for collection proceedings, and a quarterly nonpayment penalty for each quarter during which such failure to pay persists. That nonpayment penalty shall be in an amount equal to 20 percent of the aggregate amount of that person’s penalties and nonpayment penalties that are unpaid as of the beginning of that quarter.