§ 2023. Administrative and judicial review; restoration of rights
(1) Whenever an application of a retail food store or wholesale food concern to participate in the supplemental nutrition assistance program is denied pursuant to section 2018 of this title, or a retail food store or wholesale food concern is disqualified or subjected to a civil money penalty under the provisions of section 2021 of this title, or a retail food store or wholesale food concern forfeits a bond under section 2021(d) of this title, or all or part of any claim of a retail food store or wholesale food concern is denied under the provisions of section 2022 of this title, or a claim against a State agency is stated pursuant to the provisions of section 2022 of this title, notice of such administrative action shall be issued to the retail food store, wholesale food concern, or State agency involved.
(2)Delivery of notices.—A notice under paragraph (1) shall be delivered by any form of delivery that the Secretary determines will provide evidence of the delivery.
(3) If such store, concern, or State agency is aggrieved by such action, it may, in accordance with regulations promulgated under this chapter, within ten days of the date of delivery of such notice, file a written request for an opportunity to submit information in support of its position to such person or persons as the regulations may designate.
(4) If such a request is not made or if such store, concern, or State agency fails to submit information in support of its position after filing a request, the administrative determination shall be final.
(5) If such request is made by such store, concern, or State agency, such information as may be submitted by the store, concern, or State agency, as well as such other information as may be available, shall be reviewed by the person or persons designated by the Secretary, who shall, subject to the right of judicial review hereinafter provided, make a determination which shall be final and which shall take effect thirty days after the date of the delivery or service of such final notice of determination.
(6) Determinations regarding claims made pursuant to section 2025(c) of this title (including determinations as to whether there is good cause for not imposing all or a portion of the penalty) shall be made on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing in accordance with section 1
1 So in original. Probably should be “sections”.556 and 557 of title 5 in which one or more administrative law judges appointed pursuant to section 3105 of such title shall preside over the taking of evidence.
(7) Such judges shall have authority to issue and enforce subpoenas in the manner prescribed in sections 2
2 So in original. Probably should be “section”.499m(c) and (d) of this title and to appoint expert witnesses under the provisions of Rule 706 of the Federal Rules of Evidence.
(8) The Secretary may not limit the authority of such judges presiding over determinations regarding claims made pursuant to section 2025(c) of this title.
(9) The Secretary shall provide a summary procedure for determinations regarding claims made pursuant to section 2025(c) of this title in amounts less than $50,000.
(10) Such summary procedure need not include an oral hearing.
(11) On a petition by the State agency or sua sponte, the Secretary may permit the full administrative review procedure to be used in lieu of such summary review procedure for a claim of less than $50,000.
(12) Subject to the right of judicial review hereinafter provided, a determination made by an administrative law judge regarding a claim made pursuant to section 2025(c) of this title shall be final and shall take effect thirty days after the date of the delivery or service of final notice of such determination.
(13) If the store, concern, or State agency feels aggrieved by such final determination, it may obtain judicial review thereof by filing a complaint against the United States in the United States court for the district in which it resides or is engaged in business, or, in the case of a retail food store or wholesale food concern, in any court of record of the State having competent jurisdiction, within thirty days after the date of delivery or service of the final notice of determination upon it, requesting the court to set aside such determination.
(14) The copy of the summons and complaint required to be delivered to the official or agency whose order is being attacked shall be sent to the Secretary or such person or persons as the Secretary may designate to receive service of process.
(15) The suit in the United States district court or State court shall be a trial de novo by the court in which the court shall determine the validity of the questioned administrative action in issue, except that judicial review of determinations regarding claims made pursuant to section 2025(c) of this title shall be a review on the administrative record.
(16) If the court determines that such administrative action is invalid, it shall enter such judgment or order as it determines is in accordance with the law and the evidence.
(17) During the pendency of such judicial review, or any appeal therefrom, the administrative action under review shall be and remain in full force and effect, unless on application to the court on not less than ten days’ notice, and after hearing thereon and a consideration by the court of the applicant’s likelihood of prevailing on the merits and of irreparable injury, the court temporarily stays such administrative action pending disposition of such trial or appeal.
(18)Suspension of stores pending review.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, any permanent disqualification of a retail food store or wholesale food concern under paragraph (3) or (4) of section 2021(b) of this title shall be effective from the date of receipt of the notice of disqualification. If the disqualification is reversed through administrative or judicial review, the Secretary shall not be liable for the value of any sales lost during the disqualification period.
(b) In any judicial action arising under this chapter, any allotments found to have been wrongfully withheld shall be restored only for periods of not more than one year prior to the date of the commencement of such action, or in the case of an action seeking review of a final State agency determination, not more than one year prior to the date of the filing of a request with the State for the restoration of such allotments or, in either case, not more than one year prior to the date the State agency is notified or otherwise discovers the possible loss to a household.
(Pub. L. 88–525, § 14, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 708; Pub. L. 91–671, § 7, Jan. 11, 1971, 84 Stat. 2052; Pub. L. 92–603, title IV, § 411(f), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1492; Pub. L. 95–113, title XIII, § 1301, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 974; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIII, § 1320(b), Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1286; Pub. L. 97–253, title I, § 176(b), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 781; Pub. L. 99–198, title XV, § 1536, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1585; Pub. L. 100–435, title VI, § 603, Sept. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 1674; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, § 13951(b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 678; Pub. L. 104–193, title VIII, § 845, Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2333; Pub. L. 107–171, title IV, § 4117(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 316; Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, §§ 4001(b), 4002(a)(7), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1092, 1094; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title IV, §§ 4001(b), 4002(a)(7), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1853, 1855.)