§ 317.8 - False or misleading labeling or practices generally; specific prohibitions and requirements for labels and containers.
(a) No product or any of its wrappers, packaging, or other containers shall bear any false or misleading marking, label, or other labeling and no statement, word, picture, design, or device which conveys any false impression or gives any false indication of origin or quality or is otherwise false or misleading shall appear in any marking or other labeling. No product shall be wholly or partly enclosed in any wrapper, packaging, or other container that is so made, formed, or filled as to be misleading.
(b) The labels and containers of product shall comply with the following provisions, as applicable:
(1) Terms having geographical significance with reference to a locality other than that in which the product is prepared may appear on the label only when qualified by the word “style,” “type,” or “brand,” as the case may be, in the same size and style of lettering as in the geographical term, and accompanied with a prominent qualifying statement identifying the country, State, Territory, or locality in which the product is prepared, using terms appropriate to effect the qualification. When the word “style” or “type” is used, there must be a recognized style or type of product identified with and peculiar to the area represented by the geographical term and the product must possess the characteristics of such style or type, and the word “brand” shall not be used in such a way as to be false or misleading: Provided, That a geographical term which has come into general usage as a trade name and which has been approved by the Administrator as being a generic term may be used without the qualifications provided for in this paragraph. The terms “frankfurter,” “vienna,” “bologna,” “lebanon bologna,” “braunschweiger,” “thuringer,” “genoa,” “leona,” “berliner,” “holstein,” “goteborg,” “milan,” “polish,” “italian,” and their modifications, as applied to sausages, the terms “brunswick” and “irish” as applied to stews and the term “boston” as applied to pork shoulder butts need not be accompanied with the word “style,” “type,” or “brand,” or a statement identifying the locality in which the product is prepared.
(2) Such terms as “farm” or “country” shall not be used on labels in connection with products unless such products are actually prepared on the farm or in the country: Provided, That if the product is prepared in the same way as on the farm or in the country these terms, if qualified by the word “style” in the same size and style of lettering, may be used: Provided further, That the term “farm” may be used as part of a brand designation when qualified by the word “brand” in the same size and style of lettering, and followed with a statement identifying the locality in which the product is prepared: And Provided further, That the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to products prepared in accordance with § 319.106 of this subchapter. Sausage containing cereal shall not be labeled “farm style” or “country style,” and lard not rendered in an open kettle shall not be designated as “farm style” or “country style.”
(3) The requirement that the label shall contain the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor shall not relieve any establishment from the requirement that its label shall not be misleading in any particular.
(4) The term “spring lamb” or “genuine spring lamb” is applicable only to carcasses of new-crop lambs slaughtered during the period beginning in March and terminating not beyond the close of the week containing the first Monday in October.
(5)(i) Coverings shall not be of such color, design, or kind as to be misleading with respect to color, quality, or kind of product to which they are applied. For example, transparent or semitransparent coverings for such articles as sliced bacon or fresh (uncooked) meat and meat food products shall not bear lines or other designs of red or other color which give a false impression of leanness of the product. Transparent or semitransparent wrappers, casings, or coverings for use in packaging cured, cured and smoked, or cured and cooked sausage products, and sliced ready-to-eat meat food products may be color tinted or bear red designs on 50 percent of such wrapper or covering: Provided, That the transparent or semitransparent portion of the principal display panel is free of color tinting and red designs: And provided further, That the principal display panel provides at least 20 percent unobstructed clear space, consolidated in one area so that the true nature and color of the product is visible to the consumer.
(ii) Packages for sliced bacon that have a transparent opening shall be designed to expose, for viewing, the cut surface of a representative slice. Packages for sliced bacon which meet the following specifications will be accepted as meeting the requirements of this subparagraph provided the enclosed bacon is positioned so that the cut surface of the representative slice can be visually examined:
(a) For shingle-packed sliced bacon, the transparent window shall be designed to reveal at least 70 percent of the length (longest dimension) of the representative slice, and this window shall be at least 1
(b) For stack-packed sliced bacon, the transparent window shall be designed to reveal at least 70 percent of the length (longest dimension) of the representative slice and be at least 1
(6) The word “fresh” shall not be used on labels to designate product which contains any sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, potassium nitrate, or potassium nitrite, or which has been salted for preservation.
(7)(i) No ingredient shall be designated on the label as a spice, flavoring, or coloring unless it is a spice, flavoring, or coloring, as the case may be. An ingredient that is both a spice and a coloring, or both a flavoring and a coloring, shall be designated as “spice and coloring”, or “flavoring and coloring”, as the case may be, unless such ingredient is designated by its common or usual name.
(ii) Any ingredient not designated in § 317.2(f)(1)(i) of this part whose function is flavoring, either in whole or in part, must be designated by its common or usual name. Those ingredients which are of livestock and poultry origin must be designated by names that include the species and livestock and poultry tissues from which the ingredients are derived.
(8) As used on labels of product, the term “gelatin” shall mean (i) the jelly prepared in official establishments by cooking pork skins, tendons, or connective tissue from inspected and passed product, and (ii) dry commercial gelatin or the jelly resulting from its use.
(9) Product (other than canned product) labeled with the term “loaf” as part of its name:
(i) If distributed from the official establishment in consumer size containers may be in any shape;
(ii) If distributed in a container of a size larger than that sold intact at retail the product shall be prepared in rectangular form, or as in paragraph (b)(9)(iii) of this section;
(iii) If labeled as an “Old Fashioned Loaf” shall be prepared in a traditional form, such as rectangular with rounded top or circular with flat bottom and rounded top.
(10) The term “baked” shall apply only to product which has been cooked by the direct action of dry heat and for a sufficient time to permit the product to assume the characteristics of a baked article, such as the formation of a brown crust on the surface, rendering out of surface fat, and the caramelization of the sugar if applied. Baked loaves shall be heated to a temperature of at least 160 °F. and baked pork cuts shall be heated to an internal temperature of at least 170 °F.
(11) When products such as loaves are browned by dipping in hot edible oil or by a flame, the label shall state such fact, e.g., by the words “Browned in Hot Cottonseed Oil” or “Browned by a Flame,” as the case may be, appearing as part of the product name.
(12) The term “meat” and the names of particular kinds of meat, such as beef, veal, mutton, lamb, and pork, shall not be used in such manner as to be false or misleading.
(13) The word “ham,” without any prefix indicating the species of animal from which derived, shall be used in labeling only in connection with the hind legs of swine. Ham shanks as such or ham shank meat as such or the trimmings accruing in the trimming and shaping of hams shall not be labeled “ham” or “ham meat” without qualification. When used in connection with a chopped product the term “ham” or “ham meat” shall not include the skin.
(14) The terms “shankless” and “hockless” shall apply only to hams and pork shoulders from which the shank or hock has been completely removed, thus eliminating the entire tibia and fibula, or radius and ulna, respectively, together with the overlying muscle, skin, and other tissue.
(15) Such terms as “meat extract” or “extract of beef” without qualification shall not be used on labels in connection with products prepared from organs or other parts of the carcass, other than fresh meat. Extracts prepared from any parts of the carcass other than fresh meat may be properly labeled as extracts with the true name of the parts from which prepared. In the case of extract in fluid form, the word “fluid” shall also appear on the label, as, for example, “fluid extract of beef.”
(17) When any product is enclosed in a container along with a packing substance such as brine, vinegar, or agar jelly, a declaration of the packing substance shall be printed prominently on the label as part of the name of the product, as for example, “frankfurts packed in brine,” “lamb tongue packed in vinegar,” or “beef tongue packed in agar jelly,” as the case may be. The packing substance shall not be used in such a manner as will result in the container being so filled as to be misleading.
(18) “Leaf lard” is lard prepared from fresh leaf fat.
(19) When lard or hardened lard is mixed with rendered pork fat or hardened rendered pork fat, the mixture shall be designated as “rendered pork fat” or “hardened rendered pork fat,” as the case may be.
(20) Oil, stearin, or stock obtained from beef or mutton fats rendered at a temperature above 170 °F. shall not be designated as “oleo oil,” “oleo stearin,” or “oleo stock,” respectively.
(21) When not more than 20 percent of beef fat, mutton fat, oleo stearin, vegetable stearin, or hardened vegetable fat is mixed with lard or with rendered pork fat, there shall appear on the label, contiguous to and in the same size and style of lettering as the name of the product, the words “beef fat added,” “mutton fat added,” “oleo stearin added,” “vegetable stearin added,” or “hardened vegetable fat added,” as the case may be. If more than 20 percent is added, the product name shall refer to the particular animal fat or fats used, such as, “Lard and Beef Fat.” The designation “vegetable fat” is applicable to vegetable oil, vegetable stearin, or a combination of such oil and stearin, whereas the designations “vegetable oil” and “vegetable stearin” shall be applicable only to the oil and the stearin respectively, when used in meat food products.
(22) Cooked, cured, or pickled pigs feet, pigs knuckles, and similar products, shall be labeled to show that the bones remain in the product, if such is the case. The designation “semi-boneless” shall not be used if less than 50 percent of the total weight of bones has been removed.
(23) When monoglycerides, diglycerides, and/or polyglycerol esters of fatty acids are added to rendered animal fat or a combination of such fat and vegetable fat, there shall appear on the label in a prominent manner and contiguous to the name of the product a statement such as “With Monoglycerides and Diglycerides Added,” or “With Diglycerides and Monoglycerides,” or “With Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids” as the case may be.
(24) Section 407 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act contains provisions with respect to colored margarine or colored oleomargarine (21 U.S.C. 347) which are set forth herein as footnote.
(b) No person shall sell, or offer for sale, colored oleomargarine or colored margarine unless -
(1) Such oleomargarine or margarine is packaged,
(2) The net weight of the contents of any package sold in a retail establishment is one pound or less,
(3) There appears on the label of the package (A) The word ‘oleomargarine’ or ‘margarine’ in type or lettering at least as large as any other type or lettering on such label, and (B) A full and accurate statement of all the ingredients contained in such oleomargarine, or margarine, and
(4) Each part of the contents of the package is contained in a wrapper which bears the word ‘oleomargarine’ or ‘margarine’ in type or lettering not smaller than 20-point type.
The requirements of this subsection shall be in addition to and not in lieu of any of the other requirements of this Act.
(c) No person shall possess in a form ready for serving colored oleomargarine or colored margarine at a public eating place unless a notice that oleomargarine or margarine is served is displayed prominently and conspicuously in such place and in such manner as to render it likely to be read and understood by the ordinary individual being served in such eating place or is printed or is otherwise set forth on the menu in type or lettering not smaller than that normally used to designate the serving of other food items. No person shall serve colored oleomargarine or colored margarine at a public eating place, whether or not any charge is made therefor, unless (1) each separate serving bears or is accompanied by labeling identifying it as oleomargarine or margarine, or (2) each separate serving thereof is triangular in shape.
(d) Colored oleomargarine or colored margarine when served with meals at a public eating place shall at the time of such service be exempt from the labeling requirements of section 343 of this Act (except subsection (a) and (f) of section 343 of this title) if it complies with the requirements of subsection (b) of this section.
(e) For the purpose of this section colored oleomargarine or colored margarine is oleomargarine or margarine having a tint or shade containing more than one and six tenths degrees of yellow or of yellow and red collectively, but with an excess of yellow over red, measured in terms of Lovibond tintometer scale or its equivalent” (21 U.S.C. 347).
(25) When approved proteolytic enzymes as permitted in part 318 of this subchapter are used on steaks or other raw meat cuts, there shall appear on the label, in a prominent manner, contiguous to the product name, the statement, “Tenderized with [approved enzyme],” to indicate the use of such enzymes. Any other approved substance which may be used in the solution shall also be included in the statement.
When approved inorganic chlorides as permitted in part 318 of this subchapter are used on steaks or other raw meat cuts there shall appear on the label in a prominent manner, contiguous to the product name, the statement, “Tenderized with (names of approved inorganic chloride(s))” to indicate the use of such inorganic chlorides. Any other approved substance which may be in the solution shall also be included in the statement.
(26) When dimethylpolysiloxan is added as an antifoaming agent to rendered fats, its presence shall be declared on the label contiguous to the name of the product. Such declaration shall read “Dimethylpolysiloxan Added.”
(27) When pizzas are formulated with crust containing calcium propionate or sodium propionate, there shall appear on the label contiguous to the name of the product the statement “____ added to retard spoilage of crust” preceded by the name of the preservative.
(28) Sausage of the dry varieties treated with potassium sorbate or propylparaben (propyl p-hydroxybenzoate) as permitted by part 318 of this subchapter, shall be marked or labeled with a statement disclosing such treatment and the purpose thereof, such as “dipped in a potassium sorbate solution to retard mold growth.”
(29) Meat of goats shall be identified as goat meat or chevon.
(30) The term “Chitterlings” shall apply to the large intestines of swine, or young bovine animals when preceded with the word “Calf” or “Veal.” Meat food products that contain chitterlings or calf or veal chitterlings, in accordance with § 318.6(b)(8) of this subchapter shall be identified with product names that refer to such ingredients, as for instance, “Chitterling Loaf,” “Chitterling Pie,” or “Calf Chitterlings and Gravy,” and shall be packed in containers having a capacity of 3 pounds or less and of a kind usually sold at retail intact and bearing such other information as is required by this part.
(31) Products that contain blood from livestock as permitted by part 318 of this subchapter shall be labeled with a name that includes the term “blood,” and the specific kind of blood shall be declared in the ingredient statement, e.g., “Swine blood,” in the manner required by this part.
(32) A calendar date may be shown on labeling when declared in accordance with the provisions of this subparagraph:
(i) The calendar date shall express the month of the year and the day of the month for all products and also the year in the case of products hermetically sealed in metal or glass containers, dried or frozen products, or any other products that the Administrator finds should be labeled with the year because the distribution and marketing practices with respect to such products may cause a label without a year identification to be misleading.
(ii) Immediately adjacent to the calendar date there must be a phrase explaining the meaning of the date, in terms of “packing” date, “sell by” date, or “use before” date, with or without a further qualifying phrase, e.g., “For Maximum Freshness” or “For Best Quality.”
(34) The terms “All,” “Pure,” “100%,” and terms of similar connotation shall not be used on labels for products to identify ingredient content, unless the product is prepared solely from a single ingredient.
(35) When agar-agar is used in canned jellied meat food products, as permitted in part 318 of this subchapter, there shall appear on the label in a prominent manner, contiguous to the product name, a statement to indicate the use of agar-agar.
(36) When sodium alginate, calcium carbonate, and lactic acid and calcium carbonate (or glucono delta-lactone) are used together in a dry binding matrix in restructured, formed meat food products, as permitted in part 318 of this subchapter, there shall appear on the label contiguous to the product name, a statement to indicate the use of sodium alginate, calcium carbonate and lactic acid and calcium carbonate (or glucono delta-lactone).
(37) The labels of sausages encased in natural casings made from meat or poultry viscera shall identify the type of meat or poultry from which the casings were derived, if the casings are from a different type of meat or poultry than the encased meat or poultry. The identity of the casing, if required, may be placed on the principal display panel or in the ingredient statement. Establishments producing, manufacturing, or using natural sausage casings are to maintain records documenting the meat or poultry source in accordance with part 320 of this chapter.
(38) The labels of sausages encased in regenerated collagen casings shall disclose this fact on the product label. The fact that the sausage is encased in collagen may be placed on the principal display panel or in the ingredient statement.
(39) When transglutaminase enzyme is used to bind pieces of meat to form a cut of meat, or to reform a piece of meat from a multiple cuts, there shall appear on the label, as part of the product name, a statement that indicates that the product has been “formed” or “reformed,” in addition to other preparation steps, e.g., “Formed Beef Tenderloin” or “Reformed and Shaped Beef Tenderloin.”
(40) A country of origin statement on the label of any meat “covered commodity” as defined in 7 CFR Part 65, Subpart A, that is to be sold by a “retailer,” as defined in 7 CFR 65.240, must comply with the requirements in 7 CFR 65.300 and 65.400.