Editorial Notes
Prior Provisions

A prior section 431 of act Aug. 14, 1935, was classified to section 631 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–485.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(iii) to (vii). Pub. L. 115–123, § 50751(a), added cl. (iii) and redesignated former cls. (iii) to (vi) as (iv) to (vii), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 115–123, § 50721(a)(1), substituted “Family” for “Time-limited family” in heading.

Subsec. (a)(7)(A). Pub. L. 115–123, § 50721(a)(2), struck out “time-limited” before “family reunification”, inserted “or a child who has been returned home” after “child care institution”, and substituted “and to ensure the strength and stability of the reunification. In the case of a child who has been returned home, the services and activities shall only be provided during the 15-month period that begins on the date that the child returns home” for “, but only during the 15-month period that begins on the date that the child, pursuant to section 675(5)(F) of this title, is considered to have entered foster care”.

2011—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 112–34, § 102(c)(1), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The term ‘family support services’ means community-based services to promote the safety and well-being of children and families designed to increase the strength and stability of families (including adoptive, foster, and extended families), to increase parents’ confidence and competence in their parenting abilities, to afford children a safe, stable, and supportive family environment, to strengthen parental relationships and promote healthy marriages, and otherwise to enhance child development.”

Subsec. (a)(5), (6). Pub. L. 112–34, § 102(d), added pars. (5) and (6) and struck out former pars. (5) and (6) which read as follows:

“(5) Tribal organization.—The term ‘tribal organization’ means the recognized governing body of any Indian tribe.

“(6) Indian tribe.—The term ‘Indian tribe’ means any Indian tribe (as defined in section 682(i)(5) of this title, as in effect before August 22, 1996) and any Alaska Native organization (as defined in section 682(i)(7)(A) of this title, as so in effect).”

Subsec. (a)(7)(B)(vi) to (viii). Pub. L. 112–34, § 102(c)(2), added cls. (vi) and (vii) and redesignated former cl. (vi) as (viii).

2006—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 109–288 substituted “1996” for “1986”.

2002—Subsec. (a)(1)(F). Pub. L. 107–133, § 102(a), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 107–133, § 102(b), inserted “to strengthen parental relationships and promote healthy marriages,” after “environment,”.

1999—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 106–169 inserted “, as in effect before August 22, 1986” after “682(i)(5) of this title” and “, as so in effect” after “682(i)(7)(A) of this title”.

1997—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–89, § 305(c)(2)(A)(i), inserted “safe and” before “appropriate” in cls. (i) and (ii).

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 105–89, § 305(c)(2)(A)(ii), inserted “safely” after “remain”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–89, § 305(c)(2)(B), inserted “safety and” before “well-being of children” and substituted “safe, stable, and supportive family” for “stable and supportive family”.

Subsec. (a)(7), (8). Pub. L. 105–89, § 305(b)(2), added pars. (7) and (8).

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 105–89, § 305(d)(1), added par. (9).

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by section 50721(a) of Pub. L. 115–123 effective Oct. 1, 2018, subject to transition rules for required State legislation or tribal action, see section 50734 of Pub. L. 115–123, set out as a note under section 622 of this title.

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–34 effective Oct. 1, 2011, and applicable to payments under this part and part E of this subchapter for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date, without regard to whether implementing regulations have been promulgated, and with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 107 of Pub. L. 112–34, set out as a note under section 622 of this title.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–288 effective Oct. 1, 2006, and applicable to payments under this part and part E of this subchapter for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date, without regard to whether implementing regulations have been promulgated, and with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 12(a), (b) of Pub. L. 109–288, set out as a note under section 621 of this title.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–133 effective Jan. 17, 2002, with delay permitted if State legislation is required, see section 301 of Pub. L. 107–133, set out as a note under section 629 of this title.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–169 effective as if included in the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–193, see section 401(q) of Pub. L. 106–169, set out as a note under section 602 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by section 305(b)(2), (c)(2) of Pub. L. 105–89 effective Nov. 19, 1997, except as otherwise provided, with delay permitted if State legislation is required, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105–89, set out as a note under section 622 of this title.

Pub. L. 105–89, title III, § 305(d)(2), Nov. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 2132, provided that:

“The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] takes effect as if included in the enactment of section 13711 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 (Public Law 103–33 [103–66]; 107 Stat. 649).”