U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

Regulations most recently checked for updates: Sep 22, 2020

§ 24.175 - General.

The kinds of wine which may be produced on bonded wine premises are as follows:

(a) Natural wine produced in accordance with subparts F and G of this part;

(b) Special natural wine produced in accordance with subpart H of this part;

(c) Agricultural wine produced in accordance with subpart I of this part; and

(d) Other than standard wine produced in accordance with subpart J of this part.

(Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1380, as amended, 1383, as amended, 1384, as amended, 1385, as amended, 1386, as amended (26 U.S.C. 5361,5382,5384,5385,5386,5387

§ 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

(a) Natural wine production. Water may be used to flush equipment during the crushing process or to facilitate fermentation but the density of the juice may not be reduced below 22 degrees Brix. However, if the juice is already less than 23 degrees Brix, the use of water to flush equipment or facilitate fermentation is limited to a juice density reduction of no more than one degree Brix. At the start of fermentation no material may be added except water, sugar, concentrated fruit juice from the same kind of fruit, malo-lactic bacteria, yeast or yeast cultures grown in juice of the same kind of fruit, and yeast foods, sterilizing agents, precipitating agents or other approved fermentation adjuncts. Water may be used to rehydrate yeast to a maximum to two gallons of water for each pound of yeast; however, except for an operation involving the preparation of a yeast culture starter and must mixture for later use in initiating fermentation, the maximum volume increase of the juice after the addition of rehydrated yeast is limited to 0.5 percent. After fermentation natural wines may be blended with each other only if produced from the same kind of fruit.

(b) Determination of wine produced. Upon completion of fermentation or removal from the fermenter, the volume of wine will be accurately determined, recorded and reported on TTB F 5120.17, Report of Bonded Wine Premises Operations, as wine produced. Any wine or juice remaining in fermentation tanks at the end of the reporting period will be recorded and reported on TTB F 5120.17.

[T.D. ATF-312, 56 FR 31078, July 9, 1990, as amended by ATF-338, 58 FR 19064, Apr. 12, 1993]

§ 24.177 - Chaptalization (Brix adjustment).

In producing natural grape wine from juice having a low sugar content, pure dry sugar or concentrated grape juice may be added before or during fermentation to develop alcohol. In producing natural fruit wine from juice having a low sugar content, sugar, or concentrated juice of the same kind of fruit may be added before or during fermentation to develop alcohol. The quantity of sugar or concentrated juice added may not raise the original density of the juice above 25 degrees Brix. If grape juice or grape wine is ameliorated after chaptalization, the quantity of pure dry sugar added to juice for chaptalization will be included as ameliorating material. If fruit juice or fruit wine is ameliorated after chaptalization, pure dry sugar added under this section is not considered as ameliorating material. However, if fruit juice or fruit wine is ameliorated after chaptalization and liquid sugar or invert sugar syrup is used to chaptalize the fruit juice, the volume of water contained in the liquid sugar or invert sugar syrup will be included as ameliorating material.

(Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1385, as amended (26 U.S.C. 5382,5384.D. ATF-299, 55 FR 24989, June 19, 1990, as amended by T.D. ATF-312, 56 FR 31078, July 9, 1991; T.D. ATF-413, 64 FR 46844, Aug. 27, 1999]

§ 24.178 - Amelioration.

(a) General. In producing natural wine from juice having a fixed acid level exceeding 5.0 grams per liter, the winemaker may adjust the fixed acid level by adding ameliorating material (water, sugar, or a combination of both) before, during and after fermentation. The fixed acid level of the juice is determined prior to fermentation and is calculated as tartaric acid for grapes, malic acid for apples, and citric acid for other fruit. Each 20 gallons of ameliorating material added to 1,000 gallons of juice or wine will reduce the fixed acid level of the juice or wine by 0.1 gram per liter (the fixed acid level of the juice or wine may not be less than 5.0 gram per liter after the addition of ameliorating material).

(b) Limitations. (1) Amelioration is permitted only at the bonded wine premises where the natural wine is produced.

(2) The ameliorating material added to juice or wine may not reduce the fixed acid level of the ameliorated juice or wine to less than 5.0 grams per liter.

(3) For all wine, except for wine described in paragraph (b)(4) of this section, the volume of ameliorating material added to juice or wine may not exceed 35 percent of the total volume of ameliorated juice or wine (calculated exclusive of pulp). Where the starting fixed acid level is or exceeds 7.69 grams per liter, a maximum of 538.4 gallons of ameliorating material may be added to each 1,000 gallons of wine or juice.

(4) For wine produced from any fruit (excluding grapes) or berry with a natural fixed acid of 20 parts per thousand or more (before any correction of such fruit or berry), the volume of ameliorating material added to juice or wine may not exceed 60 percent of the total volume of ameliorated juice or wine (calculated exclusive of pulp). If the starting fixed acid level is or exceeds 12.5 grams per liter, a maximum of 1,500 gallons of ameliorating material may be added to each 1,000 gallons of wine or juice.

(26 U.S.C. 5383,5384. [T.D. ATF-299, 55 FR 24989, June 19, 1990, as amended by T.D. ATF-403, 64 FR 50253, Sept. 16, 1999; T.D. ATF-458, 66 FR 37578, July 19, 2001]

§ 24.179 - Sweetening.

(a) General. In producing natural wine, sugar, juice or concentrated fruit juice of the same kind of fruit may be added after fermentation to sweeten wine. When juice or concentrated fruit juice is added, the solids content of the finished wine may not exceed 21 percent by weight. When liquid sugar or invert sugar syrup is used, the resulting volume may not exceed the volume which would result from the maximum use of pure dry sugar only.

(b) Grape wine. Any natural grape wine of a winemaker's own production may have sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does not exceed 17 percent total solids by weight if the alcohol content is more than 14 percent by volume or 21 percent total solids by weight if the alcohol content is not more than 14 percent by volume.

(c) Fruit wine. Any natural fruit wine of a winemaker's own production may have sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does not exceed 21 percent total solids by weight and the alcohol content is not more than 14 percent by volume.

(d) Specially sweetened natural wine. Specially sweetened natural wine is produced by adding to natural wine of the winemaker's own production sufficient pure dry sugar, juice or concentrated fruit juice of the same kind of fruit, separately or in combination, so that the finished product has a total solids content between 17 percent and 35 percent by weight, and an alcohol content of not more than 14 percent by volume. Natural wine containing added wine spirits may be used in the production of specially sweetened natural wine; however, wine spirits may not be added to specially sweetened natural wine. Specially sweetened natural wines may be blended with each other, or with natural wine or heavy bodied blending wine (including juice or concentrated fruit juice to which wine spirits have been added), in the further production of specially sweetened natural wine only if the wines (or juice) so blended are made from the same kind of fruit.

(Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1383, as amended, 1384, as amended, 1385, as amended, 1386, as amended (26 U.S.C. 5382,5383,5384,5385.D. ATF-299, 55 FR 24989, June 19, 1990, as amended by T.D. ATF-312, 56 FR 31078, July 9, 1991]

§ 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original density, or to 22 degrees Brix, or to any degree of Brix between its original density and 22 degrees Brix, and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is considered juice for the purpose of standard wine production. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to any degree of Brix greater than 22 degrees Brix may be further reduced with water to any degree of Brix between its original density and 22 degrees Brix. The proprietor, prior to using concentrated fruit juice in wine production, shall obtain a statement in which the producer certifies the kind of fruit from which it was produced and the total solids content of the juice before and after concentration. Concentrated or unconcentrated fruit juice may be used in juice or wine made from the same kind of fruit for the purposes of chaptalizing or sweetening, as provided in this part. Concentrated fruit juice, or juice which has been concentrated and reconstituted, may not be used in standard wine production if at any time it was concentrated to more than 80 degrees Brix.

(Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1383, as amended (26 U.S.C. 5382)) (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1512-0298) [T.D. ATF-299, 55 FR 24989, June 19, 1990, as amended by T.D. ATF-413, 64 FR 46845, Aug. 27, 1999]

§ 24.181 - Use of sugar.

Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be determined either by measuring the increase in volume or by considering that each 13.5 pounds of pure dry sugar results in a volumetric increase of one gallon.

(Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1383, as amended, 1384, as amended, 1385, as amended, 1387, as amended (26 U.S.C. 5382,5383,5384,5392.D. ATF-299, 55 FR 24989, June 19, 1990, as amended by T.D. ATF-312, 56 FR 31078, July 9, 1991]

§ 24.182 - Use of acid to correct natural deficiencies.

(a) General. Acids of the kinds occurring in grapes or other fruit (including berries) may be added within the limitations of § 24.246 to juice or wine in order to correct natural deficiencies; however, no acid may be added to juice or wine which is ameliorated to correct natural deficiencies except that in the production of grape wine, tartaric acid may be used to reduce the pH of the juice or wine. If tartaric acid is used to correct the pH of grape juice or wine, the fixed acid level of the juice shall be measured prior to the addition of any tartaric acid to determine the maximum quantity of ameliorating material allowed. In addition, when using tartaric acid to reduce the pH of ameliorated grape juice or wine, the pH cannot be reduced below 3.0.

(b) Grape wine. Tartaric acid or malic acid, or a combination of tartaric acid and malic acid, may be added prior to or during fermentation, to grapes or juice from grapes. In addition, after fermentation is completed, citric acid, fumaric acid, malic acid, lactic acid or tartaric acid, or a combination of two or more of these acids, may be added to correct natural deficiencies. However, the use of these acids, either prior to, during or after fermentation, may not increase the fixed acid level of the finished wine (calculated as tartaric acid) above 9.0 grams per liter. In cases where the wine contains 8.0 or more grams of total solids per 100 milliliters of wine, acids may be added to the extent that the finished wine does not contain more than 11.0 grams per liter of fixed acid (calculated as tartaric acid).

(c) Fruit wine. Only citric acid may be added to citrus fruit, juice or wine, only malic acid may be added to apples, apple juice or wine, and only citric acid or malic acid may be added to other fruit (including berries) or to juice or wine derived from other fruit (including berries) to correct natural deficiencies to 9.0 grams per liter of finished wine; however, if the wine contains 8.0 or more grams of total solids per 100 milliliters of wine, acids may be added to correct natural deficiencies to the extent that the finished wine does not contain more than 11.0 grams per liter of fixed acid (calculated as malic acid for apples and citric acid for other fruit (including berries).

(d) Other use of acid. A winemaker desiring to use an acid other than the acids allowed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section to correct natural deficiencies shall follow the procedure prescribed in § 24.250. A winemaker desiring to use acid to stabilize standard wine shall follow the requirements prescribed by § 24.244.

(Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1383, as amended (26 U.S.C. 5382)) [T.D. ATF-299, 55 FR 24989, June 19, 1990, as amended by T.D. ATF-312, 56 FR 31078, July 9, 1991; T.D. ATF-350, 58 FR 52230, Oct. 7, 1993]

§ 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

Distillates containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were withdrawn as distilling material. Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received at bonded wine premises and not immediately used will be placed in a locked room or tank on bonded wine premises. Distillates containing aldehydes may not be mingled with wine spirits. If the distillates contain less than 0.1 percent of aldehydes, the proprietor shall comply with any additional condition relating to the receipt, storage, and use which the appropriate TTB officer may require to assure that the distillates are properly used and accounted for.

(Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1381, as amended, 1382, as amended (26 U.S.C. 5367,5373.D. ATF-299, 55 FR 24989, June 19, 1990, as amended by T.D. ATF-409, 64 FR 13683, Mar. 22, 1999]

§ 24.184 - Use of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate.

(a) General. In the cellar treatment of natural wine of the winemaker's own production there may be added volatile fruit-flavor concentrate produced from the same kind of fruit or from the same variety of berry or grape so long as the proportion of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate added to the wine does not exceed the equivalent proportion of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate of the original juice or must from which the wine was produced.

(b) Use of juice or must from which volatile fruit-flavor has been removed. Juice, concentrated fruit juice, or must processed at a concentrate plant is considered to be pure juice, concentrated fruit juice, or must even though volatile fruit-flavor has been removed if, at a concentrate plant or at bonded wine premises, there is added to the juice, concentrated fruit juice, or must (or in the case of bonded wine premises, to wine of the winemaker's own production made therefrom), either the identical volatile fruit-flavor removed or an equivalent quantity of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate derived from the same kind of fruit or from the same variety of berry or grape.

(c) Certificate required. The proprietor, prior to the use of volatile fruit flavor concentrate in wine production, shall obtain a certificate from the producer stating the kind of fruit or the variety of berry or grape from which it was produced and the total solids content of the juice before and after concentration.

(Sec. 201. Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1383, as amended (26 U.S.C. 5382)) (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1512-0298)