United States Code

USC most recently checked for updates: Dec 11, 2019

§ 363.
Exclusiveness of provisions; transfers from State unemployment compensation accounts to railroad unemployment insurance account
(a)
Omitted
(b)
Effect on State unemployment compensation laws

By enactment of this chapter the Congress makes exclusive provision for the payment of unemployment benefits for unemployment occurring after June 30, 1939, and for the payment of sickness benefits for sickness periods after June 30, 1947, based upon employment (as defined in this chapter). No employee shall have or assert any right to unemployment benefits under an unemployment compensation law of any State with respect to unemployment occurring after June 30, 1939, or to sickness benefits under a sickness law of any State with respect to sickness periods occurring after June 30, 1947, based upon employment (as defined in this chapter). The Congress finds and declares that by virtue of the enactment of this chapter, the application of State unemployment compensation laws after June 30, 1939 or of State sickness laws after June 30, 1947, to such employment, except pursuant to section 362(g) of this title, would constitute an undue burden upon, and an undue interference with the effective regulation of, interstate commerce. In furtherance of such determination, after June 30, 1939, the term “person” as used in section 1106 of title 42 shall not be construed to include any employer (as defined in this chapter) or any person in its employ: Provided, That no provision of this chapter shall be construed to affect the payment of unemployment benefits with respect to any period prior to July 1, 1939, under an unemployment compensation law of any State based upon employment performed prior to July 1, 1939, and prior to such date employment as defined in this chapter shall not constitute “Service with respect to which unemployment compensation is payable under an [or “service under any”] unemployment compensation system [or “plan”] established by an Act of Congress” [or “a law of the United States”] or “employment in interstate commerce, of an individual who is covered by an unemployment compensation system established directly by an Act of Congress,” or any term of similar import, used in any unemployment compensation law of any State.

(c)
Determination of “preliminary amount” for States

The Social Security Board is directed to determine for each State, after agreement with the Railroad Retirement Board, and after consultation with such State; the total (hereinafter referred to as the “preliminary amount”) of (i) the amount remaining as the balances of reserve accounts of employers as of June 30, 1939, if the unemployment compensation law of such State provides for a type of fund known as “Reserve Accounts,” plus (ii) if the unemployment compensation law of such State provides for a type of fund known as “Pooled Fund” or “Pooled Account,” that proportion of the balance of such fund or account of such State as of June 30, 1939, as the amount of taxes or contributions collected from employers and their employees prior to July 1, 1939, pursuant to its unemployment compensation law and credited to such fund or account bears to all such taxes or contributions theretofore collected from all persons subject to its unemployment compensation law and credited to such fund or account; and the additional amounts (hereinafter referred to as the “liquidating amount”) of taxes or contributions collected from employers and their employees from July 1, 1939 to December 31, 1939, pursuant to its unemployment compensation law.

(d)
Withholding amounts from certification to States; transfers to railroad unemployment compensation account

The Social Security Board shall withhold from certification to the Secretary of the Treasury for payment the amounts determined by it pursuant to section 502(a) of title 42 to be necessary for the proper administration of each State’s unemployment-compensation law, until an amount equal to its “preliminary amount” plus interest from July 1, 1939, at 2½ per centum per annum on such portion thereof as has not been used as the measure for withholding certification for payment, has been so withheld from certification pursuant to this paragraph: Provided, however, That if a State shall, prior to whichever is the later of (i) thirty days after the close of the first regular session of its legislature which begins after the approval of this chapter, and (ii) July 1, 1939, authorize and direct the Secretary of the Treasury to transfer from its account in the unemployment trust fund to the railroad unemployment insurance account in the unemployment trust fund an amount equal to its “preliminary amount”, no amount shall be withheld from certification for payment to such State pursuant to this paragraph.

The Social Security Board shall withhold from certification to the Secretary of the Treasury for payment the amounts determined by it pursuant to section 502(a) of title 42 to be necessary for the proper administration of each State’s unemployment compensation law, until an amount equal to its “liquidating amount” plus interest from January 1, 1940, at 2½ per centum per annum on such portion thereof as has not been used as the measure for withholding certification for payment has been so withheld from certification pursuant to this paragraph: Provided, however, That if a State shall, prior to whichever is the later of (i) thirty days after the close of the first regular session of its legislature which begins after the approval of this chapter, and (ii) January 1, 1940, authorize and direct the Secretary of the Treasury to transfer from its account in the unemployment trust fund to the railroad unemployment insurance account in the unemployment trust fund an amount equal to its “liquidating amount”, no amount shall be withheld from certification for payment to such State pursuant to this paragraph.

The withholdings from certification directed in each of the foregoing paragraphs of this subsection shall begin with respect to each State when the Social Security Board finds that such State is unable to avail itself of the condition set forth in the proviso contained in such paragraph: Provided, however, That if the Social Security Board finds with respect to any State that such State (1) is unable to avail itself of such conditions solely by reason of prohibitions contained in the constitution of such State, as determined by a decision of the highest court of such State declaring invalid in whole or in part the action of the legislature of the State purporting to provide for transfers from the State’s account in the Unemployment Trust Fund to the railroad unemployment insurance account, and (2) for similar reasons is unable to use amounts withdrawn from its account in the Unemployment Trust Fund for the payment of expenses incurred in the administration of its State unemployment compensation law, the Social Security Board shall not begin to withhold from certification to the Secretary of the Treasury for payment to such State the amounts determined by it pursuant to section 502 of title 42 and to certify to the Secretary of the Treasury for payment into the railroad unemployment insurance account the amount so withheld from such State until July 1, 1944, or until a date one hundred and eighty days after the adjournment of the first session of the legislature of such State beginning after July 1, 1942, whichever date is the earlier, and then only if the Social Security Board finds that such State had not prior thereto effectively authorized and directed the Secretary of the Treasury to transfer from such State’s account in the Unemployment Trust Fund to the railroad unemployment insurance account amounts equal to such State’s “preliminary amount” and “liquidating amount” less such parts thereof, if any, as the State may have, within the periods set forth in the provisos contained in the first two paragraphs of this subsection, effectively authorized and directed the Secretary of the Treasury so to transfer, plus interest on such difference, if any, with respect to each amount, at 2½ per centum per annum from the date the State’s “preliminary amount” or “liquidating amount”, as the case may be, is determined by the Social Security Board; and with respect to any such State the amount withheld shall equal the State’s “preliminary amount” and “liquidating amount” less such parts thereof, if any, as the State may have, within the periods set forth in the provisos contained in the first two paragraphs of this subsection effectively authorized and directed the Secretary of the Treasury to transfer, plus interest from July 1, 1939, at 2½ per centum per annum on so much of the “preliminary amount” and “liquidating amount”, as the case may be, as has not been so transferred or has not been used as the measure for withholding. An enactment of any State legislature providing for the transfer (from the State’s account in the Unemployment Trust Fund to the railroad unemployment insurance account) of all interest earned upon contributions which are collected with respect to employment occurring after such enactment by such State pursuant to its unemployment compensation law and credited to its account in the Unemployment Trust Fund (until the total of such transfers equals the amounts which otherwise would be required to be withheld from certification under this subsection), shall be deemed an effective authorization and direction to the Secretary of the Treasury as required by this subsection; and for purposes of computing the interest to be so transferred, amounts withdrawn by such State from its account in the Unemployment Trust Fund after the date of such State enactment shall be considered to be first charged against the amounts credited to such State’s account prior to the date of such State enactment: Provided, however, That if at any time after such enactment the provision for transfer therein contained for any reason fails to be operative to effect the transfers of interest as therein prescribed, and such State has not otherwise made an effective authorization and direction to the Secretary of the Treasury as required by this subsection, the Social Security Board shall immediately after such failure or, on the date otherwise provided in this subsection for the beginning of withholdings from certification, whichever is later, begin to make the withholdings from certification provided for in this subsection in the same manner and to the same extent as if such enactment by such State had not been enacted, except that the amounts of the certifications withheld shall be reduced by the total amount, if any, which has been transferred from interest pursuant to such enactment.

(e)
Transfers and withdrawals, effect upon social security provisions

The transfers described in the provisos contained in the several paragraphs of subsection (d) of this section shall not be deemed to constitute a breach of the conditions set forth in sections 503(a)(5) and 1103(a)(4) of title 42; nor shall the withdrawal by a State from its account in the unemployment trust fund of amounts, but not to exceed the total amount the Social Security Board shall have withheld from certification with respect to such State pursuant to subsection (d) of this section, be deemed to constitute a breach of the conditions set forth in sections 503(a)(5) and 1103(a)(4) of title 42, provided the moneys so withdrawn are expended solely for expenses which the Social Security Board determines to be necessary for the proper administration of such State’s unemployment compensation law.

(f)
Payments to railroad unemployment insurance account; transfers from unemployment trust fund of States

The Social Security Board is authorized and directed to certify to the Secretary of the Treasury for payment, and the Secretary shall pay, into the railroad unemployment insurance account, such amounts as the Social Security Board withholds from certification pursuant to subsection (d) of this section and the appropriations authorized in section 501 of title 42 shall be available for payments authorized by this subsection. The Secretary shall transfer from the account of a State in the unemployment trust fund to the railroad unemployment insurance account in the unemployment trust fund such amounts as the State authorizes and directs him so to transfer pursuant to subsection (d) of this section.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 680, § 13(b)–(f), 52 Stat. 1110; June 20, 1939, ch. 227, § 17, 53 Stat. 848; July 2, 1940, ch. 530, 54 Stat. 741; June 30, 1942, ch. 463, 56 Stat. 465; July 31, 1946, ch. 709, § 324, 60 Stat. 741; Pub. L. 90–257, title II, § 207, Feb. 15, 1968, 82 Stat. 25.)
cite as: 45 USC 363