1 So in original. Probably should be “committees”.
of Congress and air carriers a report on that evaluation which may contain nonclassified and classified sections.
2 See References in Text note below.
and

Historical and Revision Notes

Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)

Source (Statutes at Large)

44901(a)

49 App.:1356(a) (1st sentence).

Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, § 315(a) (1st, 2d sentences, 3d sentence 19th–last words); added Aug. 5, 1974, Pub. L. 93–366, § 202, 88 Stat. 415; Aug. 8, 1985, Pub. L. 99–83, § 551(b)(1), 99 Stat. 225.

44901(b)

49 App.:1356(a) (2d sentence).

44901(c)(1)

49 App.:1356(c).

Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, § 315(c); added Aug. 5, 1974, Pub. L. 93–366, § 202, 88 Stat. 415; Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–604, § 102(a), 104 Stat. 3068.

44901(c)(2)

49 App.:1356(a) (3d sentence 19th–last words).

In subsection (a), the words “or continue in effect reasonable”, “intended”, and “the aircraft for such transportation” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words “Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section” are added for clarity. The words “One year after August 5, 1974, or after the effective date of such regulations, whichever is later” are omitted as executed. The words “alter or”, “a continuation of”, “the extent deemed necessary to”, and “acts of” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(1), the words “in whole or in part” and “those” are omitted as surplus. The word “providing” is substituted for “engaging in” for consistency in the revised title. The words “interstate, overseas, or foreign” are omitted because of the definition of “air transportation” in section 40102(a) of the revised title. The words “of public convenience and necessity”, “by the Civil Aeronautics Board”, “foreign air carrier”, and “by the Board” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(2), the words “or amendments thereto” and “or amendments” are omitted as surplus.

References in Text

Subsection (b) of section 1602 of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007, referred to in subsec. (g)(4), is section 1602(b) of Pub. L. 110–53, title XVI, Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 479, which is not classified to the Code.

Section 47134(m), referred to in subsec. (k)(1)(A), (2), is section 47134(m) of this title, which was repealed by Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title I, § 160(a)(6), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3221.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(A), substituted “Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration” for “Under Secretary of Transportation for Security” and struck out “, United States Code” after “title 5”.

Pub. L. 115–254, § 1937(b)(3), struck out “44919 or” before “44920”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(B), struck out “but not later than the 60th day following the date of enactment of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act” before period at end.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(C)(i)(I), substituted “Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration” for “Under Secretary of Transportation for Security” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(C)(i)(II), struck out “no later than December 31, 2002” after “to screen all checked baggage”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(C)(ii), (iii), redesignated par. (4) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which related to determination by the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security that the Transportation Security Administration would not be able to deploy required explosives detection systems at certain airports by Dec. 31, 2002.

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(C)(iv)(I), substituted “Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration” for “Assistant Secretary (Transportation Security Administration)”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(C)(iv)(II), substituted “Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration” for “Assistant Secretary”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(D). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(C)(iv)(III), in introductory provisions, substituted “Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration” for “Assistant Secretary” and, in cl. (i), substituted “Administrator” for “Assistant Secretary”.

Subsec. (d)(3), (4). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(C)(ii), (iii), struck out par. (3) and redesignated par. (4) as (2). Prior to amendment, text of par. (3) read as follows: “Until the Transportation Security Administration has met the requirements of paragraph (1), the Under Secretary shall submit a classified report every 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure describing the progress made toward meeting such requirements at each airport.”

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(D)(i), in introductory provisions, struck out “but not later than the 60th day following the date of enactment of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act” after “practicable” and substituted “Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration” for “Under Secretary”.

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(D)(ii), substituted “Administrator” for “Under Secretary”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(E), struck out “after the date of enactment of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act” before period at end.

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(F)(i), substituted “The” for “Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007, the”.

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(F)(ii), substituted “baggage.” for “baggage as follows:

“(A) 50 percent of such cargo is so screened not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007.

“(B) 100 percent of such cargo is so screened not later than 3 years after such date of enactment.”

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(F)(iii), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) related to the issuance by the Secretary of Homeland Security of an interim final rule and a final rule implementing subsec. (g).

Subsec. (g)(4), (5). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(F)(iv), (v), redesignated par. (5) as (4) and struck out former par. (4). Prior to amendment, text of par. (4) read as follows: “Not later than 1 year after the date of establishment of the system under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall submit to the Committees referred to in paragraph (3)(B)(ii) a report that describes the system.”

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(G)(i), substituted “Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration” for “Under Secretary”.

Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(G)(ii), substituted “Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration” for “Under Secretary” in first sentence, and “Administrator” for “Under Secretary” in two places in second sentence.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(H)(i), substituted “Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration” for “Under Secretary” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (i)(2). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(H)(ii), substituted “Administrator” for “Under Secretary”.

Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(I)(i), substituted “The” for “Before January 1, 2008, the” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (j)(1)(A). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(I)(ii), substituted “August 3, 2007” for “the date of enactment of this subsection”.

Subsec. (k)(1). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(J)(i), substituted “The” for “Not later than one year after the date of enactment of this subsection, the” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (k)(2). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(J)(ii), substituted “The” for “Not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of this subsection, the”.

Subsec. (k)(3). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(J)(iii), substituted “The” for “Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this subsection, the” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (l)(2). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(K)(i)(I), substituted “The Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration” for “Beginning June 1, 2012, the Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration)” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (l)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(K)(i)(II), substituted “Administrator” for “Assistant Secretary”.

Subsec. (l)(3)(A). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(K)(ii)(I), substituted “Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration may extend” for “Assistant Secretary may extend” and “Administrator determines” for “Assistant Secretary determines” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (l)(3)(B). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(K)(ii)(II), substituted “Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration” for “Assistant Secretary”.

Subsec. (l)(4)(A). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(K)(iii)(I), struck out “60 days after the deadline specified in paragraph (2), and not later than” after “Not later than” and substituted “Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration issues” for “Assistant Secretary issues” and “Administrator shall” for “Assistant Secretary shall”.

Subsec. (l)(4)(B)(i), (iii)(II). Pub. L. 115–254, § 1991(d)(1)(K)(iii)(II), substituted “Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration” for “Assistant Secretary”.

2016—Subsec. (d)(4)(C), (D). Pub. L. 114–125 added subpar. (C) and redesignated former subpar. (C) as (D).

2012—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 112–218, § 2(b), which directed substitution of “explosives” for “explosive” wherever appearing in this section, was executed in subsec. (d) by making such substitution wherever appearing in text as well as by substituting “Explosives” for “Explosive” in heading, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 112–218, § 2(a), added par. (4).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 112–218, § 2(b), substituted “explosives” for “explosive” in introductory provisions and in par. (3).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 112–95 added subsec. (l).

2007—Subsecs. (g) to (i). Pub. L. 110–53, § 1602(a), added subsec. (g) and redesignated former subsecs. (g) and (h) as (h) and (i), respectively.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 110–53, § 1609, added subsec. (j).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 110–53, § 1617, added subsec. (k).

2002—Subsec. (d)(2), (3). Pub. L. 107–296 added pars. (2) and (3).

2001—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–71, § 110(b)(2), added subsec. (a) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (a). Text read as follows: “The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall prescribe regulations requiring screening of all passengers and property that will be carried in a cabin of an aircraft in air transportation or intrastate air transportation. The screening must take place before boarding and be carried out by a weapon-detecting facility or procedure used or operated by an employee or agent of an air carrier, intrastate air carrier, or foreign air carrier.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–71, § 110(b)(2), added subsec. (b) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (b). Text read as follows: “Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section, the Administrator may amend a regulation prescribed under subsection (a) to require screening only to ensure security against criminal violence and aircraft piracy in air transportation and intrastate air transportation.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–71, § 110(b)(2), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (h).

Pub. L. 107–71, § 101(f)(7), substituted “Under Secretary” for “Administrator” in introductory provisions and par. (2).

Subsecs. (d) to (g). Pub. L. 107–71, § 110(b)(2), added subsecs. (d) to (g).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 107–71, § 110(b)(1), redesignated subsec. (c) as (h).

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 107–71, title I, § 141, Nov. 19, 2001, 115 Stat. 643, provided that:

“(a)
Transfer of Assets and Personnel.—
Except as otherwise provided in this Act [see Tables for classification], those personnel, property, and records employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with a function transferred to the Transportation Security Administration by this Act shall be transferred to the Transportation Security Administration for use in connection with the functions transferred. Unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds made available to the Federal Aviation Administration to carry out such functions shall also be transferred to the Transportation Security Administration for use in connection with the functions transferred.
“(b)
Legal Documents.—
All orders, determinations, rules, regulations, permits, grants, loans, contracts, settlements, agreements, certificates, licenses, and privileges—
“(1) that have been issued, made, granted, or allowed to become effective by the Federal Aviation Administration, any officer or employee thereof, or any other Government official, or by a court of competent jurisdiction, in the performance of any function that is transferred by this Act; and
“(2) that are in effect on the effective date of such transfer (or become effective after such date pursuant to their terms as in effect on such effective date), shall continue in effect according to their terms until modified, terminated, superseded, set aside, or revoked in accordance with law by the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security [now Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration], any other authorized official, a court of competent jurisdiction, or operation of law.
“(c)
Proceedings.—
“(1)
In general.—
The provisions of this Act shall not affect any proceedings or any application for any license pending before the Federal Aviation Administration at the time this Act takes effect [Nov. 19, 2001], insofar as those functions are transferred by this Act; but such proceedings and applications, to the extent that they relate to functions so transferred, shall be continued. Orders shall be issued in such proceedings, appeals shall be taken therefrom, and payments shall be made pursuant to such orders, as if this Act had not been enacted; and orders issued in any such proceedings shall continue in effect until modified, terminated, superseded, or revoked by a duly authorized official, by a court of competent jurisdiction, or by operation of law.
“(2)
Statutory construction.—
Nothing in this subsection shall be deemed to prohibit the discontinuance or modification of any proceeding described in paragraph (1) under the same terms and conditions and to the same extent that such proceeding could have been discontinued or modified if this Act had not been enacted.
“(3)
Orderly transfer.—
The Secretary of Transportation is authorized to provide for the orderly transfer of pending proceedings from the Federal Aviation Administration.
“(d)
Suits.—
“(1)
In general.—
This Act shall not affect suits commenced before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 2001], except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3). In all such suits, proceeding shall be had, appeals taken, and judgments rendered in the same manner and with the same effect as if this Act had not been enacted.
“(2)
Suits by or against faa.—
Any suit by or against the Federal Aviation Administration begun before the date of the enactment of this Act shall be continued, insofar as it involves a function retained and transferred under this Act, with the Transportation Security Administration (to the extent the suit involves functions transferred to the Transportation Security Administration under this Act) substituted for the Federal Aviation Administration.
“(3)
Remanded cases.—
If the court in a suit described in paragraph (1) remands a case to the Transportation Security Administration, subsequent proceedings related to such case shall proceed in accordance with applicable law and regulations as in effect at the time of such subsequent proceedings.
“(e)
Continuance of Actions Against Officers.—
No suit, action, or other proceeding commenced by or against any officer in his official capacity as an officer of the Federal Aviation Administration shall abate by reason of the enactment of this Act. No cause of action by or against the Federal Aviation Administration, or by or against any officer thereof in his official capacity, shall abate by reason of the enactment of this Act.
“(f)
Exercise of Authorities.—
Except as otherwise provided by law, an officer or employee of the Transportation Security Administration may, for purposes of performing a function transferred by this Act or the amendments made by this Act, exercise all authorities under any other provision of law that were available with respect to the performance of that function to the official responsible for the performance of the function immediately before the effective date of the transfer of the function under this Act.
“(g)
Act Defined.—
In this section, the term ‘Act’ includes the amendments made by this Act.”

Transition Provisions

Pub. L. 107–71, title I, § 101(g), Nov. 19, 2001, 115 Stat. 603, provided that:

“(1)
Schedule for assumption of civil aviation security functions.—
Not later than 3 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 2001], the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security [now Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration] shall assume civil aviation security functions and responsibilities under chapter 449 of title 49, United States Code, as amended by this Act, in accordance with a schedule to be developed by the Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with air carriers, foreign air carriers, and the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration. The Under Secretary shall publish an appropriate notice of the transfer of such security functions and responsibilities before assuming the functions and responsibilities.
“(2)
Assumption of contracts.—
As of the date specified in paragraph (1), the Under Secretary may assume the rights and responsibilities of an air carrier or foreign air carrier contract for provision of passenger screening services at airports in the United States described in section 44903(c), subject to payment of adequate compensation to parties to the contract, if any.
“(3)
Assignment of contracts.—
“(A)
In general.—
Upon request of the Under Secretary, an air carrier or foreign air carrier carrying out a screening or security function under chapter 449 of title 49, United States Code, may enter into an agreement with the Under Secretary to transfer any contract the carrier has entered into with respect to carrying out the function, before the Under Secretary assumes responsibility for the function.
“(B)
Schedule.—
The Under Secretary may enter into an agreement under subparagraph (A) as soon as possible, but not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 2001]. The Under Secretary may enter into such an agreement for one 180-day period and may extend such agreement for one 90-day period if the Under Secretary determines it necessary.
“(4)
Transfer of ownership.—
In recognition of the assumption of the financial costs of security screening of passengers and property at airports, and as soon as practical after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 2001], air carriers may enter into agreements with the Under Secretary to transfer the ownership, at no cost to the United States Government, of any personal property, equipment, supplies, or other material associated with such screening, regardless of the source of funds used to acquire the property, that the Secretary determines to be useful for the performance of security screening of passengers and property at airports.
“(5)
Performance of under secretary’s functions during interim period.—
Until the Under Secretary takes office, the functions of the Under Secretary that relate to aviation security may be carried out by the Secretary or the Secretary’s designee.”

Screening Outside Primary Passenger Terminal Screening Area Pilot Program

Pub. L. 116–6, div. A, title II, § 225, Feb. 15, 2019, 133 Stat. 25, as amended by Pub. L. 116–260, div. F, title II, § 223, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 1459, provided that:

“(a) Subject to the provisions of this section, the Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration (hereafter in this section referred to as ‘the Administrator’) may conduct a pilot program to provide screening services outside of an existing primary passenger terminal screening area where screening services are currently provided or would be eligible to be provided under the Transportation Security Administration’s annually appropriated passenger screening program as a primary passenger terminal screening area.
“(b) Any request for screening services under subsection (a) shall be initiated only at the request of a public or private entity regulated by the Transportation Security Administration; shall be made in writing to the Administrator; and may only be submitted to the Transportation Security Administration after consultation with the relevant local airport authority.
“(c) The Administrator may provide the requested screening services under subsection (a) if the Administrator provides a certification to the Committee on Homeland Security and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate that implementation of subsection (a) does not reduce the security or efficiency of screening services already provided in primary passenger terminals at any impacted airports.
“(d) No screening services may be provided under subsection (a) unless the requesting entity agrees in writing to the scope of the screening services to be provided, and agrees to compensate the Transportation Security Administration for all reasonable personnel and non-personnel costs, including overtime, of providing the screening services.
“(e) The authority available under this section is effective for fiscal years 2019 through 2023 and may be utilized at not more than eight locations for transportation security purposes.
“(f)
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an airport authority, air carrier, or other requesting entity shall not be liable for any claims for damages filed in State or Federal court (including a claim for compensatory, punitive, contributory, or indemnity damages) relating to—
“(1) an airport authority’s or other entity’s decision to request that the Transportation Security Administration provide passenger screening services outside of a primary passenger terminal screening area; or
“(2) any act of negligence, gross negligence, or intentional wrongdoing by employees of the Transportation Security Administration providing passenger and property security screening services at a pilot program screening location.
“(g) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any compensation received by the Transportation Security Administration under subsection (d) shall be credited to the account used to finance the provision of reimbursable security screening services under subsection (a).
“(h)
The Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate—
“(1) an implementation plan for the pilot programs under subsection (a), including the application process, that is due by 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 15, 2019];
“(2) an evaluation plan for the pilot programs; and
“(3)
annual performance reports, by not later than 60 days after the end of each fiscal year in which the pilot programs are in operation, including—
“(A) the amount of reimbursement received by the Transportation Security Administration from each entity in the pilot program for the preceding fiscal year, delineated by personnel and non-personnel costs;
“(B) an analysis of the results of the pilot programs corresponding to the evaluation plan required under paragraph (2);
“(C) any Transportation Security Administration staffing changes created at the primary passenger screening checkpoints and baggage screening as a result of the pilot program; and
“(D) any other unintended consequences created by the pilot program.
“(i) Except as otherwise provided in this section, nothing in this section may be construed as affecting in any manner the responsibilities, duties, or authorities of the Transportation Security Administration.
“(j) For the purposes of this section, the term ‘airport’ means a commercial service airport as defined by section 47107(7) of title 49[,] United States Code.
“(k) For the purposes of this section, the term ‘screening services’ means the screening of passengers, flight crews, and their carry-on baggage and personal articles, and may include checked baggage screening if that type of screening is performed at an offsite location that is not part of a passenger terminal of a commercial airport.
“(l) For the purpose of this section, the term ‘primary passenger terminal screening area’ means the security checkpoints relied upon by airports as the principal points of entry to a sterile area of an airport.”

Reciprocal Recognition of Security Standards

Pub. L. 115–254, div. K, title I, § 1914, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3555, provided that:

“(a)
In General.—
The Administrator [of the Transportation Security Administration], in coordination with appropriate international aviation security authorities, shall develop a validation process for the reciprocal recognition of security equipment technology approvals among international security partners or recognized certification authorities for deployment.
“(b)
Requirement.—
The validation process shall ensure that the certification by each participating international security partner or recognized certification authority complies with detection, qualification, and information security, including cybersecurity, standards of the TSA [Transportation Security Administration], the Department of Homeland Security, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.”

Real-Time Security Checkpoint Wait Times

Pub. L. 115–254, div. K, title I, § 1922, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3561, provided that:

“(a)
In General.—
Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Administrator [of the Transportation Security Administration] shall make available to the public information on wait times at each airport security checkpoint at which security screening operations are conducted or overseen by the TSA [Transportation Security Administration].
“(b)
Requirements.—
The information described in subsection (a) shall be provided in real time via technology and published—
“(1) online; and
“(2) in physical locations at applicable airport terminals.
“(c)
Considerations.—
The Administrator shall only make the information described in subsection (a) available to the public if it can do so in a manner that does not increase public area security risks.
“(d)
Definition of Wait Time.—
In this section, the term ‘wait time’ means the period beginning when a passenger enters a queue for a screening checkpoint and ending when that passenger exits the checkpoint.”

Screening Technology Review and Performance Objectives

Pub. L. 115–254, div. K, title I, § 1924, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3562, provided that:

“(a)
Review of Technology Acquisitions Process.—
“(1)
In general.—
Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Administrator [of the Transportation Security Administration], in coordination with relevant officials of the Department [of Homeland Security], shall conduct a review of existing advanced transportation security screening technology testing and evaluation, acquisitions, and procurement practices within TSA [Transportation Security Administration].
“(2)
Contents.—
Such review shall include—
“(A) identifying process delays and obstructions within the Department and the Administration regarding how such technology is identified, tested and evaluated, acquired, and deployed;
“(B) assessing whether the TSA can better leverage existing resources or processes of the Department for the purposes of technology testing and evaluation;
“(C) assessing whether the TSA can further encourage innovation and competition among technology stakeholders, including through increased participation of and funding for small business concerns (as such term is described under section 3 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632));
“(D) identifying best practices of other Department components or United States Government entities; and
“(E) a plan to address any problems or challenges identified by such review.
“(b)
Briefing.—
The Administrator shall provide to the appropriate committees of Congress [Committees on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives] a briefing on the findings of the review required under this section and a plan to address any problems or challenges identified by such review.
“(c)
Acquisitions and Procurement Enhancement.—
Incorporating the results of the review in subsection (a), the Administrator shall—
“(1) engage in outreach, coordination, and collaboration with transportation stakeholders to identify and foster innovation of new advanced transportation security screening technologies;
“(2) streamline the overall technology development, testing, evaluation, acquisitions, procurement, and deployment processes of the Administration; and
“(3) ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of such processes.
“(d)
Assessment.—
The Secretary [of Homeland Security], in consultation with the Chief Privacy Officer of the Department, shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a compliance assessment of the TSA acquisition process relating to the health and safety risks associated with implementation of screening technologies.
“(e)
Performance Objectives.—
The Administrator shall establish performance objectives for the testing and verification of security technology, including testing and verification conducted by appropriate third parties under section 1911 [49 U.S.C. 114 note], to ensure that progress is made, at a minimum, toward—
“(1) reducing time for each phase of testing while maintaining security (including testing for detection testing, operational testing, testing and verification framework, and field testing);
“(2) eliminating testing and verification delays; and
“(3) increasing accountability.
“(f)
Tracking.—
“(1)
In general.—
In carrying out subsection (e), the Administrator shall establish and continually track performance metrics for each type of security technology submitted for testing and verification, including testing and verification conducted by appropriate third parties under section 1911.
“(2)
Measuring progress toward goals.—
The Administrator shall use the metrics established and tracked under paragraph (1) to generate data on an ongoing basis and to measure progress toward the achievement of the performance objectives established under subsection (e).
“(3)
Report required.—
“(A)
In general.—
Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report assessing the extent to which the performance objectives established under subsection (e), as measured by the performance metrics established and tracked under paragraph (1) of this subsection, have been met.
“(B)
Elements.—
The report required by subparagraph (A) shall include—
“(i) a list of the performance metrics established under paragraph (1), including the length of time for each phase of testing and verification for each type of security technology; and
“(ii) a comparison of the progress achieved for testing and verification of security technology conducted by the TSA and the testing and verification of security technology conducted by third parties.
“(C)
Proprietary information.—
The report required by subparagraph (A) shall—
“(i) not include identifying information regarding an individual or entity or equipment; and
“(ii) protect proprietary information.
“(g)
Information Technology Security.—
Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a plan to conduct recurring reviews of the operational, technical, and management security controls for Administration information technology systems at airports.”

Computed Tomography Pilot Programs

Pub. L. 115–254, div. K, title I, § 1925, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3563, provided that:

“(a)
In General.—
Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Administrator [of the Transportation Security Administration] shall carry out a pilot program to test the use of screening equipment using computed tomography technology to screen baggage at passenger screening checkpoints at airports.
“(b)
Feasibility Study.—
“(1)
In general.—
Not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator, in coordination with the Under Secretary for Science and Technology of the Department [of Homeland Security], shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress [Committees on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives] a feasibility study regarding expanding the use of computed tomography technology for the screening of air cargo transported on passenger aircraft operated by an air carrier or foreign air carrier in air transportation, interstate air transportation, or interstate air commerce.
“(2)
Considerations.—
In conducting the feasibility study under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall consider the following:
“(A) Opportunities to leverage computed tomography systems used for screening passengers and baggage.
“(B) Costs and benefits of using computed tomography technology for screening air cargo.
“(C) An analysis of emerging computed tomography systems that may have potential to enhance the screening of air cargo, including systems that may address aperture challenges associated with screening certain categories of air cargo.
“(D) An analysis of emerging screening technologies, in addition to computed tomography, that may be used to enhance the screening of air cargo.
“(c)
Pilot Program.—
Not later than 120 days after the date the feasibility study is submitted under subsection (b), the Administrator shall initiate a 2-year pilot program to achieve enhanced air cargo security screening outcomes through the use of new or emerging screening technologies, such as computed tomography technology, as identified through such study.
“(d)
Updates.—
Not later than 60 days after the date the pilot program under subsection (c) is initiated, and biannually thereafter for 2 years, the Administrator shall brief the appropriate committees of Congress on the progress of implementation of such pilot program.
“(e)
Definitions.—
In this section:
“(1)
Air carrier.—
The term ‘air carrier’ has the meaning given the term in section 40102 of title 49, United States Code.
“(2)
Air transportation.—
The term ‘air transportation’ has the meaning given the term in section 40102 of title 49, United States Code.
“(3)
Foreign air carrier.—
The term ‘foreign air carrier’ has the meaning given the term in section 40102 of title 49, United States Code.
“(4)
Interstate air commerce.—
The term ‘interstate air commerce’ has the meaning given the term in section 40102 of title 49, United States Code.
“(5)
Interstate air transportation.—
The term ‘interstate air transportation’ has the meaning given the term in section 40102 of title 49, United States Code.”

Screening Performance Assessments

Pub. L. 115–254, div. K, title I, § 1947, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3587, provided that:

“Subject to part 1520 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, the Administrator [of the Transportation Security Administration] shall quarterly make available to the airport director of an airport—
“(1) an assessment of the screening performance of that airport compared to the mean average performance of all airports in the equivalent airport category for screening performance data; and
“(2)
a briefing on the results of performance data reports, including—
“(A) a scorecard of objective metrics developed by the Office of Security Operations to measure screening performance, such as results of annual proficiency reviews and covert testing, at the appropriate level of classification; and
“(B)
other performance data, including—
“(i) passenger throughput;
“(ii) wait times; and
“(iii) employee attrition, absenteeism, injury rates, and any other human capital measures collected by the TSA [Transportation Security Administration].”

Improvements for Screening of Passengers With Disabilities

Pub. L. 115–254, div. K, title I, § 1950, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3589, provided that:

“(a)
Revised Training.—
“(1)
In general.—
Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Administrator [of the Transportation Security Administration], in consultation with nationally-recognized veterans and disability organizations, shall revise the training requirements for Transportation Security Officers related to the screening of passengers with disabilities, including passengers with disabilities who participate in the PreCheck program.
“(2)
Training specifications.—
In revising the training requirements under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall address the proper screening, and any particular sensitivities related to the screening, of a passenger with a disability—
“(A) traveling with a medical device, including an indwelling medical device;
“(B) traveling with a prosthetic;
“(C) traveling with a wheelchair, walker, scooter, or other mobility device;
“(D) traveling with a service animal; or
“(E) with sensitivities to touch, pressure, sound, or hypersensitivity to stimuli in the environment.
“(3)
Training frequency.—
The Administrator shall implement the revised training under paragraph (1) during initial and recurrent training of all Transportation Security Officers.
“(b)
Best Practices.—
The individual at the TSA [Transportation Security Administration] responsible for civil rights, liberties, and traveler engagement shall—
“(1) record each complaint from a passenger with a disability regarding the screening practice of the TSA;
“(2) identify the most frequent concerns raised, or accommodations requested, in the complaints;
“(3) determine the best practices for addressing the concerns and requests identified in paragraph (2); and
“(4) recommend appropriate training based on such best practices.
“(c)
Signage.—
At each category X airport, the TSA shall place signage at each security checkpoint that—
“(1) specifies how to contact the appropriate TSA employee at the airport designated to address complaints of screening mistreatment based on disability; and
“(2) describes how to receive assistance from that individual or other qualified personnel at the security screening checkpoint.
“(d)
Reports to Congress.—
Not later than September 30 of the first full fiscal year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], and each fiscal year thereafter, the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress [Committees on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives] a report on the checkpoint experiences of passengers with disabilities, including the following:
“(1) The number and most frequent types of disability-related complaints received.
“(2) The best practices recommended under subsection (b) to address the top areas of concern.
“(3) The estimated wait times for assist requests for passengers with disabilities, including disabled passengers who participate in the PreCheck program.”

Air Cargo Advance Screening Program

Pub. L. 115–254, div. K, title I, § 1951, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3590, provided that:

“(a)
In General.—
The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection and the Administrator [of the Transportation Security Administration], consistent with the requirements of the Trade Act of 2002 (Public Law 107–210)[,] shall—
“(1) establish an air cargo advance screening program (referred to in this section as the ‘ACAS Program’) for the collection of advance electronic information from air carriers and other persons within the supply chain regarding cargo being transported to the United States by air;
“(2) under such program, require that such information be transmitted by such air carriers and other persons at the earliest point practicable prior to loading of such cargo onto an aircraft destined to or transiting through the United States;
“(3) establish appropriate communications systems with freight forwarders, shippers, and air carriers;
“(4) establish a system that will allow freight forwarders, shippers, and air carriers to provide shipment level data for air cargo, departing from any location that is inbound to the United States; and
“(5) identify opportunities in which the information furnished in compliance with the ACAS Program could be used by the Administrator.
“(b)
Inspection of High-risk Cargo.—
Under the ACAS Program, the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection and the Administrator shall ensure that all cargo that has been identified as high-risk is inspected—
“(1) prior to the loading of such cargo onto aircraft at the last point of departure; or
“(2) at an earlier point in the supply chain, before departing for the United States.
“(c)
Consultation.—
In carrying out the ACAS Program, the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection and the Administrator shall consult with relevant stakeholders, as appropriate, to ensure that an operationally feasible and practical approach to—
“(1) the collection of advance information with respect to cargo on aircraft departing for the United States is applied; and
“(2) the inspection of high-risk cargo recognizes the significant differences among air cargo business models and modes of transportation.
“(d)
Analysis.—
The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection and the Administrator may analyze the information described in subsection (a) in the Department of Homeland Security’s automated targeting system and integrate such information with other intelligence to enhance the accuracy of the risk assessment process under the ACAS Program.
“(e)
No Duplication.—
The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection and the Administrator shall carry out this section in a manner that, after the ACAS Program is fully in effect, ensures, to the greatest extent practicable, that the ACAS Program does not duplicate other Department [of Homeland Security] programs or requirements relating to the submission of air cargo data or the inspection of high-risk cargo.
“(f)
Consideration of Industry.—
In carrying out the ACAS Program, the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection and the Administrator shall—
“(1) consider the content and timeliness of the available data may vary among entities in the air cargo industry and among countries;
“(2) explore procedures to accommodate the variations described in paragraph (1) while maximizing the contribution of such data to the risk assessment process under the ACAS Program;
“(3) test the business processes, technologies, and operational procedures required to provide advance information with respect to cargo on aircraft departing for the United States and carry out related inspection of high-risk cargo, while ensuring delays and other negative impacts on vital supply chains are minimized; and
“(4) consider the cost, benefit, and feasibility before establishing any set time period for submission of certain elements of the data for air cargo under this section in line with the regulatory guidelines specified in Executive Order 13563 [5 U.S.C. 601 note] or any successor Executive order or regulation.
“(g)
Guidance.—
The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection and the Administrator shall provide guidance for participants in the ACAS Program regarding the requirements for participation, including requirements for transmitting shipment level data.
“(h)
Use of Data.—
The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection and the Administrator shall use the data provided under the ACAS Program for targeting shipments for screening and aviation security purposes only.
“(i)
Final Rule.—
Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, in coordination with the Administrator, shall issue a final regulation to implement the ACAS Program to include the electronic transmission to U.S. Customs and Border Protection of data elements for targeting cargo, including appropriate security elements of shipment level data.
“(j)
Report.—
Not later than 180 days after the date of the commencement of the ACAS Program, the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection and the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress [Committees on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives] a report detailing the operational implementation of providing advance information under the ACAS Program and the value of such information in targeting cargo.”

Raising International Standards

Pub. L. 115–254, div. K, title I, § 1955(c), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3596, provided that:

“Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Administrator [of the Transportation Security Administration] shall collaborate with other aviation authorities and the United States Ambassador or the Charge d’Affaires to the United States Mission to the International Civil Aviation Organization, as applicable, to advance a global standard for each international airport to document and track the removal and disposal of any security screening equipment to ensure the screening equipment does not come into the possession of terrorists or otherwise pose a risk to security.”

International Security Standards

Pub. L. 115–254, div. K, title I, § 1956, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3596, provided that:

“(a)
Global Aviation Security Review.—
“(1)
In general.—
Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Administrator [of the Transportation Security Administration], in coordination with the Commissioner of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the Director of the Office of International Engagement of the Department of Homeland Security, and the Secretary of State, shall conduct a global aviation security review to improve aviation security standards, including standards intended to mitigate cybersecurity threats, across the global aviation system.
“(2)
Best practices.—
The global aviation security review shall establish best practices regarding the following:
“(A) Collaborating with foreign partners to improve global aviation security capabilities and standards.
“(B)
Identifying foreign partners that—
“(i) have not successfully implemented security protocols from the International Civil Aviation Organization or the Department of Homeland Security; and
“(ii) have not taken steps to implement such security protocols;[.]
“(C) Improving the development, outreach, and implementation process for security directives or emergency amendments issued to domestic and foreign air carriers.
“(D) Assessing the cybersecurity risk of security screening equipment.
“(b)
Notification.—
Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator, in consultation with the United States Ambassador to the International Civil Aviation Organization, shall notify the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, and the Committee on Homeland Security and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives of the progress of the review under subsection (a) and any proposed international improvements to aviation security.
“(c)
ICAO.—
Subject to subsection (a), the Administrator and Ambassador shall take such action at the International Civil Aviation Organization as the Administrator and Ambassador consider necessary to advance aviation security improvement proposals, including if practicable, introducing a resolution to raise minimum standards for aviation security.
“(d)
Briefings to Congress.—
Beginning not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, and periodically thereafter, the Administrator, in consultation with the Ambassador with respect to subsection (c), shall brief the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, and the Committee on Homeland Security and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives on the implementation of subsections (a) and (b).”

Carriage of Weapons, Explosives, and Incendiaries by Individuals

Pub. L. 115–254, div. K, title I, § 1962, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3601, provided that:

“(a)
Interpretive Rule.—
Subject to subsections (b) and (c), the Administrator [of the Transportation Security Administration] shall periodically review and amend, as necessary, the interpretive rule (68 Fed. Reg. 7444) that provides guidance to the public on the types of property considered to be weapons, explosives, and incendiaries prohibited under section 1540.111 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations.
“(b)
Considerations.—
Before determining whether to amend the interpretive rule to include or remove an item from the prohibited list, the Administrator shall—
“(1)
research and evaluate—
“(A) the impact, if any, the amendment would have on security risks;
“(B) the impact, if any, the amendment would have on screening operations, including effectiveness and efficiency; and
“(C) whether the amendment is consistent with international standards and guidance, including of the International Civil Aviation Organization; and
“(2) consult with appropriate aviation security stakeholders, including ASAC [Aviation Security Advisory Committee].
“(c)
Exceptions.—
Except for plastic or round bladed butter knives, the Administrator may not amend the interpretive rule described in subsection (a) to authorize any knife to be permitted in an airport sterile area or in the cabin of an aircraft.
“(d)
Notification.—
The Administrator shall—
“(1) publish in the Federal Register any amendment to the interpretive rule described in subsection (a); and
“(2) notify the appropriate committees of Congress [Committees on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives] of the amendment not later than 3 days before publication under paragraph (1).”

Consideration of Privacy and Civil Liberties

Pub. L. 115–141, div. F, title V, § 521, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 628, provided that:

“Hereafter, in developing any process to screen aviation passengers and crews for transportation or national security purposes, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall ensure that all such processes take into consideration such passengers’ and crews’ privacy and civil liberties consistent with applicable laws, regulations, and guidance.”

Bottles and Breastfeeding Equipment Screening

Pub. L. 114–293, Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1503, provided that:

“SECTION 1.
SHORT TITLE.

“This Act may be cited as the ‘Bottles and Breastfeeding Equipment Screening Act’.

“SEC. 2.
TSA SECURITY SCREENING GUIDELINES FOR BABY FORMULA, BREAST MILK, PURIFIED DEIONIZED WATER FOR INFANTS, AND JUICE ON AIRPLANES; TRAINING ON SPECIAL PROCEDURES.
“Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 16, 2016], the Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration shall—
“(1) notify air carriers and security screening personnel of the Transportation Security Administration and personnel of private security companies providing security screening pursuant to section 44920 of title 49, United States Code, of such Administration’s guidelines regarding permitting baby formula, breast milk, purified deionized water for infants, and juice on airplanes under the Administration’s guidelines known as the 3–1–1 Liquids Rule Exemption; and
“(2) in training procedures for security screening personnel of the Administration and private security companies providing security screening pursuant to section 44920 of title 49, United States Code, include training on special screening procedures.”

Aviation Security

Pub. L. 114–190, title III, §§ 3001–3506, July 15, 2016, 130 Stat. 649–664, as amended by Pub. L. 115–254, div. K, title I, §§ 1937(b)(1), 1955(b), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3579, 3596, provided that:

“SEC. 3001.
SHORT TITLE.

“This title [amending section 44946 of this title and sections 607, 609, and 1112 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and enacting this note] may be cited as the ‘Aviation Security Act of 2016’.

“SEC. 3002.
DEFINITIONS.
“In this title:
“(1)
Administrator.—
The term ‘Administrator’ means the Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration.
“(2)
Department.—
The term ‘Department’ means the Department of Homeland Security.
“(3)
Precheck program.—
The term ‘PreCheck Program’ means the trusted traveler program implemented by the Transportation Security Administration under section 109(a)(3) of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act (Public Law 107–71; 49 U.S.C. 114 note).
“(4)
TSA.—
The term ‘TSA’ means the Transportation Security Administration.
“[Subtitle A—
TSA PreCheck Expansion]

“[SECS. 3101, 3102. Repealed. Pub. L. 115–254, div. K, title I, § 1937(b)(1), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3579.]

“Subtitle B—
Securing Aviation From Foreign Entry Points and Guarding Airports Through Enhanced Security
“SEC. 3201.
LAST POINT OF DEPARTURE AIRPORT SECURITY ASSESSMENT.
“(a)
In General.—
Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [July 15, 2016], the Administrator shall conduct a comprehensive security risk assessment of all last point of departure airports with nonstop flights to the United States.
“(b)
Contents.—
The security risk assessment required under subsection (a) shall include consideration of the following:
“(1) The level of coordination and cooperation between the TSA and the foreign government of the country in which the last point of departure airport with nonstop flights to the United States is located.
“(2) The intelligence and threat mitigation capabilities of the country in which such airport is located.
“(3) The number of known or suspected terrorists annually transiting through such airport.
“(4) The degree to which the foreign government of the country in which such airport is located mandates, encourages, or prohibits the collection, analysis, and sharing of passenger name records.
“(5) The passenger security screening practices, capabilities, and capacity of such airport.
“(6) The security vetting undergone by aviation workers at such airport.
“(7) The access controls utilized by such airport to limit to authorized personnel access to secure and sterile areas of such airports.
“SEC. 3202.
SECURITY COORDINATION ENHANCEMENT PLAN.
“(a)
In General.—
Not later than 240 days after the date of enactment of this Act [July 15, 2016], the Administrator shall submit to Congress and the Government Accountability Office a plan—
“(1) to enhance and bolster security collaboration, coordination, and information sharing relating to securing international-inbound aviation between the United States and domestic and foreign partners, including U.S. Customs and Border Protection, foreign government entities, passenger air carriers, cargo air carriers, and United States Government entities, in order to enhance security capabilities at foreign airports, including airports that may not have nonstop flights to the United States but are nonetheless determined by the Administrator to be high risk; and
“(2) that includes an assessment of the ability of the TSA to enter into a mutual agreement with a foreign government entity that permits TSA representatives to conduct without prior notice inspections of foreign airports.
“(b)
GAO Review.—
Not later than 180 days after the submission of the plan required under subsection (a), the Comptroller General of the United States shall review the efforts, capabilities, and effectiveness of the TSA to enhance security capabilities at foreign airports and determine if the implementation of such efforts and capabilities effectively secures international-inbound aviation.
“SEC. 3203.
WORKFORCE ASSESSMENT.

“Not later than 270 days after the date of enactment of this Act [July 15, 2016], the Administrator shall submit to Congress a comprehensive workforce assessment of all TSA personnel within the Office of Global Strategies of the TSA or whose primary professional duties contribute to the TSA’s global efforts to secure transportation security, including a review of whether such personnel are assigned in a risk-based, intelligence-driven manner.

“[SEC. 3204. Repealed. Pub. L. 115–254, div. K, title I, § 1955(b), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3596.]
“SEC. 3205.
NATIONAL CARGO SECURITY PROGRAM.
“(a)
In General.—
The Administrator may evaluate foreign countries’ air cargo security programs to determine whether such programs provide a level of security commensurate with the level of security required by United States air cargo security programs.
“(b)
Approval and Recognition.—
“(1)
In general.—
If the Administrator determines that a foreign country’s air cargo security program evaluated under subsection (a) provides a level of security commensurate with the level of security required by United States air cargo security programs, the Administrator shall approve and officially recognize such foreign country’s air cargo security program.
“(2)
Effect of approval and recognition.—
If the Administrator approves and officially recognizes pursuant to paragraph (1) a foreign country’s air cargo security program, an aircraft transporting cargo that is departing such foreign country shall not be required to adhere to United States air cargo security programs that would otherwise be applicable.
“(c)
Revocation and Suspension.—
“(1)
In general.—
If the Administrator determines at any time that a foreign country’s air cargo security program approved and officially recognized under subsection (b) no longer provides a level of security commensurate with the level of security required by United States air cargo security programs, the Administrator may revoke or temporarily suspend such approval and official recognition until such time as the Administrator determines that such foreign country’s cargo security programs provide a level of security commensurate with the level of security required by such United States air cargo security programs.
“(2)
Notification.—
If the Administrator revokes or suspends pursuant to paragraph (1) a foreign country’s air cargo security program, the Administrator shall notify the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate not later than 30 days after such revocation or suspension.
“(d)
Application.—
This section shall apply irrespective of whether cargo is transported on an aircraft of an air carrier, a foreign air carrier, a cargo carrier, or a foreign cargo carrier.
“SEC. 3206.

Protection of Passenger Planes From Explosives

Pub. L. 110–53, title XVI, § 1610, Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 484, provided that:

“(a)
Technology Research and Pilot Projects.—
“(1)
Research and development.—
The Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration, shall expedite research and development programs for technologies that can disrupt or prevent an explosive device from being introduced onto a passenger plane or from damaging a passenger plane while in flight or on the ground. The research shall be used in support of implementation of section 44901 of title 49, United States Code.
“(2)
Pilot projects.—
The Secretary, in conjunction with the Secretary of Transportation, shall establish a grant program to fund pilot projects—
“(A) to deploy technologies described in paragraph (1); and
“(B) to test technologies to expedite the recovery, development, and analysis of information from aircraft accidents to determine the cause of the accident, including deployable flight deck and voice recorders and remote location recording devices.
“(b)
Authorization of Appropriations.—
There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Homeland Security for fiscal year 2008 such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section. Such sums shall remain available until expended.”

Standards for Increasing the Use of Explosive Detection Equipment

Pub. L. 109–295, title V, § 518, Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1380, provided that:

“The Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with industry stakeholders, shall develop standards and protocols for increasing the use of explosive detection equipment to screen air cargo when appropriate.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation act:

Pub. L. 109–90, title V, § 524, Oct. 18, 2005, 119 Stat. 2086.

Use of Existing Equipment To Screen Passenger Cargo; Reports

Pub. L. 109–90, title V, § 525, Oct. 18, 2005, 119 Stat. 2086, as amended by Pub. L. 114–113, div. F, title V, § 510(c), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2514, provided that:

“The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) shall utilize existing checked baggage explosive detection equipment and screeners to screen cargo carried on passenger aircraft to the greatest extent practicable at each airport: Provided, That beginning with November 2005, TSA shall provide a monthly report to the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives detailing, by airport, the amount of cargo carried on passenger aircraft that was screened by TSA in August 2005 and each month.”

In-Line Checked Baggage Screening

Pub. L. 108–458, title IV, § 4019(a), (b), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3721, provided that:

“(a)
In-Line Baggage Screening Equipment.—
The Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration) shall take such action as may be necessary to expedite the installation and use of in-line baggage screening equipment at airports at which screening is required by section 44901 of title 49, United States Code.
“(b)
Schedule.—
Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004], the Assistant Secretary shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a schedule to expedite the installation and use of in-line baggage screening equipment at such airports, with an estimate of the impact that such equipment, facility modification, and baggage conveyor placement will have on staffing needs and levels related to aviation security.”

Checked Baggage Screening Area Monitoring

Pub. L. 108–458, title IV, § 4020, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3722, provided that:

“(a)
In General.—
The Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security of the Department of Homeland Security shall provide, subject to the availability of funds, assistance to airports at which screening is required by section 44901 of title 49, United States Code, and that have checked baggage screening areas that are not open to public view in the acquisition and installation of security monitoring cameras for surveillance of such areas in order to deter theft from checked baggage and to aid in the speedy resolution of liability claims against the Transportation Security Administration.
“(b)
Authorization of Appropriations.—
There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Homeland Security for fiscal year 2005 such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section. Such sums shall remain available until expended.”

Pilot Program To Evaluate Use of Blast Resistant Cargo and Baggage Containers

Pub. L. 108–458, title IV, § 4051, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3728, directed the Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration), beginning not later than 180 days after Dec. 17, 2004, to carry out a pilot program to evaluate the use of blast-resistant containers for cargo and baggage on passenger aircraft to minimize the potential effects of detonation of an explosive device, and directed the Assistant Secretary to provide incentives to air carriers to volunteer to participate in such program.

Air Cargo Security

Pub. L. 108–458, title IV, § 4052, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3728, provided that:

“(a)
Air Cargo Screening Technology.—
The Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration) shall develop technology to better identify, track, and screen air cargo.
“(b)
Improved Air Cargo and Airport Security.—
There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Homeland Security for the use of the Transportation Security Administration, in addition to any amounts otherwise authorized by law, for the purpose of improving aviation security related to the transportation of cargo on both passenger aircraft and all-cargo aircraft—
“(1) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2005;
“(2) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2006; and
“(3) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2007.
Such sums shall remain available until expended.
“(c)
Research, Development, and Deployment.—
To carry out subsection (a), there is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary, in addition to any amounts otherwise authorized by law, for research and development related to enhanced air cargo security technology as well as for deployment and installation of enhanced air cargo security technology—
“(1) $100,000,000 for fiscal year 2005;
“(2) $100,000,000 for fiscal year 2006; and
“(3) $100,000,000 for fiscal year 2007.
Such sums shall remain available until expended.
“(d)
Advanced Cargo Security Grants.—
“(1)
In general.—
The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program to issue competitive grants to encourage the development of advanced air cargo security technology, including use of innovative financing or other means of funding such activities. The Secretary may make available funding for this purpose from amounts appropriated pursuant to subsection (c).
“(2)
Eligibility criteria, etc.—
The Secretary shall establish such eligibility criteria, establish such application and administrative procedures, and provide for such matching funding requirements, if any, as may be necessary and appropriate to ensure that the technology is deployed as fully and rapidly as possible.”

Identification Standards

Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, § 7220, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3835, provided that:

“(a)
Proposed Standards.—
“(1)
In general.—
The Secretary of Homeland Security—
“(A) shall propose minimum standards for identification documents required of domestic commercial airline passengers for boarding an aircraft; and
“(B) may, from time to time, propose minimum standards amending or replacing standards previously proposed and transmitted to Congress and approved under this section.
“(2)
Submission to congress.—
Not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004], the Secretary shall submit the standards under paragraph (1)(A) to the Senate and the House of Representatives on the same day while each House is in session.
“(3)
Effective date.—
Any proposed standards submitted to Congress under this subsection shall take effect when an approval resolution is passed by the House and the Senate under the procedures described in subsection (b) and becomes law.
“(b)
Congressional Approval Procedures.—
“(1)
Rulemaking power.—
This subsection is enacted by Congress—
“(A) as an exercise of the rulemaking power of the Senate and the House of Representatives, respectively, and as such they are deemed a part of the rules of each House, respectively, but applicable only with respect to the procedure to be followed in that House in the case of such approval resolutions; and it supersedes other rules only to the extent that they are inconsistent therewith; and
“(B) with full recognition of the constitutional right of either House to change the rules (so far as relating to the procedure of that House) at any time, in the same manner and to the same extent as in the case of any other rule of that House.
“(2)
Approval resolution.—
For the purpose of this subsection, the term ‘approval resolution’ means a joint resolution of Congress, the matter after the resolving clause of which is as follows: ‘That the Congress approves the proposed standards issued under section 7220 of the 9/11 Commission Implementation Act of 2004, transmitted by the President to the Congress on ______’, the blank space being filled in with the appropriate date.
“(3)
Introduction.—
Not later than the first day of session following the day on which proposed standards are transmitted to the House of Representatives and the Senate under subsection (a), an approval resolution—
“(A) shall be introduced (by request) in the House by the Majority Leader of the House of Representatives, for himself or herself and the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives, or by Members of the House of Representatives designated by the Majority Leader and Minority Leader of the House; and
“(B) shall be introduced (by request) in the Senate by the Majority Leader of the Senate, for himself or herself and the Minority Leader of the Senate, or by Members of the Senate designated by the Majority Leader and Minority Leader of the Senate.
“(4)
Prohibitions.—
“(A)
Amendments.—
No amendment to an approval resolution shall be in order in either the House of Representatives or the Senate.
“(B)
Motions to suspend.—
No motion to suspend the application of this paragraph shall be in order in either House, nor shall it be in order in either House for the Presiding Officer to entertain a request to suspend the application of this paragraph by unanimous consent.
“(5)
Referral.—
“(A)
In general.—
An approval resolution shall be referred to the committees of the House of Representatives and of the Senate with jurisdiction. Each committee shall make its recommendations to the House of Representatives or the Senate, as the case may be, within 45 days after its introduction. Except as provided in subparagraph (B), if a committee to which an approval resolution has been referred has not reported it at the close of the 45th day after its introduction, such committee shall be automatically discharged from further consideration of the resolution and it shall be placed on the appropriate calendar.
“(B)
Final passage.—
A vote on final passage of the resolution shall be taken in each House on or before the close of the 15th day after the resolution is reported by the committee or committees of that House to which it was referred, or after such committee or committees have been discharged from further consideration of the resolution.
“(C)
Computation of days.—
For purposes of this paragraph, in computing a number of days in either House, there shall be excluded any day on which that House is not in session.
“(6)
Coordination with action of other house.—
If prior to the passage by one House of an approval resolution of that House, that House receives the same approval resolution from the other House, then the procedure in that House shall be the same as if no approval resolution has been received from the other House, but the vote on final passage shall be on the approval resolution of the other House.
“(7)
Floor consideration in the house of representatives.—
“(A)
Motion to proceed.—
A motion in the House of Representatives to proceed to the consideration of an approval resolution shall be highly privileged and not debatable. An amendment to the motion shall not be in order, not shall it be in order to move to reconsider the vote by which the motion is agreed to or disagreed to.
“(B)
Debate.—
Debate in the House of Representatives on an implementing bill or approval resolution shall be limited to not more than 4 hours, which shall be divided equally between those favoring and those opposing the resolution. A motion to further limit debate shall not be debatable. It shall not be in order to move to recommit an approval resolution or to move to reconsider the vote by which an approval resolution is agreed to or disagreed to.
“(C)
Motion to postpone.—
Motions to postpone made in the House of Representatives with respect to the consideration of an approval resolution and motions to proceed to the consideration of other business shall be decided without debate.
“(D)
Appeals.—
All appeals from the decisions of the Chair relating to the application of the Rules of the House of Representatives to the procedure relating to an approval resolution shall be decided without debate.
“(E)
Rules of the house of representatives.—
Except to the extent specifically provided in subparagraphs (A) through (D), consideration of an approval resolution shall be governed by the Rules of the House of Representatives applicable to other resolutions in similar circumstances.
“(8)
Floor consideration in the Senate.—
“(A)
Motion to proceed.—
A motion in the Senate to proceed to the consideration of an approval resolution shall be privileged and not debatable. An amendment to the motion shall not be in order, nor shall it be in order to move to reconsider the vote by which the motion is agreed to or disagreed to.
“(B)
Debate on resolution.—
Debate in the Senate on an approval resolution, and appeals in connection therewith, shall be limited to not more than 10 hours, which shall be equally divided between, and controlled by, the Majority Leader and the Minority Leader, or their designees.
“(C)
Debate on motions and appeals.—
Debate in the Senate on any debatable motion or appeal in connection with an approval resolution shall be limited to not more than 1 hour, which shall be equally divided between, and controlled by, the mover and the manager of the resolution, except that in the event the manager of the resolution is in favor of any such motion or appeal, the time in opposition thereto, shall be controlled by the Minority Leader or designee. Such leaders, or either of them, may, from time under their control on the passage of an approval resolution, allot additional time to any Senator during the consideration of any debatable motion or appeal.
“(D)
Limit on debate.—
A motion in the Senate to further limit debate is not debatable. A motion to recommit an approval resolution is not in order.
“(c)
Default Standards.—
“(1)
In general.—
If the standards proposed under subsection (a)(1)(A) are not approved pursuant to the procedures described in subsection (b), then not later than 1 year after rejection by a vote of either House of Congress, domestic commercial airline passengers seeking to board an aircraft shall present, for identification purposes—
“(A) a valid, unexpired passport;
“(B) domestically issued documents that the Secretary of Homeland Security designates as reliable for identification purposes;
“(C) any document issued by the Attorney General or the Secretary of Homeland Security under the authority of 1 of the immigration laws (as defined under section 101(a)(17) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(17))[)]; or
“(D) a document issued by the country of nationality of any alien not required to possess a passport for admission to the United States that the Secretary designates as reliable for identifications purposes
“(2)
Exception.—
The documentary requirements described in paragraph (1)—
“(A) shall not apply to individuals below the age of 17, or such other age as determined by the Secretary of Homeland Security;
“(B) may be waived by the Secretary of Homeland Security in the case of an unforeseen medical emergency.
“(d)
Recommendation to Congress.—
Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004], the Secretary of Homeland Security shall recommend to Congress—
“(1) categories of Federal facilities that the Secretary determines to be at risk for terrorist attack and requiring minimum identification standards for access to such facilities; and
“(2) appropriate minimum identification standards to gain access to those facilities.”

Deadline for Deployment of Federal Screeners

Pub. L. 107–71, title I, § 110(c), Nov. 19, 2001, 115 Stat. 616, provided that:

“(1)
In general.—
Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 2001], the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security [now Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration] shall deploy at all airports in the United States where screening is required under section 44901 of title 49, United States Code, a sufficient number of Federal screeners, Federal Security Managers, Federal security personnel, and Federal law enforcement officers to conduct the screening of all passengers and property under section 44901 of such title at such airports.
“(2)
Certification to congress.—
Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Under Secretary shall transmit to Congress a certification that the requirement of paragraph (1) has been met.”

Reports

Pub. L. 107–71, title I, § 110(d), Nov. 19, 2001, 115 Stat. 616, provided that:

“(1)
Deployment.—
Within 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 2001], the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security [now Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration] shall report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives on the deployment of the systems required by section 44901(c) of title 49, United States Code. The Under Secretary shall include in the report—
“(A) an installation schedule;
“(B) the dates of installation of each system; and
“(C) the date on which each system installed is operational.
“(2)
Screening of small aircraft.—
Within 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 2001], the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security [now Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration] shall transmit a report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives on the screening requirements applicable to passengers boarding, and property being carried aboard, aircraft with 60 seats or less used in scheduled passenger service with recommendations for any necessary changes in those requirements.”

Installation of Advanced Security Equipment; Agreements

Pub. L. 104–264, title III, § 305(b), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3252, provided that:

“The Administrator is authorized to use noncompetitive or cooperative agreements with air carriers and airport authorities that provide for the Administrator to purchase and assist in installing advanced security equipment for the use of such entities.”

Passenger Profiling

Pub. L. 104–264, title III, § 307, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3253, provided that:

“The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, the Secretary of Transportation, the intelligence community, and the law enforcement community should continue to assist air carriers in developing computer-assisted passenger profiling programs and other appropriate passenger profiling programs which should be used in conjunction with other security measures and technologies.”

Authority To Use Certain Funds for Airport Security Programs and Activities

Pub. L. 104–264, title III, § 308, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3253, which provided that funds from project grants made under subchapter I of chapter 471 of this title and passenger facility fees collected under section 40117 of this title could be used for the improvement of facilities and the purchase and deployment of equipment to enhance and ensure safe air travel, was repealed by Pub. L. 108–176, title I, § 143, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2503.

Installation and Use of Explosive Detection Equipment

Pub. L. 101–45, title I, June 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 110, provided in part that:

“Not later than thirty days after the date of the enactment of this Act [June 30, 1989], the Federal Aviation Administrator shall initiate action, including such rulemaking or other actions as necessary, to require the use of explosive detection equipment that meets minimum performance standards requiring application of technology equivalent to or better than thermal neutron analysis technology at such airports (whether located within or outside the United States) as the Administrator determines that the installation and use of such equipment is necessary to ensure the safety of air commerce. The Administrator shall complete these actions within sixty days of enactment of this Act”.

Research and Development of Improved Airport Security Systems

Pub. L. 100–649, § 2(d), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3817, provided that:

“The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall conduct such research and development as may be necessary to improve the effectiveness of airport security metal detectors and airport security x-ray systems in detecting firearms that, during the 10-year period beginning on the effective date of this Act [see Effective Date of 1988 Amendment; Sunset Provision note set out under section 922 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure], are subject to the prohibitions of section 922(p) of title 18, United States Code.”

Definitions of Terms in Title IV of Pub. L. 108–458

Pub. L. 108–458, title IV, § 4081, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3731, provided that:

“In this title [enacting section 44925 of this title, amending sections 114, 44903, 44904, 44909, 44917, 44923, 46301 to 46303, and 48301 of this title and sections 70102 and 70103 of Title 46, Shipping, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 114, 44703, 44913, 44917, 44923, 44925, and 44935 of this title, section 2751 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and section 70101 of Title 46] (other than in sections 4001 and 4026 [amending sections 114 and 44904 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 2751 of Title 22]), the following definitions apply:
“(1)
Appropriate congressional committees.—
The term ‘appropriate congressional committees’ means the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives.
“(2)
Aviation definitions.—
The terms ‘air carrier’, ‘air transportation’, ‘aircraft’, ‘airport’, ‘cargo’, ‘foreign air carrier’, and ‘intrastate air transportation’ have the meanings given such terms in section 40102 of title 49, United States Code.
“(3)
Secure area of an airport.—
The term ‘secure area of an airport’ means the sterile area and the Secure Identification Display Area of an airport (as such terms are defined in section 1540.5 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, or any successor regulations).”

Definitions of Terms in Pub. L. 107–71

For definitions of terms used in sections 101(g) and 110(c), (d), of Pub. L. 107–71, set out above, see section 133 of Pub. L. 107–71, set out as a note under section 40102 of this title.