Collapse to view only § 2262a. Overseas tort claims

§ 2201.
Establishment of Department

There shall be at the seat of government a Department of Agriculture, the general design and duties of which shall be to acquire and to diffuse among the people of the United States useful information on subjects connected with agriculture, rural development, aquaculture, and human nutrition, in the most general and comprehensive sense of those terms, and to procure, propagate, and distribute among the people new and valuable seeds and plants.

(R.S. § 520; Pub. L. 92–419, title VI, § 603(a), Aug. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 675; Pub. L. 95–113, title XV, § 1502(a), Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1021.)
§ 2202.
Executive Department; Secretary

The Department of Agriculture shall be an executive department, under the supervision and control of a Secretary of Agriculture, who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The provisions of title 4 of the Revised Statutes, including all amendments thereto, shall be applicable to said department; and all laws and parts of laws relating to the Department of Agriculture in existence February 9, 1889, as far as the same are applicable and not in conflict with this section, and only so far, are continued in full force and effect.

(Feb. 9, 1889, ch. 122, §§ 1, 4, 25 Stat. 659.)
§ 2203.
Seal

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized and directed to procure a proper seal, with such suitable inscriptions and devices as he may approve, to be known as the official seal of the Department of Agriculture, and to be kept and used to verify official documents, under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe.

(Aug. 8, 1894, ch. 238, 28 Stat. 272.)
§ 2204.
General duties of Secretary; advisory functions; research and development
(a) The Secretary of Agriculture shall procure and preserve all information concerning agriculture, rural development, aquaculture, and human nutrition which he can obtain by means of books and correspondence, and by practical and scientific experiments, accurate records of which experiments shall be kept in his office, by the collection of statistics, and by any other appropriate means within his power; he shall collect new and valuable seeds and plants; shall test, by cultivation, the value of such of them as may require such tests; shall propagate such as may be worthy of propagation; and shall distribute them among agriculturists; and he shall advise the President, other members of his Cabinet, and the Congress on policies and programs designed to improve the quality of life for people living in the rural and nonmetropolitan regions of the Nation.
(b) The Secretary is authorized to initiate or expand research and development efforts related to solution of problems of rural water supply, rural sewage and solid waste management, rural housing, rural industrialization, and technology appropriate to small- and moderate-sized family farming operations, and any other problem that the Secretary may determine has an effect upon the economic development or the quality of life in rural areas.
(R.S. § 526; Feb. 9, 1889, ch. 122, §§ 1, 4, 25 Stat. 659; Pub. L. 92–419, title VI, § 603(b), Aug. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 675; Pub. L. 94–273, § 7(4), Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 378; Pub. L. 95–113, title XV, § 1502(b), Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1021; Pub. L. 96–355, § 5, Sept. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 1174.)
§ 2204–1.
Delegation of regulatory functions of Secretary of Agriculture; definitions
As used in sections 2204–1 to 2204–5 of this title—
(a) The term “regulatory order” means an order, marketing agreement, standard, permit, license, registration, suspension or revocation of a permit, license, or registration, certificate, award, rule or regulation, if it has the force and effect of law, and if it may be made, prescribed, issued, or promulgated only after notice and hearing or opportunity for hearing have been given.
(b) The term “regulatory function” means the making, prescribing, issuing, or promulgating of a regulatory order; and includes (1) determining whether such making, prescribing, issuing, or promulgating is authorized or required by law, and (2) any action which is required or authorized to be performed before, after, or in connection with, such determining, making, prescribing, issuing, or promulgating.
(Apr. 4, 1940, ch. 75, § 1, 54 Stat. 81.)
§ 2204–2.
Delegation of regulatory functions to designated employees; status of employees; number; revocation of delegation

Whenever the Secretary of Agriculture deems that the delegation of the whole or any part of any regulatory function which the Secretary is, now or after April 4, 1940, required or authorized to perform will result in the more expeditious discharge of the duties of the Department of Agriculture, he is authorized to make such delegation to any officer or employee designated under this section. The Secretary is authorized to designate officers or employees of the Department to whom functions may be delegated under this section and to assign appropriate titles to such officers or employees. There shall not be in the Department at any one time more than two officers or employees designated under this section and vested with a regulatory function or part thereof delegated under this section. The Secretary may at any time revoke the whole or any part of a delegation or designation made by him under this section.

(Apr. 4, 1940, ch. 75, § 2, 54 Stat. 81; Pub. L. 89–554, § 8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 632, 650.)
§ 2204–3.
Authority of designated employees; retroactive revocation of delegation

Whenever a delegation is made under section 2204–2 of this title, all provisions of law shall be construed as if the regulatory function or the part thereof delegated had (to the extent of the delegation) been vested by law in the individual to whom the delegation is made, instead of in the Secretary of Agriculture. A revocation of delegation shall not be retroactive, and each regulatory function or part thereof performed (within the scope of the delegation) by such individual prior to the revocation shall be considered as having been performed by the Secretary.

(Apr. 4, 1940, ch. 75, § 3, 54 Stat. 82.)
§ 2204–4.
Delegation of functions under other laws as unaffected

The provisions of section 2204–2 of this title shall not be deemed to prohibit the delegation, under authority of any other provision of law, of the whole or any part of any regulatory function or other function to any officer or employee of the Department of Agriculture.

(Apr. 4, 1940, ch. 75, § 4, 54 Stat. 82.)
§ 2204–5.
Authorization of appropriations for cooperative research projects

There is authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of sections 2204–1 to 2204–5 of this title.

(Apr. 4, 1940, ch. 75, § 5, 54 Stat. 82.)
§ 2204a.
Rural development; utilization of non-Federal offices; location of field units; interchange of personnel and facilities
The Secretary of Agriculture shall utilize to the maximum extent practicable State, regional, district, county, local, or other Department of Agriculture offices to enhance rural development, and shall to the maximum extent practicable provide directly, or, in the case of agencies outside of the Department of Agriculture, through arrangements with the heads of such agencies, for—
(1) the location of all field units of the Federal Government concerned with rural development in the appropriate Department of Agriculture offices covering the geographical areas most similar to those covered by such field units, and
(2) the interchange of personnel and facilities in each such office to the extent necessary or desirable to achieve the most efficient utilization of such personnel and facilities and provide the most effective assistance in the development of rural areas in accordance with State rural development plans.
(Pub. L. 92–419, title VI, § 603(c), Aug. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 675; Pub. L. 96–355, § 4(5), Sept. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 1174.)
§ 2204b.
Rural development policy
(a)
Coordination of nationwide rural development program using services of executive branch departments and agencies and State and local governments

The Secretary of Agriculture shall provide leadership within the executive branch for, and shall assume responsibility for coordinating, a nationwide rural development program using the services of executive branch departments and agencies, including, but not limited to, the agencies, bureaus, offices, and services of the Department of Agriculture, in coordination with rural development programs of State and local governments.

(b)
Policy development; systematic review of Federal programs; access to information; development of process to receive and assess needs, goals, etc.; cooperative agreements to improve Federal programs affecting rural areas; public hearings and comments
(1) The Secretary shall conduct a systematic review of Federal programs affecting rural areas to (A) determine whether such areas are benefiting from such programs in an equitable proportion to the benefits received by urban areas and (B) identify any factors that may restrict accessibility to such programs in rural areas or limit participation in such programs.
(2) Subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 [5 U.S.C. 552a], the Secretary may secure directly from any Federal department or agency information necessary to carry out the Secretary’s duties under this section. Upon request of the Secretary under this paragraph, the head of any such Federal department or agency shall furnish such information to the Secretary.
(3) The Secretary shall develop a process through which multistate, State, substate, and local rural development needs, goals, objectives, plans, and recommendations can be received and assessed on a continuing basis. Such process may include the use of those rural development experts, advisors, and consultants that the Secretary deems appropriate, as well as the establishment of temporary advisory committees under the terms of the Federal Advisory Committee Act.
(4)
Cooperative agreements.—
(A)
In general.—
(B)
Cooperators.—
Each cooperator, including each Federal agency, to the extent that funds are otherwise available, may participate in any cooperative agreement or working group established pursuant to this paragraph by contributing funds or other resources to the Secretary to carry out the agreement or functions of the group.
(5) The Secretary may hold public hearings and receive comments on any matter that the Secretary determines may have a significant impact on rural development or the economic development of rural communities.
(c)
Rural development strategy and annual updates; preparation and scope; purposes; time for updates; public hearings and suggestions and recommendations; transmittal to Congressional committees; analysis of budgetary considerations and factors; evaluation and recommendations regarding implementation and revisions
(1)
The Secretary shall prepare a comprehensive rural development strategy based on the needs, goals, objectives, plans, and recommendations of local communities, substate areas, States, and multistate regions, which is designed to—
(A) maximize the effectiveness, increase the responsiveness, and improve the delivery of Federal programs to rural areas;
(B) increase the coordination of Federal programs with the development needs, objectives, and resources of local communities, substate areas, States, and multistate regions; and
(C) achieve the most effective combinations of Federal, State, and local resources to meet the needs of rural areas for orderly growth and development.
(2)
The rural development strategy shall take into account the need to—
(A) improve the economic well-being of all rural residents and alleviate the problems of low income, elderly, minority, and otherwise disadvantaged rural residents;
(B) improve the business and employment opportunities, occupational training and employment services, health care services, educational opportunities, energy utilization and availability, housing, transportation, community services, community facilities, water supplies, sewage and solid waste management systems, credit availability, and accessibility to and delivery of private and public financial resources in the maintenance and creation of jobs in rural areas;
(C) improve State and local government management capabilities, institutions, and programs related to rural development and expand educational and training opportunities for State and local officials, particularly in small rural communities;
(D) strengthen the family farm system; and
(E) maintain and protect the environment and natural resources of rural areas.
(3) The rural development strategy developed under this subsection shall be for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1982, and updated for each fiscal year thereafter.
(4) The Secretary shall hold public hearings and receive such suggestions and recommendations as the Secretary deems appropriate during the preparation of the rural development strategy and the annual updates to the strategy.
(5) The rural development strategy and the annual updates to the strategy shall be transmitted to the House Committee on Agriculture and the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry by January 31 of the calendar year immediately preceding the beginning of the appropriate fiscal year.
(6) The rural development strategy and each annual update of the strategy shall contain an analysis of the budget recommendations of the President for the fiscal year following the transmittal of the strategy or update of the strategy and of all the available budget projections of the President for subsequent fiscal years, and projections regarding the budget that are relevant or essential to the rural development policy and the rural development strategy developed under this subsection. Each annual update shall also contain a detailed statement of the findings and conclusions of the Secretary regarding the implementation during the preceding fiscal year of the rural development strategy, including any revisions of the strategy, any recommended legislation to improve the rural development effort of the Federal Government, and an evaluation of and recommendations regarding the rural development information system required under section 1926(a)(12) of this title.
(d)
Strategy implementation; goals
The Secretary shall ensure the effective implementation of the rural development strategy and maximize coordination of Federal programs affecting rural areas through a systematic effort to—
(1) improve communication and encourage cooperation among Federal departments and agencies in the administration of rural development programs;
(2) eliminate conflicts, duplication, and gaps in program coverage, and resolve contradictions and inconsistencies in the objectives, administration, and effects of rural development programs;
(3) facilitate the sharing or common location of field offices of Federal agencies administering similar or complementary programs and unification of delivery systems, where feasible, to maximize convenience and accessibility of such agencies and programs to rural residents;
(4) facilitate and expedite joint funding of rural projects through Federal programs;
(5) correct administrative problems in Federal programs that delay or hinder the effective delivery of services, assistance, or benefits to rural areas; and
(6) simplify, standardize, and reduce the complexity of applications, reports, and other forms required under Federal rural development programs.
(Pub. L. 92–419, title VI, § 607, as added Pub. L. 96–355, § 2, Sept. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 1171; amended Pub. L. 104–127, title VII, § 759A, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1138.)
§ 2204b–1.
Rural development
(a)
Congressional commitment

The Congress commits itself to a sound balance between rural and urban America. The Congress considers this balance so essential to the peace, prosperity, and welfare of all our citizens that the highest priority must be given to the revitalization and development of rural areas.

(b)
Location of Federal facilities

Congress hereby directs the heads of all executive departments and agencies of the Government to establish and maintain departmental policies and procedures giving first priority to the location of new offices and other facilities in rural areas as defined in the private business enterprise exception in section 1926(a)(7) 1

1 See References in Text note below.
of this title.

(Pub. L. 91–524, title IX, § 901, Nov. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1383; Pub. L. 92–419, title VI, § 601, Aug. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 674; Pub. L. 94–273, § 7(3), Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 378; Pub. L. 96–355, § 6, Sept. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 1174.)
§ 2204b–2.
Temporary prioritization of rural health assistance
(a)
Authority to temporarily prioritize certain rural development applications

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary, after consultation with such public health officials as may be necessary, may announce through a Federal Register notice pursuant to section 553(b)(3)(B) of title 5 a temporary reprioritization, on a national or multistate basis, for certain rural development loan and grant applications to assist rural communities in responding to a significant public health disruption.

(b)
Public health disruption

For the purposes of this section, the term “public health disruption” means an unanticipated increase in mortality or morbidity in rural communities, when compared to non-rural communities, caused by identifiable events, actions, or behavioral trends, which can be remediated by the programs of the Rural Development mission area. When measuring a public health disruption, the Secretary may analyze data on a national or multi-state basis.

(c)
Content of announcement
In the announcement, the Secretary shall—
(1) describe the nature of the public health disruption, including the causes, effects, affected populations, and affected States;
(2) explain how the programs of the Department of Agriculture will work in remedying the public health disruption;
(3) identify the services, treatments, or infrastructure best suited to address the public health disruption;
(4)
establish—
(A) the start and end dates of the reprioritization;
(B) the programs subject to reprioritization and the modifications to the application process;
(C) the process for making reprioritizations for applicable programs;
(D) the amount of funds set-aside for applicable programs, except that a set-aside for such a program shall not be greater than 20 percent of the amounts appropriated for the program for the fiscal year involved; and
(E) the region in which the reprioritization is in effect; and
(5) instruct program administrators to implement the reprioritization during the application window or announcement after the announcement takes effect.
(d)
Limitations on reprioritizations
When announcing the reprioritization, the Secretary shall—
(1) establish an initial total time period of less than 4 years, except as provided for in subsection (e);
(2) implement only 1 nationally applicable reprioritization at a time;
(3) implement only 1 regionally applicable reprioritization per State at a time; and
(4) not use reprioritizations to allocate additional funds to an affected State.
(e)
Extension

The Secretary may extend an announcement under subsection (a) for no more than 6 years in total, except that nothing shall prevent the Secretary from renewing reprioritizations by making a new announcement under subsection (a).

(f)
Rescinding the announcement

The Secretary may rescind a reprioritization announcement made under subsection (a) at any time the Secretary determines that the temporary reprioritizations are no longer needed or effective.

(g)
Notice

Not later than 48 hours after making, extending, or rescinding an announcement under this section, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate, and transmit to the Secretary of Health and Human Services, a written notice of the declaration, extension, or rescission.

(Pub. L. 92–419, title VI, § 608, as added Pub. L. 115–334, title VI, § 6101(b), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4727.)
§ 2204b–3.
Council on Rural Community Innovation and Economic Development
(a)
Purpose
The purpose of this section is to enhance the efforts of the Federal Government to address the needs of rural areas in the United States by—
(1) establishing a council to better coordinate Federal programs directed to rural communities;
(2) maximizing the impact of Federal investment to promote economic prosperity and quality of life in rural communities in the United States; and
(3) using innovation to resolve local and regional challenges faced by rural communities.
(b)
Establishment
(1) There is established a Council on Rural Community Innovation and Economic Development (referred to in this section as the “Council”).
(2) The Council shall be the successor to the Interagency Task Force on Agriculture and Rural Prosperity established by Executive Order 13790.
(c)
Membership
(1)
In general
The membership of the Council shall be composed of the heads of the following executive branch departments, agencies, and offices:
(A) The Department of Agriculture.
(B) The Department of the Treasury.
(C) The Department of Defense.
(D) The Department of Justice.
(E) The Department of the Interior.
(F) The Department of Commerce.
(G) The Department of Labor.
(H) The Department of Health and Human Services.
(I) The Department of Housing and Urban Development.
(J) The Department of Transportation.
(K) The Department of Energy.
(L) The Department of Education.
(M) The Department of Veterans Affairs.
(N) The Department of Homeland Security.
(O) The Environmental Protection Agency.
(P) The Federal Communications Commission.
(Q) The Office of Management and Budget.
(R) The Office of Science and Technology Policy.
(S) The Office of National Drug Control Policy.
(T) The Council of Economic Advisers.
(U) The Domestic Policy Council.
(V) The National Economic Council.
(W) The Small Business Administration.
(X) The Council on Environmental Quality.
(Y) The White House Office of Public Engagement.
(Z) The White House Office of Cabinet Affairs.
(AA) Such other executive branch departments, agencies, and offices as the President or the Secretary may, from time to time, designate.
(2)
Chair

The Secretary shall serve as the Chair of the Council.

(3)
Designees
A member of the Council may designate, to perform the Council functions of the member, a senior-level official who is—
(A) part of the department, agency, or office of the member; and
(B) a full-time officer or employee of the Federal Government.
(4)
Administration

The Council shall coordinate policy development through the rural development mission area.

(d)
Funding

The Secretary shall provide funding and administrative support for the Council to the extent permitted by law and within existing appropriations.

(e)
Mission and function of the Council
The Council shall work across executive departments, agencies, and offices to coordinate development of policy recommendations—
(1) to maximize the impact of Federal investment on rural communities;
(2) to promote economic prosperity and quality of life in rural communities; and
(3) to use innovation to resolve local and regional challenges faced by rural communities.
(f)
Duties
The Council shall—
(1) make recommendations to the President, acting through the Director of the Domestic Policy Council and the Director of the National Economic Council, on streamlining and leveraging Federal investments in rural areas, where appropriate, to increase the impact of Federal dollars and create economic opportunities to improve the quality of life in rural areas in the United States;
(2) coordinate and increase the effectiveness of Federal engagement with rural stakeholders, including agricultural organizations, small businesses, education and training institutions, health-care providers, telecommunications services providers, electric service providers, transportation providers, research and land grant institutions, law enforcement, State, local, and tribal governments, and nongovernmental organizations regarding the needs of rural areas in the United States;
(3) coordinate Federal efforts directed toward the growth and development of rural geographic regions that encompass both metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas;
(4) identify and facilitate rural economic opportunities associated with energy development, outdoor recreation, and other conservation related activities; and
(5)
identify common economic and social challenges faced by rural communities that could be served through—
(A) better coordination of existing Federal and non-Federal resources; and
(B) innovative solutions utilizing governmental and nongovernmental resources.
(g)
Executive departments and agencies
(1)
In general

The heads of executive departments and agencies shall assist and provide information to the Council, consistent with applicable law, as may be necessary to carry out the functions of the Council.

(2)
Expenses

Each executive department or agency shall be responsible for paying any expenses of the executive department or agency for participating in the Council.

(h)
Council working groups
(1)
In general

The Council may establish, in addition to the working groups established under paragraph (3), such other working groups as necessary.

(2)
Membership

The Secretary shall include as members of each working group such Council members, other heads of Federal agencies (or their designees as defined in (d)(3) 1

1 So in original. Probably should be “subsection (c)(3)”.
 ), and non-Federal partners as determined appropriate to the subject matter.

(3)
Required working groups
The working groups specified in this paragraph are each of the following:
(A)
The rural smart communities working group
(i)
Establishment

The Council shall establish a Rural Smart Communities Working Group.

(ii)
Duties
The Rural Smart Communities Working Group shall—
(I) not later than 1 year after the establishment of such Working Group, submit to Congress a report describing efforts of rural areas to integrate smart technology into their communities to solve challenges relating to governance, economic development, quality of life, or other relevant rural issues, as determined by the Secretary; and(II) create, publish, and maintain a resource guide designed to assist States and other rural communities in developing and implementing rural smart community programs.
(iii)
Smart community defined

For the purposes of this subparagraph, the term “smart community” means a community that has the ability to integrate multiple technological solutions, in a secure fashion, to manage a community’s assets, including local government information systems, schools, libraries, transportation systems, hospitals, power plants, law enforcement, and other community services with the goal of promoting quality of life through the use of technology in ways that improve the efficiency of services and meet residents’ needs.

(B)
Jobs accelerator working group
(i)
Establishment

The Council shall establish a Jobs Accelerator Working Group.

(ii)
Goals
The Jobs Accelerator Working Group shall support rural jobs accelerators (as defined in section 2008w(a)(4) of this title)—
(I) to improve the ability of rural communities to create high-wage jobs, accelerate the formation of new businesses with high-growth potential, and strengthen regional economies, including by helping to build capacity in the applicable region to achieve those goals; and(II) to help rural communities identify and maximize local assets and connect to regional opportunities, networks, and industry clusters that demonstrate high growth potential.
(iii)
Duties
The Jobs Accelerator Working Group shall—
(I) provide the public with available information and technical assistance on Federal resources relevant to a project and region;(II) establish a Federal support team comprised of staff from participating agencies in the working group that shall provide coordinated and dedicated support services to rural jobs accelerators; and(III) provide opportunities for rural jobs accelerators to share best practices and further collaborate with one another.
(Pub. L. 115–334, title VI, § 6306, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4752.)
§ 2204c.
Water management for rural areas
(a)
In general
The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized, directly or in coordination with any other Federal agency, entity, corporation, department, unit of State or local government, cooperative, confederation, individual, public or private organization, Indian tribe, or university, to—
(1) conduct research and demonstration projects;
(2) provide technical assistance and extension services;
(3) make grants, loans, and loan guarantees; and
(4) provide other forms of assistance, for the purpose of helping rural areas make better and more efficient use of water resources and to alleviate problems arising in such areas from droughts or lack of water.
(b)
Activities

The Secretary is authorized to provide assistance under this section for the promotion or establishment of irrigation, watersheds, and other water management and drought management activities, including water transmission, application, and activation.

(c)
Cooperation
In implementing this section, the Secretary—
(1) should address the general, special, and unique problems of water management existing in rural areas;
(2) may take action independently or in cooperation with Federal, State, public, or private entities and agencies; and
(3)
shall cooperate with—
(A) cooperatives, public or private organizations, confederations, authorities, or other entities (including such entities that may be organized under multiple State agreements or compacts and entities created under State law) to carry out projects authorized under this section; and
(B) water, watershed, and sewer authorities, rural electric cooperatives, Federal agencies, and other State or local governments or agencies.
(d)
Regulations
(1)
(2)
Such regulations shall—
(A) specify the terms and conditions that the entities described in subsections (a) and (c) must meet in order to participate in programs carried out under this section;
(B) establish a procedure under which entities described in subsections (a) and (c) may apply for assistance under this section; and
(C) foster cooperation between such entities and other Federal, State, or local agencies for the purposes of carrying out the provisions of this section.
(e)
“University” defined
As used in this section, the term “university” means—
(1) a land grant university established under the Act of July 2, 1862 (known as the “First Morrill Act”; 12 Stat. 503, chapter 130; 7 U.S.C. 301 et seq.);
(2) a land grant university established under the Act of August 30, 1890 (known as the “Second Morrill Act”; 26 Stat. 419, chapter 841; 7 U.S.C. 321 et seq.);
(3) the Tuskegee Institute; and
(4) any other support research organization.
(f)
Funding
(1) There are authorized to be appropriated each fiscal year such sums as are necessary to carry out this section.
(2) The Secretary is authorized to accept funds from non-Federal sources to carry out the activities authorized by this section.
(g)
No waivers

Nothing in this section shall authorize the waiver of a cost-share requirement under a program established under any other provision of law.

(Pub. L. 100–387, title IV, § 401, Aug. 11, 1988, 102 Stat. 956.)
§ 2204d.
Encouragement of private contracting
(a)
In general

For the purpose of promoting local job creation and private sector investment in rural communities, the Secretary of Agriculture is encouraged, where appropriate and feasible, to use private enterprise concerns located in rural areas, rather than government employees or government enterprises, to provide commercial activities or products to carry out the purposes of this title.1

1 See References in Text note below.

(b)
Plan required

The Secretary shall develop and implement a plan that will result in increasing the use of contracts awarded to private firms by the Department of Agriculture, and maximizing the use of grant, loan, or other financial assistance made for the purpose of rural development to provide the goods and services purchased to carry out the purposes of this title.1

(Pub. L. 101–624, title XXIII, § 2394, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4057.)
§ 2204e.
Office of Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis
(a)
Office of Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis

The Secretary of Agriculture shall establish in the Department of Agriculture an Office of Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis, which shall be under the direction of a Director appointed by the Secretary.

(b)
Functions
The Director shall ensure that any regulatory analysis that is conducted under this section includes a risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis that is performed consistently and uses reasonably obtainable and sound scientific, technical, economic, and other data.
(1)
In general
Effective six months after October 13, 1994, the Secretary of Agriculture shall publish in the Federal Register, for each proposed major regulation the primary purpose of which is to regulate issues of human health, human safety, or the environment that is promulgated by the Department after October 13, 1994, an analysis with as much specificity as practicable, of—
(A) the risk, including the effect of the risk, to human health, human safety, or the environment, and any combination thereof, addressed by the regulation, including, where applicable and practicable, the health and safety risks to persons who are disproportionately exposed or particularly sensitive;
(B) the costs associated with the implementation of, and compliance with, the regulation;
(C) where appropriate and meaningful, a comparison of that risk relative to other similar risks regulated by the Department or other Federal Agency, resulting from comparable activities and exposure pathways (such comparisons should consider relevant distinctions among risks, such as the voluntary or involuntary nature of risks and the preventability or nonpreventability of risks); and
(D) the quantitative and qualitative benefits of the regulation, including the reduction or prevention of risk expected from the regulation.
Where such a regulatory analysis is not practicable because of compelling circumstances, the Director shall provide an explanation in lieu of conducting an analysis under this section.
(2)
Evaluation
The regulatory analysis referred to in paragraph (1) should also contain a statement that the Secretary of Agriculture evaluated—
(A) whether the regulation will advance the purpose of protecting against the risk referred to in paragraph (1)(A); and
(B) whether the regulation will produce benefits and reduce risks to human health, human safety, or the environment, and any combination thereof, in a cost-effective manner as a result of the implementation of and compliance with the regulation, by local, State, and Federal Government and other public and private entities, as estimated in paragraph (1)(B).
(3)
Construction

This section shall not be construed to amend, modify, or alter any statute and shall not be subject to judicial review. This section shall not be construed to grant a cause of action to any person. The Secretary of Agriculture shall perform the analyses required in this section in such a manner that does not delay the promulgation or implementation of regulations mandated by statute or judicial order.

(c)
“Major regulation” defined

As used in this section, the term “major regulation” means any regulation that the Secretary of Agriculture estimates is likely to have an annual impact on the economy of the United States of $100,000,000 in 1994 dollars.

(Pub. L. 103–354, title III, § 304, Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3239.)
§ 2204f.
Repealed. Pub. L. 107–171, title VI, § 6403(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 429
§ 2204g.
Authority of Secretary of Agriculture to conduct census of agriculture
(a)
Census of agriculture required
(1)
In general

In 1998 and every fifth year thereafter, the Secretary of Agriculture shall take a census of agriculture.

(2)
Inclusion of specialty crops

Effective beginning with the census of agriculture required to be conducted in 2008, the Secretary shall conduct as part of each census of agriculture a census of specialty crops (as that term is defined in section 3 of the Specialty Crops Competitiveness Act of 2004 (7 U.S.C. 1621 note; Public Law 108–465)).

(b)
Methods

In connection with the census, the Secretary may conduct any survey or other information collection, and employ any sampling or other statistical method, that the Secretary determines is appropriate.

(c)
Year of information

The information collected in each census taken under this section shall relate to the year immediately preceding the year in which the census is taken.

(d)
Enforcement
(1)
Fraud

A person over 18 years of age who willfully gives an answer that is false to a question, which is authorized by the Secretary to be submitted to the person in connection with a census under this section, shall be fined not more than $500.

(2)
Refusal or neglect to answer questions

A person over 18 years of age who refuses or willfully neglects to answer a question, which is authorized by the Secretary to be submitted to the person in connection with a census under this section, shall be fined not more than $100.

(3)
Social Security number

The failure or refusal of a person to disclose the person’s Social Security number in response to a request made in connection with any census or other activity under this section shall not be a violation under this subsection.

(4)
Religious information

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, no person shall be compelled to disclose information relative to the religious beliefs of the person or to membership of the person in a religious body.

(e)
Geographic coverage
A census under this section shall include—
(1) each of the several States of the United States;
(2) as determined appropriate by the Secretary, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the United States Virgin Islands, and Guam; and
(3) with the concurrence of the Secretary and the Secretary of State, any other possession or area over which the United States exercises jurisdiction, control, or sovereignty.
(f)
Cooperation with Secretary of Commerce
(1)
Information provided to Secretary of Agriculture

On a written request by the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce may provide to the Secretary of Agriculture any information collected under title 13 that the Secretary of Agriculture considers necessary for the taking of a census or survey under this section.

(2)
Information provided to Secretary of Commerce

On a written request by the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Agriculture may provide to the Secretary of Commerce any information collected in a census taken under this section that the Secretary of Commerce considers necessary for the taking of a census or survey under title 13.

(3)
Confidentiality

Information obtained under this subsection may not be used for any purpose other than the statistical purposes for which the information is supplied. For purposes of sections 9 and 214 of title 13, any information provided under paragraph (2) shall be considered information furnished under the provisions of title 13.

(g)
Regulations
A regulation necessary to carry out this section may be promulgated by—
(1) the Secretary of Agriculture, to the extent that a matter under the jurisdiction of the Secretary is involved; and
(2) the Secretary of Commerce, to the extent that a matter under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Commerce is involved.
(Pub. L. 105–113, § 2, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2274; Pub. L. 110–234, title X, § 10103, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1336; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title X, § 10103, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2097.)
§ 2204h.
Local food production and program evaluation
(a)
In general
The Secretary shall—
(1)
collect data on—
(A) the production and marketing of locally or regionally produced agricultural food products; and
(B) direct and indirect regulatory compliance costs affecting the production and marketing of locally or regionally produced agricultural food products;
(2) facilitate interagency collaboration and data sharing on programs relating to local and regional food systems;
(3)
monitor—
(A) the effectiveness of programs designed to expand or facilitate local food systems; and
(B) barriers to local and regional market access due to Federal regulation of small-scale production; and
(4)
evaluate the manner in which local food systems—
(A) contribute to improving community food security; and
(B) assist populations with limited access to healthy food.
(b)
Requirements
In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall, at a minimum—
(1) collect and distribute comprehensive reporting of prices and volume of locally or regionally produced agricultural food products;
(2) conduct surveys and analysis and publish reports relating to the production, handling, distribution, retail sales, and trend studies (including consumer purchasing patterns) of or on locally or regionally produced agricultural food products;
(3)
evaluate the effectiveness of existing programs in growing local and regional food systems, including—
(A) the impact of local food systems on job creation and economic development;
(B) the level of participation in the Local Agriculture Market Program established under section 1627c of this title, including the percentage of projects funded in comparison to applicants and the types of eligible entities receiving funds;
(C) the ability of participants to leverage private capital and a synopsis of the places from which non-Federal funds are derived; and
(D) any additional resources required to aid in the development or expansion of local and regional food systems;
(4)
evaluate the impact that Federal regulation of small commercial producers of agricultural food products intended for local and regional consumption may have on—
(A) local job creation and economic development;
(B) access to local and regional fruit and vegetable markets, including for new and beginning small commercial producers; and
(C)
participation in—
(i) supplier networks;
(ii) high volume distribution systems; and
(iii) retail sales outlets;
(5) expand the Agricultural Resource Management Survey of the Department to include questions on locally or regionally produced agricultural food products; and
(6) seek to establish or expand private-public partnerships to facilitate, to the maximum extent practicable, the collection of data on locally or regionally produced agricultural food products, including the development of a nationally coordinated and regionally balanced evaluation of the redevelopment of locally or regionally produced food systems.
(c)
Report

Not later than 1 year after February 7, 2014, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report describing the progress that has been made in implementing this section and identifying any additional needs and barriers related to developing local and regional food systems.

(Pub. L. 113–79, title X, § 10016, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 952; Pub. L. 115–334, title X, § 10102(c)(3), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4898.)
§ 2204i.
Reports on land access and farmland ownership data collection
(a)
Land access
Not later than 1 year after December 20, 2018, the Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with the Chief Economist, shall submit to Congress and make publicly available a report identifying—
(1) the barriers that prevent or hinder the ability of beginning farmers and ranchers (as defined in section 2279(a) of this title) and socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers (as defined in such section) to acquire or access farmland;
(2)
the extent to which Federal programs, including agricultural conservation easement programs, land transition programs, and financing programs, are improving—
(A) farmland access and tenure for beginning farmers and ranchers and socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers; and
(B) farmland transition and succession; and
(3)
the regulatory, operational, or statutory changes that are necessary to improve—
(A) the ability of beginning farmers and ranchers and socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers to acquire or access farmland;
(B) farmland tenure for beginning farmers and ranchers and socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers; and
(C) farmland transition and succession.
(b)
Farmland ownership
The Secretary shall collect and, not less frequently than once every 3 years report, data and analysis on farmland ownership, tenure, transition, and entry of beginning farmers and ranchers and socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers (as those terms are defined in section 2279(a) of this title). In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary shall, at a minimum—
(1) collect and distribute comprehensive reporting of trends in farmland ownership, tenure, transition, barriers to entry, profitability, and viability of beginning farmers and ranchers and socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers;
(2) develop surveys and report statistical and economic analysis on farmland ownership, tenure, transition, barriers to entry, profitability, and viability of beginning farmers and ranchers, including a regular follow-on survey to each Census of Agriculture with results of the follow-on survey made public not later than 3 years after the previous Census of Agriculture; and
(3)
require the National Agricultural Statistics Service to include in the Tenure, Ownership, and Transition of Agricultural Land survey questions relating to—
(A) the extent to which non-farming landowners are purchasing and holding onto farmland for the sole purpose of real estate investment;
(B) the impact of these farmland ownership trends on the successful entry and viability of beginning farmers and ranchers and socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers;
(C) the extent to which farm and ranch land with undivided interests and no administrative authority identified have farms or ranches operating on that land; and
(D)
the impact of land tenure patterns, categorized by—
(i) race, gender, and ethnicity; and
(ii) region.
(c)
Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $3,000,000 for each fiscal 1

1 So in original. Probably should be preceded by “of”.
years 2019 through 2023, to remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 115–334, title XII, § 12607, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 5006.)
§ 2204j.
National agriculture imagery program
(a)
In general

The Secretary of Agriculture, acting through the Administrator of the Farm Service Agency, shall carry out a national agriculture imagery program to annually acquire aerial imagery during agricultural growing seasons from the continental United States.

(b)
Data
The aerial imagery acquired under this section shall—
(1) consist of high resolution processed digital imagery;
(2) be made available in a format that can be provided to Federal, State, and private sector entities;
(3) be technologically compatible with geospatial information technology; and
(4) be consistent with the standards established by the Federal Geographic Data Committee.
(c)
Supplemental satellite imagery

The Secretary of Agriculture may supplement the aerial imagery collected under this section with satellite imagery.

(d)
Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $23,000,000 for fiscal year 2019 and each fiscal year thereafter.

(Pub. L. 115–334, title XII, § 12612, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 5013.)
§ 2205.
Duties of former Commissioner of Agriculture transferred to Secretary

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized and directed to perform all the duties named in all Acts of Congress in force on February 8, 1889, to be performed by the Commissioner of Agriculture.

(Mar. 2, 1889, ch. 373, 25 Stat. 840; July 14, 1890, ch. 707, 26 Stat. 288.)
§ 2206.
Custody of property and records

The Secretary of Agriculture shall have charge, in the building and premises appropriated to the department, of the library, furniture, fixtures, records, and other property appertaining to it, or acquired for use in its business.

(R.S. § 525; Feb. 9, 1889, ch. 122, §§ 1, 4, 25 Stat. 659.)
§ 2206a.
Conveyance of excess Federal personal property
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary of Agriculture may—
(1)
convey title to excess Federal personal property owned by the Department of Agriculture, with or without monetary compensation and for such purposes as are determined by the Secretary, to—
(A) any of the 1994 Institutions (as defined in section 532 of the Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994 (Public Law 103–382; 7 U.S.C. 301 note));
(B) any Hispanic-serving institution (as defined in section 1101a(a)(5) of title 20); and
(C) any college or university eligible to receive funds under the Act of August 30, 1890 (7 U.S.C. 321 et seq.), including Tuskegee University; and
(2) acquire from, exchange with, or dispose of personal property to other Federal departments and agencies without monetary compensation in furtherance of the purposes of this section.
(Pub. L. 104–127, title IX, § 923, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1195; Pub. L. 110–234, title XIV, § 14223, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1484; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title XIV, § 14223, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2246.)
§ 2206b.
Availability of excess and surplus computers in rural areas

In addition to any other authority, the Secretary of Agriculture may make available to an organization excess or surplus computers or other technical equipment of the Department of Agriculture for the purposes of distribution to a city, town, or local government entity in a rural area (as defined in section 1991(a)(13)(A) of this title).

(Pub. L. 110–234, title XIV, § 14220, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1483; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title XIV, § 14220, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2245.)
§ 2207.
Reports

The Secretary of Agriculture shall annually make a general report in writing of his acts to the President, in which he may recommend the publication of papers forming parts of or accompanying his report. He shall also make special reports on particular subjects whenever required to do so by the President or either House of Congress, or when he shall think the subject in his charge requires it.

(R.S. §§ 528, 529; Feb. 9, 1889, ch. 122, §§ 1, 4, 25 Stat. 659; May 29, 1928, ch. 901, § 1(101), 45 Stat. 993; Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1076, § 1(6), 68 Stat. 966.)
§ 2207a.
Reports to Congress on obligation and expenditure
(a) Not later than 20 days after the end of each fiscal year, the Secretary of Agriculture shall submit to Congress a report on the amounts obligated and expended by the Department during that fiscal year for the procurement of advisory and assistance services.
(b)
Each report submitted under subsection (a) shall include a list with the following information:
(1) All contracts awarded for the procurement of advisory and assistance services during the fiscal year and the amount of each contract.
(2) The purpose of each contract.
(3) The justification for the award of each contract and the reason the work cannot be performed by civil servants.
(Pub. L. 101–161, title VI, § 641, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 986; Pub. L. 104–316, title I, § 104(b), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3829.)
§ 2207b.
Program metrics
(a)
In general
The Secretary shall collect data regarding economic activities created through grants and loans, including any technical assistance provided as a component of the grant or loan program, and measure the short- and long-term viability of award recipients and any entities to whom those recipients provide assistance using award funds, under—
(1)section 1627c of this title;
(2)section 940c(b)(2) of this title; or
(3) section 310B(c), 310B(e), 310B(g), 310H, or 379E, or subtitle E, of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (7 U.S.C. 1932(c), 1932(e), 1932(g), [1936b], 2008s, 2009 et seq.).
(b)
Data

The data collected under subsection (a) shall include information collected from recipients both during the award period and for a period of time, as determined by the Secretary, which is not less than 2 years after the award period ends.

(c)
Report
(1)
In general

Not later than 4 years after February 7, 2014, and every 2 years thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report that contains the data described in subsection (a).

(2)
Detailed information
The report shall include detailed information regarding—
(A) actions taken by the Secretary to use the data;
(B) the percentage increase of employees;
(C) the number of business starts and clients served;
(D) any benefit, such as an increase in revenue or customer base; and
(E) such other information as the Secretary considers appropriate.
(Pub. L. 113–79, title VI, § 6209, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 861; Pub. L. 115–334, title X, § 10102(c)(4), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4898.)
§ 2207c.
Annual report on work of agricultural experiment stations and of college extension work; publication and distribution

There shall be prepared by the Department of Agriculture an annual report on the work and expenditures of the agricultural experiment stations established under the Act of Congress of March second, eighteen hundred and eighty-seven [7 U.S.C. 361a et seq.], on the work and expenditures of the Department of Agriculture in connection therewith, and on the cooperative agricultural extension work and expenditures of the Department of Agriculture and of agricultural colleges under the Act of May eighth, nineteen hundred and fourteen [7 U.S.C. 341 et seq.], and there shall be printed annually eight thousand copies of said report, of which one thousand copies shall be for the use of the Senate, two thousand copies for the use of the House of Representatives, and five thousand copies for the use of the Department of Agriculture.

(Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 144, 38 Stat. 1110.)
§ 2207d.
Reports on disbursement of funds for agricultural research and extension at 1862 and 1890 land-grant colleges, including Tuskegee University
Not later than September 30, 2019, and each year thereafter, the Secretary shall annually submit to Congress a report describing the allocations made to, and matching funds received by, 1890 Institutions and 1862 Institutions (as those terms are defined in section 7601 of this title) for each of the agricultural research, extension, education, and related programs established under—
(1)section 3221 of this title;
(2)section 3222 of this title;
(3) subsections (b) and (c) of section 343 of this title; and
(4) the Hatch Act of 1887 (7 U.S.C. 361a et seq.).
(Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, § 7116, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4789.)
§ 2208.
Expenditure of appropriations; accounting

The Secretary of Agriculture shall direct and superintend the expenditure of all money appropriated to the Department and render accounts thereof.

(R.S. § 3677; Feb. 9, 1889, ch. 122, §§ 1, 4, 25 Stat. 659.)
§ 2208a.
Loan levels provided to Department of Agriculture

On and after November 10, 2005, loan levels provided in this or any other Appropriations Act to the Department of Agriculture shall be considered estimates, not limitations.

(Pub. L. 109–97, title VII, § 710, Nov. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 2150.)
§ 2209.
Additional statement of expenditures

The Secretary of Agriculture shall furnish proper vouchers and accounts for the sums appropriated for the Department of Agriculture to the Government Accountability Office.

(Mar. 3, 1885, ch. 338, § 2, 23 Stat. 356; Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, 39 Stat. 492; June 10, 1921, ch. 18 § 301, 42 Stat. 23; May 29, 1928, ch. 901, § 1(88), 45 Stat. 992; Pub. L. 108–271, § 8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814.)
§ 2209a.
Advances to chiefs of field parties

On and after October 28, 1991, advances of money to chiefs of field parties from any appropriation for the Department of Agriculture may be made by authority of the Secretary of Agriculture.

(Pub. L. 102–142, title VII, § 706, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 911.)
§ 2209b.
Availability of appropriations

New obligational authority provided for the following appropriation items in this Act shall remain available until expended: Public Law 480 [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.]; Mutual and Self-Help Housing; Watershed and Flood Prevention Operations; Resource Conservation and Development; Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program; Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, the contingency fund to meet emergency conditions, Integrated Systems Acquisition Project, the reserve fund for the Grasshopper and Mormon Cricket Control Programs, and buildings and facilities; Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service, salaries and expenses funds made available to county committees; the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Fund; Agricultural Research Service, buildings and facilities; Cooperative State Research Service, buildings and facilities; Office of International Cooperation and Development, Middle-Income Country Training Program; Dairy Indemnity Program; higher education graduate fellowships grants under section 3152(b)(6) of this title; capacity building grants to colleges eligible to receive funds under the Act of August 30, 1890 [7 U.S.C. 321 et seq.], including Tuskegee University; and buildings and facilities, Food and Drug Administration: Provided, That, on and after October 28, 1991, such appropriations are authorized to remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 102–142, title VII, § 708, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 911.)
§ 2209c.
Use of funds for one-year contracts to be performed in two fiscal years

On and after October 28, 1991, funds appropriated to the Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration may be used for one-year contracts which are to be performed in two fiscal years so long as the total amount for such contracts is obligated in the year for which the funds are appropriated.

(Pub. L. 102–142, title VII, § 725, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 913.)
§ 2209d.
Statement of percentage and dollar amount of Federal funding

On and after October 28, 1991, the Department of Agriculture, when issuing statements, press releases, requests for proposals, bid solicitations, and other documents describing projects or programs funded in whole or in part with Federal money, all grantees receiving Federal funds, including but not limited to State and local governments, shall clearly state (1) the percentage of the total cost of the program or project which will be financed with Federal money, and (2) the dollar amount of Federal funds for the project or program.

(Pub. L. 102–142, title VII, § 733, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 914.)
§ 2209e.
Prohibition on payments to parties involved with prohibited drug-producing plants

On and after October 21, 1993, none of the funds available to the Department of Agriculture may be used to make production or other payments to a person, persons, or corporations upon a final finding by court of competent jurisdiction that such party is guilty of growing, cultivating, harvesting, processing or storing marijuana, or other such prohibited drug-producing plants on any part of lands owned or controlled by such persons or corporations.

(Pub. L. 103–111, title VII, § 704, Oct. 21, 1993, 107 Stat. 1078.)
§ 2209f.
Restriction on commodity purchase program payments

On and after October 28, 2000, none of the funds made available to the Department of Agriculture shall be used to carry out any commodity purchase program that would prohibit eligibility or participation by farmer-owned cooperatives.

(Pub. L. 106–387, § 1(a) [title VII, § 725], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A–32.)
§ 2209g.
Availability of funds for uniforms or allowances

On and after November 10, 2005, funds appropriated by this or any other Appropriations Act to the Department of Agriculture (excluding the Forest Service) shall be available for uniforms or allowances as authorized by law (5 U.S.C. 5901–5902).

(Pub. L. 109–97, title VII, § 702, Nov. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 2149.)
§ 2209h.
Reimbursement of Office of the General Counsel

On and after November 10, 2005, agencies and offices of the Department of Agriculture may utilize any unobligated salaries and expenses funds to reimburse the Office of the General Counsel for salaries and expenses of personnel, and for other related expenses, incurred in representing such agencies and offices in the resolution of complaints by employees or applicants for employment, and in cases and other matters pending before the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the Federal Labor Relations Authority, or the Merit Systems Protection Board with the prior approval of the Committees on Appropriations of both Houses of Congress.

(Pub. L. 109–97, title VII, § 732, Nov. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 2154.)
§ 2209i.
Funding for preparation of final agency decisions regarding discrimination complaints

On and after November 10, 2005, agencies and offices of the Department of Agriculture may utilize any available discretionary funds to cover the costs of preparing, or contracting for the preparation of, final agency decisions regarding complaints of discrimination in employment or program activities arising within such agencies and offices.

(Pub. L. 109–97, title VII, § 751, Nov. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 2156.)
§ 2209j.
Permanent debarment from participation in Department of Agriculture programs for fraud
(a)
In general

Subject to subsection (b), the Secretary of Agriculture shall permanently debar an individual, organization, corporation, or other entity convicted of a felony for knowingly defrauding the United States in connection with any program administered by the Department of Agriculture from any subsequent participation in Department of Agriculture programs.

(b)
Exceptions
(1)
Secretary determination

The Secretary may reduce a debarment under subsection (a) to a period of not less than 10 years if the Secretary considers it appropriate.

(2)
Food assistance

A debarment under subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to participation in domestic food assistance programs (as defined by the Secretary).

(Pub. L. 110–234, title XIV, § 14211, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1464; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title XIV, § 14211, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2226.)
§ 2209k.
Prohibition on payments to fossil fuel refiners and importers
(a)
In general
The Secretary of Agriculture may not use any funds, facilities, or authorities of the Commodity Credit Corporation or the Department of Agriculture—
(1) to provide a payment to a refiner or importer (as those terms are defined in section 80.2 of title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (or successor regulations)); or
(2)
to otherwise support, directly or indirectly, a refiner or importer (as so defined) in meeting any requirements under—
(A) the renewable fuel program under section 7545(o) of title 42; or
(B) any other provision of law that requires the blending of fossil fuel with renewable fuel.
(b)
The exclusion in (a) shall not apply to any payments or support to producers, refiners, or importers of biofuel (as defined in section 8101 of this title).
(c)
Moratorium on authorities relating to exchanges of agricultural products for petroleum products

The authorities under the ninth and tenth sentences of section 714b(h) of title 15 (relating to the availability of agricultural products for the Secretary of Energy to exchange for petroleum products and the terms and conditions of those exchanges, respectively) shall not be used during the 180-day period beginning on October 1, 2020.

(Pub. L. 116–159, div. D, title VI, § 4604, Oct. 1, 2020, 134 Stat. 747.)
§ 2210.
Deputy Secretary of Agriculture; appointment

There is established in the Department of Agriculture the position of Deputy Secretary of Agriculture, to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(Mar. 26, 1934, ch. 89, title I, 48 Stat. 467; Pub. L. 94–561, § 1(c)(1), Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2643.)
§ 2211.
Powers and duties of Deputy Secretary of Agriculture

The Deputy Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to exercise the functions and perform the duties of the first assistant of the Secretary of Agriculture within the meaning of section 3345 of title 5 and shall perform such other duties as may be required by law or prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture.

(June 5, 1939, ch. 181, 53 Stat. 809; Pub. L. 94–561, § 1(c)(2), Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2643.)
§ 2211a.
Omitted
§§ 2211b to 2212c.
Repealed. Pub. L. 103–354, title II, §§ 218(e)(2)–(6), 231(f)(1), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3213, 3219
§ 2213.
Omitted
§ 2214.
General Counsel; appointment
(a) The President shall appoint on and after July 31, 1956, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, a General Counsel of the Department of Agriculture.
(b) The existing office of General Counsel of the Department of Agriculture shall be abolished effective upon the appointment and qualification of the General Counsel provided for by subsection (a) or April 1, 1957, whichever is earlier.
(July 31, 1956, ch. 804, title III, § 301, 70 Stat. 742.)
§ 2215.
Chief clerk

The Secretary of Agriculture shall appoint a chief clerk.

(R.S. § 523; Feb. 9, 1889, ch. 122, §§ 1, 4, 25 Stat. 659; Feb. 10, 1925, ch. 200, 43 Stat. 822.)
§ 2216.
Repealed. Pub. L. 92–310, title II, § 221(a), June 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 205
§ 2217.
Oaths, affirmations, and affidavits taken by officers, agents, or employees of Department; use and effect

Such officers, agents, or employees of the Department of Agriculture of the United States as are designated by the Secretary of Agriculture for the purpose are authorized and empowered to administer to or take from any person an oath, affirmation, or affidavit whenever such oath, affirmation, or affidavit is for use in any prosecution or proceeding under or in the enforcement of any law committed to or which may be committed to the Secretary of Agriculture or the Department of Agriculture or any bureau or subdivision thereof for administration. Any such oath, affirmation, or affidavit administered or taken by or before such officer, agent, or employee when certified under his hand and authenticated by the seal of the Department of Agriculture may be offered or used in any court of the United States and shall have like force and effect as if administered or taken before a clerk of such court without further proof of the identity or authority of such officer, agent, or employee.

(Jan. 31, 1925, ch. 124, § 1, 43 Stat. 803.)
§ 2217a.
Power to administer oaths, examine witnesses, or require production of books, etc.

On and after July 24, 1919, in the performance of the duties required of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics in the administration or enforcement of provisions of Acts (United States Cotton Futures Act, Thirty-ninth Statutes at Large, page 476; United States Grain Standards Act, Thirty-ninth Statutes at Large, page 482 [7 U.S.C. 71 et seq.]; United States Warehouse Act, Thirty-ninth Statutes at Large, page 486 [7 U.S.C. 241 et seq.]; Standard Container Act, Thirty-ninth Statutes at Large, page 673; and the Acts making annual appropriations for the Department of Agriculture) relating to the Department of Agriculture, the Secretary of Agriculture, or any representative specifically authorized in writing by him for the purpose, shall have power to administer oaths, examine witnesses, and call for the production of books and papers.

(July 24, 1919, ch. 26, 41 Stat. 267; May 11, 1922, ch. 185, 42 Stat. 532.)
§ 2218.
Fee for administering or taking oaths, affirmations, and affidavits

No officer, agent, or employee of the Department of Agriculture shall demand or accept any fee or compensation whatsoever for administering or taking any oath, affirmation, or affidavit under the authority conferred by section 2217 of this title.

(Jan. 31, 1925, ch. 124, § 2, 43 Stat. 803.)
§ 2219.
Salaries; how paid

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized and directed to pay the salary of each employee from the roll of the bureau, independent division, or office in which the employee is working, and no other.

(Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1280.)
§ 2219a.
Overtime and holiday pay
(a)
In general
The Secretary of Agriculture may—
(1) pay employees of the Department of Agriculture employed in an establishment subject to the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) or the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.) for all overtime and holiday work performed at the establishment at rates determined by the Secretary, subject to applicable law relating to minimum wages and maximum hours; and
(2) accept from the establishment reimbursement for any sums paid by the Secretary for the overtime and holiday work, at rates determined under paragraph (1).
(b)
Availability

Sums received by the Secretary under this section shall remain available until expended without further appropriation and without fiscal year limitation, to carry out subsection (a).

(Pub. L. 107–171, title X, § 10703(a), (b), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 517.)
§ 2220.
Certain officials and employees of Department and others not subject to restriction on payment of compensation to Government officials and employees

The officials and the employees of the Department of Agriculture engaged in the activities described in section 2279i of this title and paid in whole or in part out of funds contributed as provided therein, and the persons, corporations, or associations making contributions as therein provided, shall not be subject to the provisions of section 209 of title 18; nor shall any official or employee engaged in the cooperative activities of the Forest Service, or the persons, corporations, or associations contributing to such activities be subject to such section.

(July 24, 1919, ch. 26, 41 Stat. 270; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, § 5, 68 Stat. 1227.)
§ 2221.
Details of persons from or to office of Secretary

Details may be made from or to the office of the Secretary when necessary and the services of the person whom it is proposed to detail are not required in that office.

(Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1280.)
§ 2222.
Details of law clerks

Law clerks may be detailed by the Secretary of Agriculture for service in or out of Washington.

(Mar. 4, 1911, ch. 238, 36 Stat. 1236.)
§ 2223.
Details of employees from and to library and bureaus and offices

Employees of the library may be temporarily detailed by the Secretary of Agriculture for library service in the bureaus and offices of the department, and employees of the bureaus and offices of the department engaged in library work may also be temporarily detailed to the library.

(Mar. 4, 1911, ch. 238, 36 Stat. 1261.)
§ 2224.
Details of employees from and to Division of Accounts and Disbursements and bureaus and offices; traveling expenses

Employees of the Division of Accounts and Disbursements may be detailed by the Secretary of Agriculture for accounting and disbursing work in any of the bureaus and offices of the department for duty in or out of the city of Washington, and employees of the bureaus and offices of the department may also be detailed to the Division of Accounts and Disbursements for duty in or out of the city of Washington, traveling expenses of employees so detailed to be paid from the appropriation of the bureau or office in connection with which such travel is performed.

(Aug. 10, 1912, ch. 284, 37 Stat. 294.)
§ 2224a.
Utilization of employees of agencies for part-time and intermittent assistance to other agencies; exclusion of overtime resulting from natural disasters from staff year ceilings

On and after October 28, 1991, notwithstanding any other provision of law, employees of the agencies of the Department of Agriculture, including employees of the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation county committees, may be utilized to provide part-time and intermittent assistance to other agencies of the Department, without reimbursement, during periods when they are not otherwise fully utilized, and ceilings on full-time equivalent staff years established for or by the Department of Agriculture shall exclude overtime as well as staff years expended as a result of carrying out programs associated with natural disasters, such as forest fires, droughts, floods, and other acts of God.

(Pub. L. 102–142, title VII, § 711, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 912.)
§ 2225.
Employment of temporary personnel

The Department of Agriculture may employ persons or organizations, on a temporary basis, by contract or otherwise: Provided, That no expenditures for such temporary employment shall be made unless provision is made therefor in the applicable appropriation and the cost thereof is not in excess of limitations prescribed therein.

(Sept. 21, 1944, ch. 412, title VII, § 706(a), 58 Stat. 742; Ex. Ord. No. 9577, June 29, 1945, 10 F.R. 4253.)
§ 2225a.
Contracts for consulting services

On and after October 28, 1991, the expenditure of any appropriation for the Department of Agriculture for any consulting service through procurement contract, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 3109, shall be limited to those contracts where such expenditures are a matter of public record and available for public inspection, except where otherwise provided under existing law, or under existing Executive order issued pursuant to existing law.

(Pub. L. 102–142, title VII, § 701, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 911.)
§ 2225b.
Personal service contracts for veterinarians

On and after October 28, 1991, provisions of law prohibiting or restricting personal services contracts shall not apply to veterinarians employed by the Department to take animal blood samples, test and vaccinate animals, and perform branding and tagging activities on a fee-for-service basis.

(Pub. L. 102–142, title VII, § 723, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 913.)
§ 2225c.
Employment contracts for services abroad

On and after October 28, 2000, funds appropriated to the Department of Agriculture may be used to employ individuals by contract for services outside the United States as determined by the agencies to be necessary or appropriate for carrying out programs and activities abroad; and such contracts are authorized to be negotiated, the terms of the contract to be prescribed, and the work to be performed, where necessary, without regard to such statutory provisions as relate to the negotiation, making and performance of contracts and performance of work in the United States. Individua

(Pub. L. 106–387, § 1(a) [title VII, § 740], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A–34.)
§ 2225d.
Availability of Department of Agriculture funds for temporary employment

On and after November 10, 2005, funds appropriated by this or any other Appropriations Act to the Department of Agriculture (excluding the Forest Service) shall be available for employment pursuant to the second sentence of section 2225 of this title and section 3109 of title 5.

(Pub. L. 109–97, title VII, § 703, Nov. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 2149.)
§ 2226.
Employment of persons for forest fire fighting, pest control, and handling of animals

Notwithstanding any other provisions of law, the Department is authorized on and after August 31, 1951, to employ or otherwise contract with persons at regular rates of pay for necessary hours of work for emergency forest fire fighting and pest control and for handling of animals, including dairy cattle, without regard to Sundays, Federal holidays, and the regular workweek.

(Aug. 31, 1951, ch. 374, title IV, § 407, 65 Stat. 246.)
§ 2227.
Traveling expenses

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to purchase from appropriations made for traveling expenses for employees of the Department of Agriculture, mileage and mileage books, at commercial rates, in the manner in which such mileage or mileage books are usually purchased.

(Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1281.)
§ 2228.
Emergency subsistence for employees

The Department of Agriculture is authorized to furnish subsistence to employees without consideration as, or deduction from, the compensation of such employees where warranted by emergency condition connected with the work under such regulations as the Secretary of Agriculture may prescribe.

(Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 950, § 5, 70 Stat. 1033.)
§ 2229.
Travel and per diem expenses of temporary or seasonal employees

Under such regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture, funds available to the Department of Agriculture may be used for the payment of transportation expenses and per diem in lieu of subsistence expenses, in accordance with subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, for travel between places of recruitment and duty, and while at places of duty, of persons appointed for temporary or seasonal services in inspection, classing or grading agricultural commodities.

(Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 950, § 12, 70 Stat. 1034.)
§ 2230.
Employees in Alaska; subsistence, equipment, and supplies

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to furnish subsistence to employees of the United States Department of Agriculture in the Territory of Alaska, and to purchase personal equipment and supplies for them, and to make deductions to meet the cost thereof from any money appropriated for salary payments or otherwise due such employees.

(Feb. 16, 1931, ch. 200, 46 Stat. 1162.)
§ 2231.
Official expenses of employees stationed abroad

Employees of the Department of Agriculture stationed abroad may, with the approval of the Secretary of Agriculture, enter into leases for official quarters, for periods not exceeding one year, and may pay rent, telephone, subscriptions to publications, and other charges incident to the conduct of their offices and the discharge of their duties, in advance, in any foreign country where custom or practice requires payment in advance.

(Sept. 21, 1944, ch. 412, title VII, § 705(c), 58 Stat. 742.)
§ 2231a.
Reimbursement of employees for costs of State licenses and certification fees

On and after October 28, 1991, notwithstanding any other provision of law, any appropriations or funds available to the agencies of the Department of Agriculture may be used to reimburse employees for the cost of State licenses and certification fees pursuant to their Department of Agriculture position and that are necessary to comply with State laws, regulations, and requirements.

(Pub. L. 102–142, title VII, § 738, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 915.)
§ 2231b.
First amendment rights of employees of the United States Department of Agriculture

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no employee of the United States Department of Agriculture shall be peremptorily removed, on or after February 15, 1994, from the position of the employee without an opportunity for a public or nonpublic hearing, at the option of the employee, because of remarks made during personal time in opposition to policies, or proposed policies, of the Department, including policies or proposed policies regarding homosexuals. Any employee removed on or after February 15, 1994, without the opportunity for such a hearing shall be reinstated to the position of the employee pending such a hearing.

(Pub. L. 103–354, title III, § 302, Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3239.)
§ 2232.
Stenographic reporting service

The Department of Agriculture is authorized to contract for stenographic reporting services.

(Sept. 21, 1944, ch. 412, title VII, § 705(b), 58 Stat. 742.)
§ 2233.
Funds available for expenses of advisory committees

Funds available for carrying out the activities of the Department of Agriculture shall be available for expenses of advisory committees, including travel expenses in accordance with the provisions of section 5703 of title 5.

(Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 950, § 4, 70 Stat. 1033.)
§ 2234.
Purchases for bureaus from appropriations for contingent expenses

The Secretary of Agriculture may purchase stationery, supplies, furniture, and miscellaneous materials from this appropriation for contingent expenses and transfer the same at actual cost to the various bureaus, divisions, and offices of the Department of Agriculture in the city of Washington, reimbursement therefor to be made to such appropriation by said bureaus, divisions, and offices from their lump-fund appropriations by transfer settlements through the Treasury Department.

(Aug. 10, 1912, ch. 284, 37 Stat. 296.)
§ 2235.
Working capital fund established; use of central services by bureaus, etc., of the Department

A working capital fund of $400,000 is established without fiscal year limitation, for the payment of salaries and other expenses necessary to the maintenance and operation of (1) central duplicating, photographic, and tabulating services, (2) a central motor-transport service for the maintenance, repair, and operation of motor-transport vehicles and other equipment, (3) a central supply service for the purchase, storage, handling, issuance, packing, or shipping of stationery, supplies, equipment, blank forms, and miscellaneous materials, for which stocks thereof, not to exceed $200,000 in value (except for the value of blank forms) at the close of any fiscal year, may be maintained sufficient to meet, in whole or in part, requirements of the bureaus and offices of the Department in the city of Washington and elsewhere, and (4) such other services as the Secretary, with the approval of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, determines may be performed more advantageously as central services; said fund to be credited with advances or reimbursements from applicable funds of bureaus, offices, and agencies for which services are performed on the basis of rates which shall include estimated or actual charges for personal services, materials, equipment (including maintenance, repairs, and depreciation) and other expenses: Provided, That such advances shall not be available for any period beyond that provided by the Act appropriating the funds: Provided further, That such central services shall, to the fullest extent practicable, be used to make unnecessary the maintenance of separate like services in the bureaus, offices, and agencies of the department.

(July 12, 1943, ch. 215, 57 Stat. 393; Pub. L. 89–106, § 7, Aug. 4, 1965, 79 Stat. 432; 1970 Reorg. Plan No. 2, § 102, eff. July 1, 1970, 35 F.R. 7959, 84 Stat. 2085.)
§ 2235a.
Deposit and retention of credit card refunds or rebates

On and after November 28, 2001, refunds or rebates received on an on-going basis from a credit card services provider under the Department of Agriculture’s charge card programs may be deposited to and retained without fiscal year limitation in the Department’s Working Capital Fund established under section 2235 of this title and used to fund management initiatives of general benefit to the Department of Agriculture bureaus and offices as determined by the Secretary of Agriculture or the Secretary’s designee.

(Pub. L. 107–76, title VII, § 729, Nov. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 736.)
§ 2236.
Working capital fund for Agricultural Research Center; establishment

There is established a working capital fund of $300,000, to be available without fiscal year limitation, for expenses necessary for furnishing facilities and services by the Agricultural Research Center to Government agencies. Said fund shall be reimbursed from applicable appropriations or other funds to cover the charges for such facilities and services, including handling and related charges, for equipment rentals (including depreciation, maintenance, and repairs), for supplies, equipment and materials, stores of which may be maintained at the Center, and for building construction, alterations, and repairs, and applicable appropriations or other funds may also be charged their proportionate share of the necessary general expenses of the Center not covered by the annual appropriation.

(Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, Ch. VI, title I, § 101, 64 Stat. 658.)
§ 2237.
Use of field work funds for employment of men with equipment, etc.

Funds available for field work in the Department of Agriculture shall be available for employment by contract or otherwise of men with equipment, boats, work animals, animal-drawn, and motor-propelled vehicles.

(June 4, 1936, ch. 489, 49 Stat. 1422.)
§ 2238.
Use of field work funds for purchase of arms and ammunition

Funds available for field work in the Department of Agriculture may be used for the purchase of arms and ammunition whenever the individual purchase does not exceed $50, and for individual purchases exceeding $50, when such arms and ammunition cannot advantageously be supplied by the Secretary of the Army pursuant to section 7655 of title 10.

(June 4, 1936, ch. 489, 49 Stat. 1422; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, § 809(d), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1841.)
§ 2239.
Funds for printing, binding, and scientific and technical article reprint purchases

Funds available to the Department of Agriculture may be used for printing and binding, including the purchase of reprints of scientific and technical articles.

(Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, Ch. VI, title IV, § 406, 64 Stat. 679.)
§ 2240.
Reimbursement of appropriation for salaries and compensation of employees in mechanical shops

The Secretary of Agriculture may, by transfer settlements through the Government Accountability Office, reimburse any appropriation made for the salaries and compensation of employees in the mechanical shops of the department from the appropriation made for the bureau, office, or division for which any work in said shops is performed, and such reimbursement shall be at the actual cost of labor for such work.

(May 11, 1922, ch. 185, 42 Stat. 508; Pub. L. 108–271, § 8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814.)
§ 2241.
Sale or exchange of animals or animal products

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to sell in the open market or to exchange for other livestock such animals or animal products as cease to be needed in the work of the department, and all moneys received from the sale of such animals or animal products or as a bonus in the exchange of the same shall be deposited in the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts.

(Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 144, 38 Stat. 1114.)
§ 2241a.
Exchange or sale authority
(a)
Definition of qualified item of personal property
In this section, the term “qualified item of personal property” means—
(1) an animal;
(2) an animal product;
(3) a plant; or
(4) a plant product.
(b)
General authority
Except as provided in subsection (c), notwithstanding chapter 5 of subtitle I of title 40, the Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics, in managing personal property for the purpose of carrying out the research functions of the Department, may exchange, sell, or otherwise dispose of any qualified item of personal property, including by way of public auction, and may retain and apply the sale or other proceeds, without further appropriation and without fiscal year limitation, in whole or in partial payment—
(1) to acquire any qualified item of personal property; or
(2) to offset costs related to the maintenance, care, or feeding of any qualified item of personal property.
(c)
Exception

Subsection (b) does not apply to the free dissemination of new varieties of seeds and germplasm in accordance with section 2201 of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–354, title III, § 307, as added Pub. L. 110–234, title VII, § 7408, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1252, and Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title VII, § 7408, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2013; amended Pub. L. 113–79, title VII, § 7605, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 912.)
§ 2241b.
Purchase of seeds and plants for distribution

Purchase and distribution of vegetable, field, and flower seeds, plants, shrubs, vines, bulbs, and cuttings shall be of the freshest and best obtainable varieties and adapted to general cultivation.

(R.S. § 527; Apr. 25, 1896, ch. 140, 29 Stat. 106.)
§ 2242.
Repealed. Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, § 1606(b)(1), (2), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3715
§ 2242a.
User fees for reports, publications, and software
(a)
Authority of Secretary
The Secretary of Agriculture may—
(1) furnish, on request, copies of software programs, pamphlets, reports, or other publications, regardless of their form, including electronic publications, prepared in the Department of Agriculture in carrying out any of its missions or programs; and
(2) charge such fees therefor as the Secretary determines are reasonable.
(b)
Consistency of charges with provisions of section 9701 of title 31

The imposition of such charges shall be consistent with section 9701 of title 31.

(c)
Use and disposition of moneys
All moneys received in payment for work or services performed, or for software programs, pamphlets, reports, or other publications provided, under this section—
(1) shall be available until expended to pay directly the costs of such work, services, software programs, pamphlets, reports, or publications; and
(2) may be credited to appropriations or funds that incur such costs.
(d)
Investment

Any fees collected, late payment penalties, and interest earned shall be credited to the account referred to in this section and may be invested by the Secretary of Agriculture in insured or fully-collateralized interest-bearing accounts or, at the discretion of the Secretary of Agriculture, by the Secretary of the Treasury in United States Government debt instruments. Fees and charges, including late payment penalties and interest earned from the investment of such funds shall be credited to such account.

(Pub. L. 97–98, title XI, § 1121, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1273; Pub. L. 99–198, title XVII, § 1769, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1656; Pub. L. 101–624, title XXV, § 2510, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4073.)
§ 2242b.
Translation of publications into foreign languages

On and after October 28, 1991, funds appropriated to the Department of Agriculture by this Act may be used for translation of publications of the Department of Agriculture into foreign languages when determined by the Secretary to be in the public interest.

(Pub. L. 102–142, title VII, § 721, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 913.)
§ 2243.
Sale of photographic prints and maps

The Secretary of Agriculture may dispose of photographic prints (including bromide enlargements), lantern slides, transparencies, blueprints, and forest maps at cost and 10 per centum additional, and condemned property or materials under his charge in the same manner as provided by law for other bureaus.

(Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1270.)
§ 2244.
Repealed. Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, § 1606(b)(3), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3715
§ 2245.
Sale of prints and lantern slides

(Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1281.)
§ 2246.
Loan, rental, or sale of films

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized, under such rules and regulations and subject to such conditions as he may prescribe, to loan, rent, or sell copies of films. In the sale or rental of films educational institutions or associations for agricultural education not organized for profit shall have preference; all moneys received from such rentals or sales to be covered into the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts.

(Mar. 4, 1917, ch. 179, 39 Stat. 1157; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 718.)
§ 2247.
Sale of samples of pure sugars

The Secretary of Agriculture may furnish, upon application, samples of pure sugars, naval stores, microscopical specimens, and other products to State and municipal officers, educational institutions, and other parties and charge for the same a price to cover the cost thereof, such price to be determined and established by the Secretary, and the money received from sales to be deposited in the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts.

(Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 144, 38 Stat. 1101.)
§ 2247a.
Farm or food products; sale of samples, practical forms, etc.

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to sell samples, illustrations, practical forms, or sets of the grades recommended or promulgated by him for farm or food products, under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe, and the receipts therefrom shall be deposited in the Treasury to the credit of miscellaneous receipts.

(Sept. 21, 1944, ch. 412, title IV, § 401(a), 58 Stat. 738.)
§ 2248.
Statistics relating to turpentine and rosin

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized and directed to collect and/or compile and publish annually, and at such other times, and in such form and on such date or dates as he shall prescribe, statistics and essential information relating to spirits of turpentine and rosin produced, held, and used in the domestic and foreign commerce of the United States.

(Aug. 15, 1935, ch. 548, 49 Stat. 653.)
§ 2249.
Amount and character of cooperation

Unless otherwise provided by the Department of Agriculture Organic Act of 1944 or by other statute, the measure and character of cooperation authorized by said Act on the part of the Federal Government and on the part of the cooperator shall be such as may be prescribed by the Secretary, unless otherwise provided for in the applicable appropriation.

(Sept. 21, 1944, ch. 412, title VII, § 711, 58 Stat. 743.)
§ 2250.
Construction and repair of buildings and public improvements

The Department of Agriculture is authorized to erect, alter, and repair such buildings and other public improvements as may be necessary to carry out its authorized work: Provided, That no building or improvement shall be erected or altered under this authority unless provision is made therefor in the applicable appropriation and the cost thereof is not in excess of limitations prescribed therein.

(Sept. 21, 1944, ch. 412, title VII, § 703, 58 Stat. 742.)
§ 2250a.
Erection of buildings and other structures on non-Federal lands; duration of use of such lands; removal of structures after termination of use; availability of funds for expenses of acquiring long-term leases or other agreements

Notwithstanding the provisions of existing law, except the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act [15 U.S.C. 714 et seq.] and without regard to sections 3111 and 3112 of title 40, but within the limitations of cost otherwise applicable, appropriations of the Department of Agriculture may be expended for the erection of buildings and other structures on land owned by States, counties, municipalities, or other political subdivisions, corporations, or individuals: Provided, That prior to such erection there is obtained the right to use the land for the estimated life of or need for the structure, including the right to remove any such structure within a reasonable time after the termination of the right to use the land: Provided further, That appropriations and funds available to the Department of Agriculture shall be available for expenses in connection with acquiring the right to use land for such purposes under long-term lease or other agreement.

(Pub. L. 89–106, § 1, Aug. 4, 1965, 79 Stat. 431.)
§ 2250b.
Nonrecurring expenses fund

There is hereby established in the Treasury of the United States a fund to be known as the “Nonrecurring expenses fund” (the Fund): Provided, That unobligated balances of expired discretionary funds appropriated in this or any succeeding fiscal year from the General Fund of the Treasury to the Department of Agriculture (except the Forest Service) by this or any other Act may be transferred (not later than the end of the fifth fiscal year after the last fiscal year for which such funds are available for the purposes for which appropriated) into the Fund: Provided further, That amounts deposited in the Fund shall be available until expended, and in addition to such other funds as may be available for such purposes, for facilities infrastructure capital acquisition necessary for the operation of the Department of Agriculture, subject to approval by the Office of Management and Budget: Provided further, That amounts in the Fund may be obligated only after the Committees on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Senate are notified at least 15 days in advance of the planned use of funds.

(Pub. L. 113–235, div. A, title VII, § 742, Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2170.)
§ 2251.
Reimbursement of Production and Marketing Administration appropriations for expenses of maintaining registers of indebtedness and making set-offs

Beginning with the fiscal year 1942, each appropriation to enable the Secretary of Agriculture to carry into effect any program administered through the Production and Marketing Administration may, in the discretion of the Secretary, be reimbursed out of the then current appropriation for the agency affected, for a fair share of the administrative expense, as estimated periodically or in advance by the Production and Marketing Administration of maintaining registers of indebtedness and making, out of such Production and Marketing Administration appropriation, set-offs under the order entered by the Secretary on May 8, 1937, as heretofore or hereafter amended, in favor of any other agency of the Government.

(July 22, 1942, ch. 516, 56 Stat. 691; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 3, § 501(a), eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1100.)
§ 2252.
Reimbursement of Production and Marketing Administration appropriations for costs of procuring agricultural commodities for nongovernmental agencies or foreign governments

Applicable appropriations available to the Production and Marketing Administration current at the time services are rendered or payment therefore is received may be reimbursed by nongovernmental agencies or foreign governments (by advance credits or reimbursements) for the actual or estimated costs, as determined by the Production and Marketing Administration, incident to procuring agricultural commodities for such nongovernmental agencies or foreign governments.

(Sept. 21, 1944, ch. 412, title IV, § 402, 58 Stat. 738; Ex. Ord. No. 9577, June 29, 1945, 10 F.R. 4253.)
§ 2253.
Adjustment by Secretary of titles to lands acquired by Government and subject to his control

If the Secretary of Agriculture shall find after the acquisition by the United States of any land or interest therein which is subject to his administration, custody, or control, other than land acquired by exchange of public domain land or resources, that the title thereto is legally insufficient for the purposes for which such land or interest was acquired and no consideration therefor has been paid by the United States, or that title or color of title to such land or interest was acquired through mistake, misunderstanding, error, or inadvertence, he is authorized to execute and deliver on behalf of and in the name of the United States to the person from whom the title was acquired or to the person whom he finds entitled thereto a quitclaim deed to such land or interest: Provided, however, That if the person to whom such deed is made is the same person from whom the United States acquired title, or his successor in interest, any consideration given by the United States for such land or interest shall be restored or, in lieu thereof, the value equivalent of such consideration as determined by the Secretary of Agriculture shall be paid to the United States; and any consideration or value equivalent so restored or paid shall, so far as is practicable, be restored to the jurisdiction, or deposited to the credit, of the department, agency, appropriation, or fund from which the consideration was transferred or paid at the time of the acquisition of title by the United States.

(July 8, 1943, ch. 197, 57 Stat. 388; Mar. 3, 1952, ch. 72, 66 Stat. 11; Pub. L. 87–869, § 2, Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1157.)
§ 2254.
Operation, maintenance and purchase of aircraft by Agricultural Research Service; construction and repair of buildings

Appropriations for the Agricultural Research Service shall be available for the operation and maintenance of aircraft and the purchase of not to exceed one for replacement only and pursuant to section 2250 of this title for the construction, alteration, and repair of buildings and improvements.

(Pub. L. 116–94, div. B, title I, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 2615.)
§ 2254a.
Availability of funds appropriated for Agricultural Research Service for research related to tobacco or tobacco products

On and after December 26, 2007, none of the funds appropriated under this heading shall be available to carry out research related to the production, processing, or marketing of tobacco or tobacco products.

(Pub. L. 110–161, div. A, title I, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 1850.)
§ 2254b.
Availability of funds appropriated for Agricultural Research Service for research related to tobacco or tobacco products; exception

On and after December 26, 2007, none of the funds appropriated under this heading shall be available to carry out research related to the production, processing, or marketing of tobacco or tobacco products: Provided further, That on and after December 26, 2007, this paragraph shall not apply to research on the medical, biotechnological, food, and industrial uses of tobacco.

(Pub. L. 110–161, div. A, title I, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 1851.)
§ 2255.
Membership in International Wheat Advisory Committee, International Sugar Council, etc.

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to expend funds, available for agricultural conservation, adjustment, and land use programs, for the share of the United States as a member of the International Wheat Advisory Committee, the International Sugar Council, or like events or bodies concerned with the objectives of said program, together with traveling and other necessary expenses relating thereto: Provided, That expenditures under this authority shall not be made unless provision is made therefor in the applicable appropriation and the cost thereof is not in excess of limitations prescribed therein.

(Sept. 21, 1944, ch. 412, title VII, § 701(a), 58 Stat. 741.)
§ 2255a.
Financial assistance to national and international conferences

On and after October 21, 1993, appropriations available to the Department of Agriculture can be used to provide financial assistance to the organizers of national and international conferences, if such conferences are in support of agency programs.

(Pub. L. 103–111, title I, Oct. 21, 1993, 107 Stat. 1050.)
§ 2255b.
Department of Agriculture conference transparency
(a)
Report
(1)
Requirement

Not later than September 30 of each year, the Secretary of Agriculture shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate, a report on conferences sponsored or held by the Department of Agriculture or attended by employees of the Department of Agriculture.

(2)
Contents
Each report under paragraph (1) shall contain—
(A)
for each conference sponsored or held by the Department or attended by employees of the Department—
(i) the name of the conference;
(ii) the location of the conference;
(iii) the number of Department of Agriculture employees attending the conference; and
(iv) the costs (including travel expenses) relating to such conference; and
(B) for each conference sponsored or held by the Department of Agriculture for which the Department awarded a procurement contract, a description of the contracting procedures related to such conference.
(3)
Exclusions
The requirement in paragraph (1) shall not apply to any conference—
(A) for which the cost to the Federal Government was less than $50,000; or
(B) outside of the United States that is attended by the Secretary or the Secretary’s designee as an official representative of the United States government.
(b)
Availability of report

Each report submitted in accordance with subsection (a) shall be posted in a searchable format on a Department of Agriculture website that is available to the public.

(c)
Definition of conference
In this section, the term “conference”—
(1)
means a meeting that—
(A) is held for consultation, education, awareness, or discussion;
(B) includes participants from at least one agency of the Department of Agriculture;
(C) is held in whole or in part at a facility outside of an agency of the Department of Agriculture; and
(D) involves costs associated with travel and lodging for some participants; and
(2) does not include any training program that is continuing education or a curriculum-based educational program, provided that such training program is held independent of a conference of a non-governmental organization.
(Pub. L. 110–234, title XIV, § 14208, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1462; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title XIV, § 14208, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2224; Pub. L. 115–334, title XII, § 12611, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 5013.)
§ 2256.
Inspections, analyses, and tests for other Government departments and agencies; reimbursement

The head of any department or independent establishment of the Government requiring inspections, analyses, and tests of food and other products, within the scope of the functions of the Department of Agriculture and which that Department is unable to perform within the limits of its appropriations, may, with the approval of the Secretary, transfer to the Department for direct expenditure such sums as may be necessary for the performance of such work.

(Sept. 21, 1944, ch. 412, title VII, § 702(a), 58 Stat. 741.)
§ 2257.
Interchangeability of funds for miscellaneous expenses and general expenses

Not to exceed 7 per centum of the amounts appropriated for any fiscal year for the miscellaneous expenses of the work of any bureau, division, or office of the Department of Agriculture shall be available interchangeably for expenditures on the objects included within the general expenses of such bureau, division, or office, but no more than 7 per centum shall be added to any one item of appropriation except in cases of extraordinary emergency.

(Sept. 21, 1944, ch. 412, title VII, § 702(b), 58 Stat. 741.)
§ 2258.
Purchase of newspapers

The Department of Agriculture is authorized to subscribe for such newspapers as may be necessary to carry out its authorized work.

(Sept. 21, 1944, ch. 412, title VII, § 704, 58 Stat. 742; Pub. L. 110–161, div. A, title VII, § 740,
§ 2259.
Market-inspection certificates as prima facie evidence

Market-inspection certificates issued by authorized agents of the Department of Agriculture shall be received in all courts of the United States as prima facie evidence of the truth of the statements therein contained.

(Sept. 21, 1944, ch. 412, title IV, § 401(c), 58 Stat. 738.)
§§ 2260, 2260a.
Repealed. Pub. L. 107–171, title X, § 10418(a)(3), (4), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 507
§ 2261.
Credit of donations and proceeds from exhibitions to appropriations concerned with foreign market development programs

In the conduct of foreign market development programs, the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to credit contributions from individuals, firms, associations, agencies, and other groups, and the proceeds received from space rentals, and sales of products and materials at exhibitions, to the appropriations charged with the cost of acquiring such space, products, and materials.

(Pub. L. 87–128, title II, § 203, Aug. 8, 1961, 75 Stat. 307.)
§ 2262.
Employee liability insurance on motor vehicles in foreign countries

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to obtain insurance to cover the liability of any employee of the Department of Agriculture for damage to or loss of property or personal injury or death caused by the act or omission of any such employee while acting within the scope of his office or employment and while operating a motor vehicle belonging to the United States in a foreign country.

(Pub. L. 89–106, § 3, Aug. 4, 1965, 79 Stat. 431.)
§ 2262a.
Overseas tort claims
(a)
In general

The Secretary of Agriculture may pay a tort claim in the manner authorized by section 2672 of title 28, if the claim arises outside the United States in connection with activities of individuals who are performing services for the Secretary.

(b)
Period for presentation of claim

A claim may not be allowed under this section unless the claim is presented in writing to the Secretary of Agriculture within 2 years after the date on which the claim accrues.

(c)
Finality

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an award or denial of a claim by the Secretary of Agriculture under this section is final.

(Pub. L. 104–127, title IX, § 920, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1191.)
§ 2263.
Transfer of funds

Subject to limitations applicable with respect to each appropriation concerned, each appropriation available to the Department of Agriculture may be charged, at any time during a fiscal year, for the benefit of any other appropriation available to the Department, for the purpose of financing the procurement of materials and services, or financing activities or other costs, for which funds are available both in the financing appropriation so charged and in the appropriation so benefited; except that such expenses so financed shall be charged on a final basis, as of a date not later than the close of such fiscal year, to the appropriations so benefited, with appropriate credit to the financing appropriation.

(Pub. L. 89–106, § 8, Aug. 4, 1965, 79 Stat. 432.)
§ 2264.
National Agricultural Library; acceptance of gifts, bequests, or devises; conditional gifts

The Secretary of Agriculture is hereby authorized to accept, receive, hold, and administer on behalf of the United States gifts, bequests, or devises of real and personal property made unconditionally for the benefit of the National Agricultural Library or for the carrying out of any of its functions. Conditional gifts may be accepted and used in accordance with their provisions provided that no gift may be accepted which is conditioned on any expenditure not to be met therefrom or from the income thereof unless such expenditure has been approved by Act of Congress.

(Pub. L. 91–591, § 2, Dec. 28, 1970, 84 Stat. 1588.)
§ 2265.
Deposit of money accepted for benefit of National Agricultural Library; disbursement

Any gift of money accepted pursuant to the authority granted in section 2264 of this title, or the net proceeds from the liquidation of any other property so accepted, or the proceeds of any insurance on any gift property not used for its restoration shall be deposited in the Treasury of the United States for credit to a separate account and shall be disbursed upon order of the Secretary of Agriculture.

(Pub. L. 91–591, § 3, Dec. 28, 1970, 84 Stat. 1588.)
§ 2266.
Congressional reaffirmation of policy to foster and encourage family farms
(a) Congress reaffirms the historical policy of the United States to foster and encourage the family farm system of agriculture in this country. Congress believes that the maintenance of the family farm system of agriculture is essential to the social well-being of the Nation and the competitive production of adequate supplies of food and fiber. Congress further believes that any significant expansion of nonfamily owned large-scale corporate farming enterprises will be detrimental to the national welfare. It is neither the policy nor the intent of Congress that agricultural and agriculture-related programs be administered exclusively for family farm operations, but it is the policy and the express intent of Congress that no such program be administered in a manner that will place the family farm operation at an unfair economic disadvantage.
(b) Omitted
(Pub. L. 95–113, title I, § 102, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 918; Pub. L. 97–98, title XVI, § 1608, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1347; Pub. L. 99–198, title XIV, § 1441, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1560.)
§ 2266a.
Century Farms program
The Secretary shall establish a program under which the Secretary recognizes any farm that—
(1) a State department of agriculture or similar statewide agricultural organization recognizes as a Century Farm; or
(2)
(A) is defined as a farm or ranch under section 4284.902 of title 7, Code of Federal Regulations (as in effect on December 20, 2018);
(B) has been in continuous operation for at least 100 years; and
(C) has been owned by the same family for at least 100 consecutive years, as verified through deeds, wills, abstracts, tax statements, or other similar legal documents considered appropriate by the Secretary.
(Pub. L. 115–334, title XII, § 12508, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4990.)
§ 2266b.
Eligibility for operators on heirs property land to obtain a farm number
(a)
Definitions
In this section:
(1)
Eligible documentation
The term “eligible documentation”, with respect to land for which a farm operator seeks assignment of a farm number under subsection (b)(1), includes—
(A)
in States that have adopted a statute consisting of an enactment or adoption of the Uniform Partition of Heirs Property Act, as approved and recommended for enactment in all States by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws in 2010—
(i) a court order verifying the land meets the definition of heirs property (as defined in that Act); or
(ii) a certification from the local recorder of deeds that the recorded owner of the land is deceased and not less than 1 heir of the recorded owner of the land has initiated a procedure to retitle the land in the name of the rightful heir;
(B)
a fully executed, unrecorded tenancy-in-common agreement that sets out ownership rights and responsibilities among all of the owners of the land that—
(i) has been approved by a majority of the ownership interests in that property;
(ii) has given a particular owner the right to manage and control any portion or all of the land for purposes of operating a farm or ranch; and
(iii) was validly entered into under the authority of the jurisdiction in which the land is located;
(C) the tax return of a farm operator farming a property with undivided interests for each of the 5 years preceding the date on which the farm operator submits the tax returns as eligible documentation under subsection (b);
(D) self-certification that the farm operator has control of the land for purposes of operating a farm or ranch; and
(E) any other documentation identified by the Secretary under subsection (c).
(2)
Farm number

The term “farm number” has the meaning given the term in section 718.2 of title 7, Code of Federal Regulations (as in effect on December 20, 2018).

(b)
Farm number
(1)
In general

The Secretary shall provide for the assignment of a farm number to any farm operator who provides any form of eligible documentation for purposes of demonstrating that the farm operator has control of the land for purposes of defining that land as a farm.

(2)
Eligibility

Any farm number provided under paragraph (1) shall be sufficient to satisfy any requirement of the Secretary to have a farm number to participate in a program of the Secretary.

(c)
Eligible documentation

The Secretary shall identify alternative forms of eligible documentation that a farm operator may provide in seeking the assignment of a farm number under subsection (b)(1).

(Pub. L. 115–334, title XII, § 12615, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 5014.)
§ 2267.
Repealed. Pub. L. 100–387, title I, § 101(b)(1), Aug. 11, 1988, 102 Stat. 931
§ 2268.
Public lands; relinquishment

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary of Agriculture may, whenever he considers it desirable, relinquish to a State all or part of the legislative jurisdiction of the United States over lands or interests under his control in that State. Relinquishment of legislative jurisdiction under this section may be accomplished (1) by filing with the Governor of t

(Pub. L. 95–441, Oct. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 1064.)
§ 2268a.
Acquisition of land; options
(a) The Department of Agriculture is authorized to acquire land, or interest therein, by purchase, exchange or otherwise, as may be necessary to carry out its authorized work: Provided, That no acquisition shall be made under this authority unless provision is made therefor in the applicable appropriation or other law.
(b) Appropriations for the Department of Agriculture which are available for the purchase of land may be expended for options to purchase land: Provided, That not to exceed $1 may be expended for each option to purchase any particular tract or tracts of land unless otherwise provided in appropriation or other law.
(Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 950, § 11, 70 Stat. 1034.)
§ 2269.
Gifts of property; acceptance and administration by Secretary of Agriculture; Federal tax law consideration; separate fund in Treasury; regulations

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to accept, receive, hold, utilize, and administer on behalf of the United States gifts, bequests, or devises of real and personal property made for the benefit of the United States Department of Agriculture or for the carrying out of any of its functions. For the purposes of the Federal income, estate, and gift tax laws, property accepted under the authority of this section shall be considered as a gift, bequest, or devise to the United States. Any gift of money accepted pursuant to the authority granted in this section, or the net proceeds from the liquidation of any property so accepted, or the proceeds of any insurance on any gift property not used for its restoration shall be deposited in the Treasury of the United States for credit to a separate fund and shall be disbursed upon order of the Secretary of Agriculture. The Secretary of Agriculture may promulgate regulations to carry out the provisions of this section.

(Pub. L. 95–442, Oct. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 1065.)
§ 2270.
Authority of Office of Inspector General
Any person who is employed in the Office of the Inspector General, Department of Agriculture, who conducts investigations of alleged or suspected felony criminal violations of statutes, including but not limited to the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 [7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.], administered by the Secretary of Agriculture or any agency of the Department of Agriculture and who is designated by the Inspector General of the Department of Agriculture may—
(1) make an arrest without a warrant for any such criminal felony violation if such violation is committed, or if such employee has probable cause to believe that such violation is being committed, in the presence of such employee;
(2) execute a warrant for an arrest, for the search of premises, or the seizure of evidence if such warrant is issued under authority of the United States upon probable cause to believe that such violation has been committed; and
(3) carry a firearm;
in accordance with rules issued by the Secretary of Agriculture, while such employee is engaged in the performance of official duties under the authority provided in section 6, or described in section 9, of the Inspector General Act of 1978 (5 U.S.C. App. 6, 9). The Attorney General of the United States may disapprove any designation made by the Inspector General under this section.
(Pub. L. 97–98, title XIII, § 1337, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1294; Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, § 4002(b)(1)(B), (2)(II), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1096, 1098; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title IV, § 4002(b)(1)(B), (2)(II), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1857, 1859.)
§ 2270a.
Office of Inspector General; transfer of forfeiture funds for law enforcement activities

For fiscal year 1999 and thereafter, funds transferred to the Office of the Inspector General through forfeiture proceedings or from the Department of Justice Assets Forfeiture Fund or the Department of the Treasury Forfeiture Fund, as a participating agency, as an equitable share from the forfeiture of property in investigations in which the Office of the Inspector General participates, or through the granting of a Petition for Remission or Mitigation, shall be deposited to the credit of this account for law enforcement activities authorized under the Inspector General Act of 1978, to remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, § 101(a) [title I], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681, 2681–3.)
§ 2270b.
Department of Agriculture Inspector General investigation of Forest Service firefighter deaths

In the case of each fatality of an officer or employee of the Forest Service that occurs due to wildfire entrapment or burnover, the Inspector General of the Department of Agriculture shall conduct an investigation of the fatality. The investigation shall not rely on, and shall be completely independent of, any investigation of the fatality that is conducted by the Forest Service.

(Pub. L. 107–203, § 1, July 24, 2002, 116 Stat. 744.)
§ 2270c.
Submission of results

As soon as possible after completing an investigation under section 2270b of this title, the Inspector General of the Department of Agriculture shall submit to Congress and the Secretary of Agriculture a report containing the results of the investigation.

(Pub. L. 107–203, § 2, July 24, 2002, 116 Stat. 744.)
§ 2271.
Marketing education programs for small and medium size family farm operations

In carrying out marketing research and education programs, the Secretary of Agriculture shall take such steps as may be necessary to increase the efforts of the Department of Agriculture in providing marketing education programs for persons engaged in small and medium size family farm operations.

(Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, § 1445, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1327.)
§ 2271a.
Advanced marketing training for farmers and ranchers

The Secretary of Agriculture may establish a program to train farmers and ranchers in advanced techniques for the marketing of agricultural commodities, livestock, and aquacultural products produced by such farmers and ranchers, including (where appropriate as determined by the Secretary) training in the use of futures and options markets.

(Pub. L. 99–641, title II, § 206(b), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3564.)
§ 2272.
Volunteers for Department of Agriculture programs
(a)
Establishment of program

The Secretary of Agriculture (hereafter referred to in this section as the “Secretary”) may establish a program to use volunteers in carrying out the programs of the Department of Agriculture.

(b)
Acceptance of personnel
The Secretary may accept, subject to regulations issued by the Office of Personnel Management, voluntary service for the Department of Agriculture for such purpose if the service:
(1) is to be without compensation; and
(2) will not be used to displace any employee of the Department of Agriculture including the local, county, and State committees established under section 590h(b) of title 16.
(c)
Federal employee status

Any individual who provides voluntary service under this section shall not be considered a Federal employee, except for purposes of chapter 81 of title 5 (relating to compensation for injury), and sections 2671 through 2680 of title 28 (relating to tort claims).

(Pub. L. 97–98, title XV, § 1526, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1337.)
§ 2272a.
Funds for incidental expenses and promotional items relating to volunteers

On and after August 6, 1996, funds appropriated to the Department of Agriculture may be used for incidental expenses such as transportation, uniforms, lodging, and subsistence for volunteers serving under the authority of section 2272 of this title, when such volunteers are engaged in the work of the United States Department of Agriculture; and for promotional items of nominal value relating to the United States Department of Agriculture Volunteer Programs.

(Pub. L. 104–180, title VII, § 729, Aug. 6, 1996, 110 Stat. 1600.)
§ 2273.
Local search and rescue operations

The Secretary of Agriculture may assist, through the use of Soil Conservation Service personnel, vehicles, communication equipment, and other equipment or materials available to the Secretary, in local search and rescue operations when requested by responsible local public authorities. Such assistance may be provided in emergencies caused by tornadoes, fires, floods, snowstorms, earthquakes, and similar disasters.

(Pub. L. 97–98, title XV, § 1550, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1344.)
§ 2274.
Firearm authority of employees engaged in animal quarantine enforcement

Any employee of the United States Department of Agriculture designated by the Secretary of Agriculture and the Attorney General of the United States may carry a firearm and use a firearm when necessary for self-protection, in accordance with rules and regulations issued by the Secretary of Agriculture and the Attorney General of the United States, while such employee is engaged in the performance of the employee’s official duties to (1) carry out any law or regulation related to the control, eradication, or prevention of the introduction or dissemination of communicable disease of livestock or poultry into the United States or (2) perform any duty related to such disease control, eradication, or prevention, subject to the direction of the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 97–312, § 1, Oct. 14, 1982, 96 Stat. 1461.)
§ 2274a.
Firearm authority of employees conducting field work in remote locations

On and after December 8, 2004, the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to permit employees of the United States Department of Agriculture to carry and use firearms for personal protection while conducting field work in remote locations in the performance of their official duties.

(Pub. L. 108–447, div. A, title VII, § 742, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 2844.)
§ 2275.
Repealed. Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, § 1572(3), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3702
§ 2276.
Confidentiality of information
(a)
In general
In the case of information furnished under a provision of law referred to in subsection (d), neither the Secretary of Agriculture, any other officer or employee of the Department of Agriculture or agency thereof, nor any other person may—
(1) use such information for a purpose other than the development or reporting of aggregate data in a manner such that the identity of the person who supplied such information is not discernible and is not material to the intended uses of such information;
(2) disclose such information to the public, unless such information has been transformed into a statistical or aggregate form that does not allow the identification of the person who supplied particular information; or
(3) in the case of information collected under the authority described in paragraph (12) or (13) of subsection (d), disclose the information to any person or any Federal, State, local, or tribal agency outside the Department of Agriculture, unless the information has been converted into a statistical or aggregate form that does not allow the identification of the person that supplied particular information.
(b)
Duty of Secretary; immunity from disclosure; necessary consent
(1) In carrying out a provision of law referred to in subsection (d), no department, agency, officer, or employee of the Federal Government, other than the Secretary of Agriculture, shall require a person to furnish a copy of statistical information provided to the Department of Agriculture.
(2)
A copy of such information—
(A) shall be immune from mandatory disclosure of any type, including legal process; and
(B)
(c)
Violations; penalties

Any person who shall publish, cause to be published, or otherwise publicly release information collected pursuant to a provision of law referred to in subsection (d), in any manner or for any purpose prohibited in section 1

1 So in original. Probably should be “subsection”.
(a), shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than 1 year, or both.

(d)
Provisions of law references
For purposes of this section, a provision of law referred to in this subsection means—
(1) the first section of the Act entitled “An Act authorizing the Secretary of Agriculture to collect and publish statistics of the grade and staple length of cotton”, approved March 3, 1927 (7 U.S.C. 471) (commonly referred to as the “Cotton Statistics and Estimates Act”);
(2) the first section of the Act entitled “An Act to provide for the collection and publication of statistics of tobacco by the Department of Agriculture”, approved January 14, 1929 (7 U.S.C. 501);
(3) the first section of the Act entitled “An Act to provide for the collection and publication of statistics of peanuts by the Department of Agriculture”, approved June 24, 1936 (7 U.S.C. 951);
(4) section 203(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (7 U.S.C. 1622(g));
(5) section 526(a) of the Revised Statutes (7 U.S.C. 2204(a));
(6) the Act entitled “An Act providing for the publication of statistics relating to spirits of turpentine and resin”, approved August 15, 1935 (7 U.S.C. 2248);
(7)section 42 of title 13;
(8) section 4 of the Act entitled “An Act to establish the Department of Commerce and Labor”, approved February 14, 1903 (15 U.S.C. 1516);
(9) section 2 of the joint resolution entitled “Joint resolution relating to the publication of economic and social statistics for Americans of Spanish origin or descent”, approved June 16, 1976 (15 U.S.C. 1516a);
(10) section 3(e) of the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Research Act of 1978 (16 U.S.C. 1642(e));
(11)section 2204g of this title;
(12) section 302 of the Rural Development Act of 1972 (7 U.S.C. 1010a) regarding the authority to collect data for the National Resources Inventory; or
(13) section 10109 of the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018.
(e)
Information provided to Secretary of Commerce

This section shall not prohibit the release of information under section 2204g(f)(2) of this title.

(Pub. L. 99–198, title XVII, § 1770, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1657; Pub. L. 105–113, § 4(a)(2), (b), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2276; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, § 1000(a)(3) [title III, § 348], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A–207; Pub. L. 107–171, title II, § 2004(b), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 236; Pub. L. 115–334, title X, § 10109(d), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4907.)
§ 2277.
Contracts by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service for services to be performed abroad

Funds available to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) under this and subsequent appropriations shall be available for contracting with individuals for services to be performed outside of the United States, as determined by APHIS to be necessary or appropriate for carrying out programs and activities abroad. Such individuals shall not be regarded as officers or employees of the United States under any law administered by the Office of Personnel Management.

(Pub. L. 102–142, title VII, § 737, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 915.)
§ 2278.
Consistency with international obligations of United States
(a)
In general

Prior to the promulgation of, or amendment to, any order or plan under a research and promotion program relating to research and promotion of any agricultural commodity or product, after November 28, 1990, where such order or plan would provide for an assessment on imports, the Secretary of Agriculture shall consult with the United States Trade Representative regarding the consistency of the provisions of the order or plan with the international obligations of the United States.

(b)
Compliance with U.S. international obligations

The Secretary of Agriculture shall take all steps necessary and appropriate to ensure that any order or plan or amendment to such order or plan, and the implementation and enforcement of any order or plan or amendment to such order or plan, or program as it relates to imports is nondiscriminatory and in compliance with the international obligations of the United States, as interpreted by the United States Trade Representative.

(c)
Construction

Nothing in this section shall be construed as providing for a cause of action under this section.

(Pub. L. 101–624, title XIX, § 1999T, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3928.)
§ 2279.
Farming opportunities training and outreach
(a)
Definitions
In this section:
(1)
Agricultural programs
The term “agricultural programs” are those established or authorized by—
(A) the Agricultural Act of 1949 [7 U.S.C. 1421 et seq.];
(B) the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act [7 U.S.C. 1921 et seq.];
(C) the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 [7 U.S.C. 1281 et seq.];
(D) the Soil Conservation Act;
(E) the Domestic Allotment Assistance Act;
(F) the Food Security Act of 1985; and
(G) other such Acts as the Secretary deems appropriate.
(2)
Beginning farmer or rancher
The term “beginning farmer or rancher” means a person that—
(A)
(i) has not operated a farm or ranch; or
(ii) has operated a farm or ranch for not more than 10 years; and
(B) meets such other criteria as the Secretary may establish.
(3)
Department

The term “Department” means the Department of Agriculture.

(4)
Secretary

The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Agriculture.

(5)
Socially disadvantaged farmer or rancher

The term “socially disadvantaged farmer or rancher” means a farmer or rancher who is a member of a socially disadvantaged group.

(6)
Socially disadvantaged group

The term “socially disadvantaged group” means a group whose members have been subjected to racial or ethnic prejudice because of their identity as members of a group without regard to their individual qualities.

(7)
Veteran farmer or rancher
The term “veteran farmer or rancher” means a farmer or rancher who has served in the Armed Forces (as defined in section 101(10) of title 38) and who—
(A) has not operated a farm or ranch;
(B) has operated a farm or ranch for not more than 10 years; or
(C) is a veteran (as defined in section 101 of that title) who has first obtained status as a veteran (as so defined) during the most recent 10-year period.
(b)
Farming opportunities training and outreach
The Secretary shall carry out this section to encourage and assist socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers, veteran farmers and ranchers, and beginning farmers and ranchers in the ownership and operation of farms and ranches through—
(1) education and training; and
(2) equitable participation in all agricultural programs of the Department.
(c)
Outreach and assistance for socially disadvantaged and veteran farmers and ranchers
(1)
Eligible entity
In this subsection, the term “eligible entity” means any of the following:
(A)
Any community-based organization, network, or coalition of community-based organizations that—
(i) has demonstrated experience in providing agricultural education or other agriculturally related services to socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers and veteran farmers or ranchers;
(ii) has provided to the Secretary documentary evidence of work with, and on behalf of, socially disadvantaged farmers or ranchers and veteran farmers or ranchers during the 3-year period preceding the submission of an application for assistance under this subsection; and
(iii) does not engage in activities prohibited under section 501(c)(3) of title 26.
(B) An 1890 institution or 1994 institution (as defined in section 7601 of this title), including West Virginia State College.
(C) An Indian tribal community college or an Alaska Native cooperative college.
(D) An Hispanic-serving institution (as defined in section 3103 of this title).
(E) Any other institution of higher education (as defined in section 1001 of title 20) that has demonstrated experience in providing agriculture education or other agriculturally related services to socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers in a region.
(F) An Indian tribe (as defined in section 5304 of title 25) or a national tribal organization that has demonstrated experience in providing agriculture education or other agriculturally related services to socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers in a region.
(G) An organization or institution that received funding under subsection (a) before January 1, 1996, but only with respect to projects that the Secretary considers are similar to projects previously carried out by the organization or institution under such subsection.
(2)
Program
Using funds made available under subsection (l), the Secretary of Agriculture shall, for the period of fiscal years 2019 through 2023, carry out an outreach and technical assistance program to encourage and assist socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers and veteran farmers or ranchers—
(A) in owning and operating farms and ranches; and
(B) in participating equitably in the full range of agricultural, forestry, and related programs offered by the Department.
(3)
Requirements
The outreach and technical assistance program under paragraph (2) shall be used exclusively—
(A) to enhance coordination of the outreach, technical assistance, and education efforts authorized under agriculture programs; and
(B)
to assist the Secretary in—
(i) reaching current and prospective socially disadvantaged farmers or ranchers and veteran farmers or ranchers in a linguistically appropriate manner; and
(ii) improving the participation of those farmers and ranchers in Department programs, as reported under section 2279–1 of this title.
(4)
Grants and contracts
(A)
Outreach and technical assistance

The Secretary may make grants to, and enter into contracts and other agreements with, an eligible entity that has demonstrated an ability to carry out the requirements described in paragraph (3) to provide outreach and technical assistance to socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers and veteran farmers and ranchers under this subsection.

(B)
Relationship to other law

The authority to carry out this section shall be in addition to any other authority provided in this or any other Act.

(C)
Other projects

Notwithstanding paragraph (2), the Secretary may make grants to, and enter into contracts and other agreements with, an organization or institution that received funding under this section before January 1, 1996, to carry out a project that is similar to a project for which the organization or institution received such funding.

(D)
Report
The Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate, and make publicly available, an annual report that includes a list of the following:
(i) The recipients of funds made available under the program.
(ii) The activities undertaken and services provided.
(iii) The number of current and prospective socially disadvantaged farmers or ranchers served and outcomes of such service.
(iv) The problems and barriers identified by entities in trying to increase participation by current and prospective socially disadvantaged farmers or ranchers.
(v) The number of farms or ranches started, maintained, or improved as a result of funds made available under the program.
(vi) Actions taken by the Secretary in partnership with eligible entities to enhance participation in agricultural programs by veteran farmers or ranchers and socially disadvantaged farmers or ranchers.
(vii) The effectiveness of the actions described in clause (vi).
(E)
Maximum term and amount of grant, contract, or agreement
A grant, contract, or agreement entered into under subparagraph (A) shall be—
(i) for a term of not longer than 3 years; and
(ii) in an amount that is not more than $250,000 for each year of the grant, contract, or agreement.
(F)
Priority

In making grants and entering into contracts and other agreements under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall give priority to nongovernmental and community-based organizations with an expertise in working with socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers or veteran farmers and ranchers.

(G)
Regional balance

To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary shall ensure the geographical diversity of eligible entities to which grants are made and contracts and other agreements are entered into under subparagraph (A).

(H)
Prohibition

A grant, contract, or other agreement under subparagraph (A) may not be used for the planning, repair, rehabilitation, acquisition, or construction of a building or facility.

(I)
Peer review
The Secretary shall establish a fair and efficient external peer review process that—
(i) the Secretary shall use in making grants and entering into contracts and other agreements under subparagraph (A); and
(ii) shall include a broad representation of peers of the eligible entity.
(J)
Input from eligible entities

The Secretary shall seek input from eligible entities providing technical assistance under this subsection not less than once each year to ensure that the program is responsive to the eligible entities providing that technical assistance.

(5)
Socially Disadvantaged Farmers and Ranchers Policy Research Center

The Secretary shall award a grant to a college or university eligible to receive funds under the Act of August 30, 1890 (7 U.S.C. 321 et seq.), including Tuskegee University, to establish a policy research center to be known as the “Socially Disadvantaged Farmers and Ranchers Policy Research Center” for the purpose of developing policy recommendations for the protection and promotion of the interests of socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers.

(d)
Beginning farmer and rancher development grant program
(1)
In general

Using funds made available under subsection (l), the Secretary, acting through the Director of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, shall, for the period of fiscal years 2019 through 2023, make competitive grants or enter into cooperative agreements to support new and established local and regional training, education, outreach, and technical assistance initiatives to increase opportunities for beginning farmers and ranchers.

(2)
Included programs and services
Initiatives described in paragraph (1) may include programs or services, as appropriate, relating to—
(A) basic livestock, forest management, and crop farming practices;
(B) innovative farm, ranch, and private, nonindustrial forest land transfer and succession strategies;
(C) entrepreneurship and business training;
(D) technical assistance to help beginning farmers or ranchers acquire land from retiring farmers and ranchers;
(E) financial and risk management training, including the acquisition and management of agricultural credit;
(F) natural resource management and planning;
(G) diversification and marketing strategies;
(H) curriculum development;
(I) mentoring, apprenticeships, and internships;
(J) resources and referral;
(K) farm financial benchmarking;
(L) agricultural rehabilitation and vocational training for veteran farmers and ranchers;
(M) farm safety and awareness;
(N) food safety and recordkeeping; and
(O) other similar subject areas of use to beginning farmers and ranchers.
(3)
Eligibility
(A)
In general

To be eligible to receive a grant or enter into a cooperative agreement under this subsection, the recipient of the grant or participant in the cooperative agreement shall be a collaborative State, Tribal, local, or regionally-based network or partnership of public or private entities.

(B)
Inclusions
A recipient of a grant or a participant that enters into a cooperative agreement described in subparagraph (A) may include—
(i) a State cooperative extension service;
(ii) a Federal, State, municipal, or Tribal agency;
(iii) a community-based or nongovernmental organization;
(iv) a college or university (including an institution awarding an associate’s degree) or foundation maintained by a college or university; or
(v) any other appropriate partner, as determined by the Secretary.
(4)
Terms of grants or cooperative agreement
A grant or cooperative agreement under this subsection shall—
(A) be for a term of not longer than 3 years; and
(B) provide not more than $250,000 for each year.
(5)
Matching requirement
(A)
In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), to be eligible to receive a grant or enter into a cooperative agreement under this subsection, a recipient or participant shall provide a match in the form of cash or in-kind contributions in an amount equal to 25 percent of the funds provided by the grant or cooperative agreement.

(B)
Exception

The Secretary may waive or reduce the matching requirement in subparagraph (A) if the Secretary determines such a waiver or modification is necessary to effectively reach an underserved area or population.

(6)
Evaluation criteria
In making grants or entering into cooperative agreements under this subsection, the Secretary shall evaluate, with respect to applications for the grants or cooperative agreements—
(A) relevancy;
(B) technical merit;
(C) achievability;
(D) the expertise and track record of 1 or more applicants;
(E) the consultation of beginning farmers and ranchers in design, implementation, and decisionmaking relating to an initiative described in paragraph (1);
(F)
the adequacy of plans for—
(i) a participatory evaluation process;
(ii) outcome-based reporting; and
(iii) the communication of findings and results beyond the immediate target audience; and
(G) other appropriate factors, as determined by the Secretary.
(7)
Regional balance

To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary shall ensure the geographical diversity of recipients of grants or participants in cooperative agreements under this subsection.

(8)
Priority

In making grants or entering into cooperative agreements under this subsection, the Secretary shall give priority to partnerships and collaborations that are led by or include nongovernmental, community-based organizations and school-based educational organizations with expertise in new agricultural producer training and outreach.

(9)
Prohibition

A grant made or cooperative agreement entered into under this subsection may not be used for the planning, repair, rehabilitation, acquisition, or construction of a building or facility.

(10)
Coordination permitted

A recipient of a grant or participant in a cooperative agreement under this subsection may coordinate with a recipient of a grant or cooperative agreement under section 5933 of this title in addressing the needs of veteran farmers and ranchers with disabilities.

(11)
Consecutive awards

A grant or cooperative agreement under this subsection may be made to a recipient or participant for consecutive years.

(12)
Peer review
(A)
In general

The Secretary shall establish a fair and efficient external peer review process, which the Secretary shall use in making grants or entering into cooperative agreements under this subsection.

(B)
Requirement

The peer review process under subparagraph (A) shall include a review panel composed of a broad representation of peers of the applicant for the grant or cooperative agreement that are not applying for a grant or cooperative agreement under this subsection.

(13)
Participation by other farmers and ranchers
Nothing in this subsection prohibits the Secretary from allowing a farmer or rancher who is not a beginning farmer or rancher (including an owner or operator that has ended, or expects to end within 5 years, active labor in a farming or ranching operation as a producer, retiring farmers, and non-farming landowners) from participating in a program or service under this subsection, to the extent that the Secretary determines that such participation—
(A) is appropriate; and
(B) will not detract from the primary purpose of increasing opportunities for beginning farmers and ranchers.
(14)
Education teams
(A)
In general

The Secretary shall establish beginning farmer and rancher education teams to develop curricula, conduct educational programs and workshops for beginning farmers and ranchers in diverse geographical areas of the United States, or provide training and technical assistance initiatives for beginning farmers or ranchers or for trainers and service providers that work with beginning farmers or ranchers.

(B)
Curriculum

In promoting the development of curricula, educational programs and workshops, or training and technical assistance initiatives under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall, to the maximum extent practicable, include content tailored to specific audiences of beginning farmers and ranchers, based on crop diversity or regional diversity.

(C)
Composition
In establishing an education team under subparagraph (A) for a specific program or workshop, the Secretary shall, to the maximum extent practicable—
(i) obtain the short-term services of specialists with knowledge and expertise in programs serving beginning farmers and ranchers; and
(ii) use officers and employees of the Department with direct experience in programs of the Department that may be taught as part of the curriculum for the program or workshop.
(D)
Cooperation
(i)
In general
In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary shall cooperate, to the maximum extent practicable, with—
(I) State cooperative extension services;(II) Federal, State, and Tribal agencies;(III) community-based and nongovernmental organizations;(IV) colleges and universities (including an institution awarding an associate’s degree) or foundations maintained by a college or university; and(V) other appropriate partners, as determined by the Secretary.
(ii)
Cooperative agreements

The Secretary may enter into a cooperative agreement to reflect the terms of any cooperation under subparagraph (A).

(15)
Curriculum and training clearinghouse

The Secretary shall establish an online clearinghouse that makes available to beginning farmers and ranchers education curricula and training materials and programs, which may include online courses for direct use by beginning farmers and ranchers.

(e)
Application requirements

In making grants and entering into contracts and other agreements, as applicable, under subsections (c) and (d), the Secretary shall make available a simplified application process for an application for a grant that requests less than $50,000.

(f)
Stakeholder input
In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall seek stakeholder input from—
(1) beginning farmers and ranchers;
(2) socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers;
(3) veteran farmers and ranchers;
(4)
national, State, Tribal, and local organizations and other persons with expertise in operating programs for—
(A) beginning farmers and ranchers;
(B) socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers; or
(C) veteran farmers and ranchers;
(5) the Advisory Committee on Beginning Farmers and Ranchers established under section 5(b) of the Agricultural Credit Improvement Act of 1992 (7 U.S.C. 1929 note; Public Law 102–554);
(6) the Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers established under section 14008 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2279
(7) the Tribal Advisory Committee established under subsection (b) of section 6921 of this title.
(g)
Designation of Federal personnel
(1)
In general

The Secretary shall designate from existing Federal personnel resources in the county or region a qualified person who shall, in cooperation with the State cooperative extension services, implement the policies and programs established or modified in accordance with this section.

(2)
Additional personnel

In counties or regions in which the number of socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers or veteran farmers and ranchers exceeds 25 percent of the total number of farmers and ranchers in the county or region, the Secretary shall designate additional personnel to implement the policies and programs established or modified in accordance with this section.

(h)
Affirmative action, appeals, and contracting review
(1)
Purpose

It is the purpose of this subsection to direct the Secretary to analyze within the Department the design and implementation of affirmative action programs and policies, the appeals process for complaints of discrimination, and contracting and purchasing practices employed by the Department.

(2)
Scope
The study shall include—
(A) an assessment of the successes and failures of these affirmative action programs and policies;
(B) a review of the reasons for the successes and failures described in subparagraph (A);
(C) a review of procurement, contracting, and purchasing policies of the Department, the level of participation of socially disadvantaged businesses in such activities, and the impact of those policies on the participation of members of socially disadvantaged groups in such contracting with the Department;
(D) a review of the reasons for participation or lack of participation of businesses owned by members of socially disadvantaged groups in the activities described in subparagraph (C); and
(E)
a review of the appeals process for all complaints or allegations regarding acts, practices, or patterns of discrimination filed with the Department by individuals or any other entities that shall include—
(i) the number of complaints or allegations regarding acts, practices, or patterns of discrimination;
(ii) the manner in which the complaints were investigated and resolved by the Department; and
(iii) the longest, shortest, and average periods of time taken to investigate and resolve the complaints or allegations regarding acts, practices, or patterns of discrimination.
(3)
Report

Not later than November 28, 1991, and not later than March 1, 2020, the Secretary shall prepare and submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report containing the information described in paragraph (2).

(i)
Reservations
(1)
Consolidated suboffice

The Secretary shall require the Farm Service Agency and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and such other offices and functions the Secretary may choose to include where there has been a need demonstrated, in each county that has a reservation within its borders, to establish a consolidated suboffice at the tribal headquarters of said reservation and to staff said suboffice as needed, using existing staff, but no less than one day a week or under such other arrangement agreed to by the tribe and the Department offices.

(2)
Cooperative agreements

For those reservations that are located in more than one county, the Secretary, the relevant county offices and the tribe shall enter into a cooperative agreement to provide the services required by paragraph (1) that avoids duplication of effort.

(j)
Accurate documentation

The Secretary shall ensure, to the maximum extent practicable, that the Census of Agriculture and studies carried out by the Economic Research Service accurately document the number, location, and economic contributions of socially disadvantaged farmers or ranchers in agricultural production.

(k)
Report to Congress
(1)
In general
Not later than September 30, 1992, and every two years thereafter, the Secretary shall report to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate, regarding—
(A) the efforts of the Secretary to enhance participation by veteran farmers or ranchers and members of socially disadvantaged groups in agricultural programs;
(B) the specific participation goals established for each agricultural program;
(C) the results achieved for each agricultural program; and
(D) the progress of the Department towards meeting each of the purposes described in paragraph (2)(C).
(2)
Contents
In addition to the information specified in paragraph (1), the report required by paragraph (1) shall include—
(A) a comparison of the participation goals and the actual participation rates of veteran farmers or ranchers and members of socially disadvantaged groups in each agricultural program;
(B) an analysis and explanation of the reasons for the success or failure of the Secretary to achieve the goals, and the overall purposes of this section;
(C)
a listing, on a State-by-State and county-by-county basis, of—
(i) the amount of funds loaned to members of socially disadvantaged groups; and
(ii) the amount of funds used to guarantee loans to members of socially disadvantaged groups compared to the total amount of such guarantees;
(D) a breakdown in allocation of crop base in each program crop compared to the target participation rates established pursuant to sections 355(a)(1) and 355(c) of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act [7 U.S.C. 2003(a)(1), 2003(c)], on a State-by-State and county-by-county basis; and
(E) a review and analysis of participation by members of socially disadvantaged groups, compared to participation by all others, in agricultural programs, on a State-by-State and county-by-county basis, including a survey representative of all farmers and ranchers, including socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers, to identify reasons for participation and nonparticipation in agricultural programs.
(l)
Funding
(1)
Mandatory funding
Of the funds of the Commodity Credit Corporation, the Secretary shall use to carry out this section—
(A) $30,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 and 2020;
(B) $35,000,000 for fiscal year 2021;
(C) $40,000,000 for fiscal year 2022; and
(D) $50,000,000 for fiscal year 2023 and each fiscal year thereafter.
(2)
Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023.

(3)
Reservation of funds
Of the amounts made available to carry out this section—
(A) 50 percent shall be used to carry out subsection (c); and
(B) 50 percent shall be used to carry out subsection (d).
(4)
Allocation of funds
(A)
In general
Not less than 5 percent of the amounts made available to carry out subsection (d) for a fiscal year shall be used to support programs and services that address the needs of—
(i) limited resource beginning farmers and ranchers, as defined by the Secretary;
(ii) socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers that are beginning farmers and ranchers; and
(iii) farmworkers desiring to become farmers or ranchers.
(B)
Veteran farmers and ranchers

Not less than 5 percent of the amounts made available to carry out subsection (d) for a fiscal year shall be used to support programs and services that address the needs of veteran farmers and ranchers.

(5)
Interagency funding

Any agency of the Department may participate in any grant, contract, or agreement entered into under this section by contributing funds, if the contributing agency determines that the objectives of the grant, contract, or agreement will further the authorized programs of the contributing agency.

(6)
Administrative expenses

Not more than 5 percent of the amounts made available to carry out this section for a fiscal year may be used for expenses relating to the administration of this section.

(7)
Limitation on indirect costs

A recipient of a grant or a party to a contract or other agreement under subsection (c) or (d) may not use more than 10 percent of the funds received for the indirect costs of carrying out a grant, contract, or other agreement.

(Pub. L. 101–624, title XXV, § 2501, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4062; Pub. L. 102–237, title X, § 1003, Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1894; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, § 10707, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 520; Pub. L. 110–234, title XIV, §§ 14001, 14004, 14005, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1442, 1443, 1445; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title XIV, §§ 14001, 14004, 14005, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2204, 2205, 2207; Pub. L. 112–240, title VII, § 701(h), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2367; Pub. L. 113–79, title XII, §§ 12201, 12203, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 983, 984; Pub. L. 115–334, title XII, §§ 12301(b), 12306(a), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4951, 4968.)
§ 2279–1.
Transparency and accountability for socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers
(a)
Purpose

The purpose of this section is to ensure compilation and public disclosure of data to assess and hold the Department of Agriculture accountable for the nondiscriminatory participation of socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers in programs of the Department.

(b)
Definition of socially disadvantaged farmer or rancher

In this section, the term “socially disadvantaged farmer or rancher” has the meaning given the term in section 2003(e) of this title.

(c)
Compilation of program participation data
(1)
Annual requirement
For each county and State in the United States, the Secretary of Agriculture (referred to in this section as the “Secretary”) shall annually compile program application and participation rate data regarding socially disadvantaged farmers or ranchers by computing for each program of the Department of Agriculture that serves agricultural producers and landowners—
(A) raw numbers of applicants and participants by race, ethnicity, and gender, subject to appropriate privacy protections, as determined by the Secretary; and
(B) the application and participation rate, by race, ethnicity, and gender, as a percentage of the total participation rate of all agricultural producers and landowners.
(2)
Authority to collect data

The heads of the agencies of the Department of Agriculture shall collect and transmit to the Secretary any data, including data on race, gender, and ethnicity, that the Secretary determines to be necessary to carry out paragraph (1).

(3)
Report
Using the technologies and systems of the National Agricultural Statistics Service, the Secretary shall compile and present the data compiled under paragraph (1) for each program described in that paragraph in a manner that includes the raw numbers and participation rates for—
(A) the entire United States;
(B) each State; and
(C) each county in each State.
(4)
Public availability of report

The Secretary shall maintain and make readily available to the public, via website and otherwise in electronic and paper form, the report described in paragraph (3).

(d)
Limitations on use of data
(1)
Privacy protections

In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall not disclose the names or individual data of any program participant.

(2)
Authorized uses

The data under this section shall be used exclusively for the purposes described in subsection (a).

(3)
Limitation

Except as otherwise provided, the data under this section shall not be used for the evaluation of individual applications for assistance.

(e)
Receipt for service or denial of service
In any case in which a current or prospective producer or landowner, in person or in writing, requests from the Farm Service Agency, the Natural Resources Conservation Service, or an agency of the Rural Development Mission Area any benefit or service offered by the Department to agricultural producers or landowners, the Secretary shall issue, on the date of the request, a receipt to the producer or landowner that contains—
(1) the date, place, and subject of the request; and
(2) the action taken, not taken, or recommended to the producer or landowner.
(Pub. L. 101–624, title XXV, § 2501A, as added Pub. L. 107–171, title X, § 10708(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 522; amended Pub. L. 110–234, title XIV, §§ 14003, 14006, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1443, 1445; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title XIV, §§ 14003, 14006, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2205, 2207; Pub. L. 113–79, title XII, § 12204, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 984.)
§ 2279–2.
Report of civil rights complaints, resolutions, and actions
Each year, the Secretary shall—
(1)
prepare a report that describes, for each agency of the Department of Agriculture—
(A) the number of civil rights complaints filed that relate to the agency, including whether a complaint is a program complaint or an employment complaint;
(B) the length of time the agency took to process each civil rights complaint;
(C) the number of proceedings brought against the agency, including the number of complaints described in paragraph (1) that were resolved with a finding of discrimination; and
(D) the number and type of personnel actions taken by the agency following resolution of civil rights complaints;
(2) submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a copy of the report; and
(3) make the report available to the public by posting the report on the website of the Department.
(Pub. L. 110–234, title XIV, § 14010, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1447; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title XIV, § 14010, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2209.)
§ 2279a.
Fair and equitable treatment of socially disadvantaged producers
(a)
Fair crop acreage bases and farm program payment yields

If the Secretary of Agriculture determines that crop acreage bases or farm program payment yields established for farms owned or operated by socially disadvantaged producers are not established in accordance with title V of the Agricultural Act of 1949 (7 U.S.C. 1461 et seq.), the Secretary shall adjust the bases and yields to conform to the requirements of such title and make available any appropriate commodity program benefits.

(b)
Fair application of Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act

If the Secretary of Agriculture determines that application of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (7 U.S.C. 1921 et seq.) with respect to socially disadvantaged producers is not consistent with the requirements of such Act, the Secretary shall make such changes in the administration of such Act as the Secretary considers necessary to provide for the fair and equitable treatment of socially disadvantaged producers under such Act.

(c)
Report on treatment of socially disadvantaged producers
(1)
Report required
The Comptroller General of the United States shall prepare a report to determine—
(A) whether socially disadvantaged producers are underrepresented on State, county, area, or local committees established under section 590h(b)(5) of title 16 or local review committees established under section 1363 of this title because of racial, ethnic, or gender prejudice; and
(B) if such underrepresentation exists, whether it inhibits or interferes with the participation of socially disadvantaged producers in programs of the Department of Agriculture.
(2)
Submission of report

Not later than February 1, 1995, the Comptroller General shall submit the report required by this subsection to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate.

(d)
“Socially disadvantaged producer” defined

For purposes of this section, the term “socially disadvantaged producer” means a producer who is a member of a group whose members have been subjected to racial, ethnic, or gender prejudice because of their identity as members of a group without regard to their individual qualities.

(Pub. L. 103–354, title III, § 305, Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3240.)
§ 2279b.
Department of Agriculture educational, training, and professional development activities
(a)
Definitions
In this section:
(1)
Graduate School

The term “Graduate School” means the Graduate School of the Department of Agriculture.

(2)
Board

The term “Board” means the General Administration Board of the Graduate School.

(3)
Director

The term “Director” means the Director of the Graduate School.

(4)
Secretary

The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Agriculture.

(b)
Operation as nonappropriated fund instrumentality
(1)
Cease operations

Not later than October 1, 2009, the Secretary of Agriculture shall cease to maintain or operate a nonappropriated fund instrumentality of the United States to develop, administer, or provide educational training and professional development activities, including educational activities for Federal agencies, Federal employees, non-profit organizations, other entities, and members of the general public.

(2)
Transition
(A)
In general

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to use funds available to the Department of Agriculture and such resources of the Department as the Secretary considers appropriate (including the assignment of such employees of the Department as the Secretary considers appropriate) to assist the General Administrative Board of the Graduate School in the conversion of the Graduate School to an entity that is non-governmental and not a nonappropriated fund instrumentality of the United States, including such privatization activities not otherwise inconsistent with law or regulation.

(B)
Termination of authority
The authority under paragraph (1) shall terminate on the earlier of—
(i) the completion of the transition of the Graduate School to an entity that is non-governmental and not a nonappropriated fund instrumentality of the United States, as determined by the Secretary; or
(ii)September 30, 2009.
(c)
Activities of Graduate School

Under the general supervision of the Secretary, the Graduate School shall develop, administer, and provide educational, training, and professional development activities, including educational activities for Federal agencies, Federal employees, nonprofit organizations, other entities, and members of the general public.

(d)
Fees and donations
(1)
Collection of fees

The Graduate School may charge and retain fair and reasonable fees for the activities provided by the Graduate School. The amount of the fees shall be based on the cost of the activities to the Graduate School.

(2)
Acceptance of donations
(A)
Acceptance and use authorized

The Graduate School may accept, use, hold, dispose, and administer gifts, bequests, and devises of money, securities, and other real or personal property made for the benefit of, or in connection with, the Graduate School.

(B)
Exception

The Graduate School shall not accept a donation from a person that is actively engaged in a procurement activity with the Graduate School or has an interest that may be substantially affected by the performance or nonperformance of an official duty of a member of the Board or an employee of the Graduate School.

(3)
Not Federal funds

Fees collected under paragraph (1) and amounts received under paragraph (2) shall not be considered to be Federal funds and shall not be required to be deposited in the Treasury of the United States.

(e)
General Administration Board and Director
(1)
Appointment as governing board

The Secretary shall appoint a General Administration Board to serve as a governing board for the Graduate School and to supervise and direct the activities of the Graduate School. The Board shall be subject to regulation by the Secretary.

(2)
Duties of Board
The Board shall—
(A) formulate broad policies in accordance with which the Graduate School shall be administered;
(B) take all steps necessary to ensure that the highest possible educational standards are maintained by the Graduate School;
(C) exercise general supervision over the administration of the Graduate School; and
(D) establish such bylaws, rules, and procedures as may be necessary for the fulfillment of the duties described in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C).
(3)
Appointment of Director and other officers

The Board shall select a Director and such other officers as the Board considers necessary to administer the Graduate School. The Director and other officers shall serve on such terms and perform such duties as the Board may prescribe.

(4)
Duties of Director

The Director shall be responsible, subject to the supervision and direction of the Board, for carrying out the functions of the Graduate School.

(5)
Borrowing and investment authority
The Board may authorize the Director—
(A) to borrow money on the credit of the Graduate School; and
(B) to invest funds held in excess of the current operating requirements of the Graduate School for purposes of maintaining a reasonable reserve.
(6)
Liability

The Director and the members of the Board shall not be held personally liable for any loss or damage that may accrue to the funds of the Graduate School as the result of any act or exercise of discretion performed in carrying out their duties under this section.

(f)
Employees

Employees of the Graduate School are employees of a nonappropriated fund instrumentality and shall not be considered to be Federal employees.

(g)
Not a Federal agency
The Graduate School shall not be considered to be a Federal agency for purposes of—
(1) the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.);
(2) section 552 or 552a of title 5; or
(3) chapter 171 of title 28.
(h)
Acquisition and disposal of property
In order to carry out the activities of the Graduate School, the Graduate School may—
(1) acquire real property in the District of Columbia and in other places by lease, purchase, or otherwise;
(2) maintain, enlarge, or remodel any such property;
(3) have sole control of any such property; and
(4) dispose of real and personal property without regard to chapters 1 to 11 of title 40 and division C (except sections 3302, 3307(e), 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of title 41.
(i)
Contract authority

The Graduate School may enter into contracts without regard to chapters 1 to 11 of title 40 and division C (except sections 3302, 3307(e), 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of title 41 or any other law that prescribes procedures for the procurement of property or services by an executive agency.

(j)
Use of Department facilities and resources

The Graduate School may use the facilities and resources of the Department of Agriculture, on the condition that any costs incurred by the Department that are attributable solely to Graduate School operations and all costs incurred by the Graduate School arising out of such operations shall be paid using funds of the Graduate School. Federal funds may not be used to pay the costs.

(k)
Audits of records

The financial records of the Graduate School (including records relating to contracts or agreements entered into under subsection (c)) shall be made available to the Comptroller General for purposes of conducting an audit.

(Pub. L. 104–127, title IX, § 921, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1191; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, § 10705(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 518; Pub. L. 110–234, title XIV, § 14213(a), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1465; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title XIV, § 14213(a), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2227.)
§ 2279c.
Student internship programs
(a)
Student intern subsistence program
(1)
“Student intern” defined
In this subsection, the term “student intern” means a person who—
(A) is employed by the Department of Agriculture (referred to in this section as the “Department”) to assist scientific, professional, administrative, or technical employees of the Department; and
(B) is a student in good standing at an institution of higher education (as defined in section 1001 of title 20) pursuing a course of study related to the field in which the person is employed by the Department.
(2)
Payment of certain expenses by the Secretary

The Secretary of Agriculture (referred to in this section as the “Secretary”) may, out of user fee funds or funds appropriated to any agency of the Department, pay for lodging expenses, subsistence expenses, and transportation expenses of a student intern at the agency (including expenses of transportation to and from the student intern’s residence at or near the institution of higher education attended by the student intern and the official duty station at which the student intern is employed).

(b)
Cooperation with associations of colleges and universities
(1)
Authority to cooperate

Notwithstanding chapter 63 of title 31, the Secretary may enter into cooperative agreements on an annual basis with 1 or more associations of institutions of higher education (as defined in section 1001 of title 20) for the purpose of providing for Department participation in internship programs for graduate and undergraduate students who are selected by the associations from students attending member institutions of the associations and other institutions of higher education.

(2)
Internship program

An internship program supported under this subsection (referred to in this subsection as an “internship program”) shall provide work assignments for students within the Department and such other activities as the association that enters into the cooperative agreement under paragraph (1) with respect to the internship program (referred to in this subsection as the “cooperating association”) and the Secretary shall determine. The nature of Department participation in an internship program shall be developed jointly by the Secretary and the cooperating association.

(3)
Program coordination
The cooperating association shall coordinate an internship program, including—
(A) the recruitment of students;
(B) arrangements for travel of the students to Washington, District of Columbia, and to agency field locations;
(C) the provision of housing for students, if required; and
(D) all activities for the students that take place outside the Department work assignments of the students.
(4)
Number and selection of students
(A)
Number

A cooperative agreement entered into under paragraph (1) shall specify the number of students that the Department will host each year and a list of work assignments to be provided for the students.

(B)
Selection

The cooperating association shall provide the Department with a pool of student candidates meeting the requirements for each work assignment identified by the Secretary. Final selection of the students for Department internship positions shall be made by the Secretary.

(5)
Cost reimbursement

From such amounts as the Secretary determines are available each fiscal year for internship programs, and subject to such regulations as the Secretary may issue, the Secretary may reimburse a cooperating association for the Department share of all direct and indirect costs of an internship program, including student stipends, transportation costs to the internship site, and other costs of an internship program.

(6)
Lead agency

The Secretary may designate a lead agency within the Department to carry out this subsection.

(7)
Interagency agreements
Agencies and offices within the Department other than the lead agency—
(A) may enter into interagency agreements with the lead agency to provide work assignments for students participating in an internship program; and
(B) shall reimburse the lead agency for the direct and indirect costs of each student assigned to the agency under an internship program.
(8)
Federal employee status

A student who participates in an internship program shall not be considered a Federal employee, except for purposes of chapter 81 of title 5, and chapter 171 of title 28.

(Pub. L. 104–127, title IX, § 922, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1193; Pub. L. 105–244, title I, § 102(a)(1)(A), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1617.)
§ 2279d.
Compensatory damages in claims under Rehabilitation Act of 1973

In any claim brought under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 [29 U.S.C. 701 et seq.] and filed with the Secretary of Agriculture after January 1994 resulting in a finding that a farmer was subjected to discrimination under any farm loan program or activity conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture in violation of section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 794), the Secretary of Agriculture shall be liable for compensatory damages. Such liability shall apply to any administrative action brought before October 21, 1998, but only if the action is brought within the applicable statute of limitations and the complainant sought or seeks compensatory damages while the action is pending.

(Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, § 101(a) [title VII, § 742], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681, 2681–31.)
§ 2279e.
Civil penalty
(a)
In general

Any person that causes harm to, or interferes with, an animal used for the purposes of official inspections by the Department of Agriculture or the Department of Homeland Security, may, after notice and opportunity for a hearing on the record, be assessed a civil penalty by the Secretary of Agriculture or the Secretary of Homeland Security not to exceed $10,000.

(b)
Factors in determining civil penalty

In determining the amount of a civil penalty, the Secretary concerned shall take into account the nature, circumstance, extent, and gravity of the offense.

(c)
Settlement of civil penalties

The Secretary concerned may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any civil penalty that may be assessed under this section.

(d)
Finality of orders
(1)
In general

The order of the Secretary concerned assessing a civil penalty shall be treated as a final order reviewable under chapter 158 of title 28. The validity of the order of the Secretary concerned may not be reviewed in an action to collect the civil penalty.

(2)
Interest

Any civil penalty not paid in full when due under an order assessing the civil penalty shall thereafter accrue interest until paid at the rate of interest applicable to civil judgments of the courts of the United States.

(e)
Secretary concerned defined
In this section and section 2279f of this title, the term “Secretary concerned” means—
(1) the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to an animal used for purposes of official inspections by the Department of Agriculture; and
(2) the Secretary of Homeland Security, with respect to an animal used for purposes of official inspections by the Department of Homeland Security.
(Pub. L. 106–224, title V, § 501, June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 455; Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, § 421(h), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2184.)
§ 2279f.
Subpoena authority
(a)
In general

The Secretary concerned shall have power to subpoena the attendance and testimony of any witness, and the production of all documentary evidence relating to the enforcement of section 2279e of this title or any matter under investigation in connection with this section and section 2279e of this title.

(b)
Location of production

The attendance of any witness and the production of documentary evidence may be required from any place in the United States at any designated place of hearing.

(c)
Enforcement of subpoena

In the case of disobedience to a subpoena by any person, the Secretary concerned may request the Attorney General to invoke the aid of any court of the United States within the jurisdiction in which the investigation is conducted, or where the person resides, is found, transacts business, is licensed to do business, or is incorporated, in requiring the attendance and testimony of any witness and the production of documentary evidence. In case of a refusal to obey a subpoena issued to any person, a court may order the person to appear before the Secretary concerned and give evidence concerning the matter in question or to produce documentary evidence. Any failure to obey the court’s order may be punished by the court as a contempt of the court.

(d)
Compensation

Witnesses summoned by the Secretary concerned shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid to witnesses in courts of the United States, and witnesses whose depositions are taken, and the persons taking the depositions shall be entitled to the same fees that are paid for similar services in the courts of the United States.

(e)
Procedures

The Secretary concerned shall publish procedures for the issuance of subpoenas under this section. Such procedures shall include a requirement that subpoenas be reviewed for legal sufficiency and signed by the Secretary concerned. If the authority to sign a subpoena is delegated, the agency receiving the delegation shall seek review for legal sufficiency outside that agency.

(f)
Scope of subpoena

Subpoenas for witnesses to attend court in any judicial district or testify or produce evidence at an administrative hearing in any judicial district in any action or proceeding arising under section 2279e of this title may run to any other judicial district.

(Pub. L. 106–224, title V, § 502, June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 455; Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, § 421(h)(2), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2184.)
§ 2279g.
Marketing services; cooperative agreements

Notwithstanding chapter 63 of title 31, marketing services of the Agricultural Marketing Service; the Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration; the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; and the food safety activities of the Food Safety and Inspection Service, on and after February 20, 2003, may use cooperative agreements to reflect a relationship between the Agricultural Marketing Service; the Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration; the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; or the Food Safety and Inspection Service and a State or cooperator to carry out agricultural marketing programs, to carry out programs to protect the nation’s animal and plant resources, or to carry out educational programs or special studies to improve the safety of the nation’s food supply.

(Pub. L. 108–7, div. A, title VII, § 713, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 39.)
§ 2279h.
Cross-servicing activities of National Finance Center

On and after November 10, 2005, the Chief Financial Officer shall actively market and expand cross-servicing activities of the National Finance Center.

(Pub. L. 109–97, title I, Nov. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 2121.)
§ 2279i.
Cooperation with State and other agencies; expenditures

In carrying on the activities of the Department of Agriculture involving cooperation with State, county, and municipal agencies, associations of farmers, individual farmers, universities, colleges, boards of trade, chambers of commerce, or other local associations of business men, business organizations, and individuals within the State, Territory, district, or insular possession in which such activities are to be carried on, moneys contributed from such outside sources, except in the case of the authorized activities of the Forest Service, shall be paid only through the Secretary of Agriculture or through State, county, or municipal agencies, or local farm bureaus or like organizations, cooperating for the purpose with the Secretary of Agriculture.

(July 24, 1919, ch. 26, 41 Stat. 270.)
§ 2279j.
Conversion authority

The Secretary may, notwithstanding subchapter I of chapter 33 of title 5, governing appointments in the competitive or excepted service, noncompetitively convert to an appointment in the competitive service, in an agency or office within the Department of Agriculture, a recent graduate or student who is a United States citizen and has been awarded and successfully completed a scholarship program granted to the individual by the Department through the 1890 National Scholars Program or the 1994 Tribal Scholars Program carried out by the Department, provided the individual meets the requirements for such conversion and meets Office of Personnel Management qualification standards, as determined by the Secretary. Nothing in the preceding sentence shall be construed as requiring the Secretary to convert an individual under the authority under such sentence.

(Pub. L. 115–334, title XII, § 12519, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 5001.)
§ 2279k.
Authorization of protection operations for the Secretary of Agriculture and others
(a)
In general
The Department of Agriculture is authorized to employ qualified law enforcement officers or special agents to provide—
(1) protection for the Secretary and the Deputy Secretary during the performance of official duties by each such officer and during any activity that is preliminary or postliminary to the performance of official duties by each such officer;
(2) protection, incidental to the protection provided pursuant to paragraph (1), to an individual accompanying each such officer who is participating in an activity or event relating to the official duties of each such officer when there is an articulable threat to such individual;
(3) continuous protection to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary (including during periods not described in paragraph (1)) if there is an articulable threat of physical harm, in accordance with guidelines established by the Secretary; and
(4) protection of another senior officer representing the Secretary (including a person nominated to be the Secretary during the pendency of such nomination) if there is an articulable threat of physical harm, in accordance with guidelines established by the Secretary.
(b)
Authorities of the protective operation
(1)
In general
The Secretary may authorize officers or special agents employed pursuant to subsection (a)—
(A) to carry firearms;
(B) to conduct criminal investigations into potential threats to the security of persons protected under this section;
(C) to make arrests without a warrant for any offense against the United States committed in the presence of such officer or special agent;
(D) to perform protective intelligence work, including identifying and mitigating potential threats and conducting advance work to review security matters relating to sites and events; and
(E) to coordinate with local law enforcement agencies.
(2)
Guidelines
The authority conveyed under this section shall be exercised in accordance with any—
(A) guidelines issued by the Attorney General; and
(B) such additional guidelines as may be issued by the Secretary.
(c)
Exception

The authorities granted under this section may be exercised notwithstanding section 1343(b)(1) of title 31.

(d)
Report

Not later than September 30, 2019, and each September 30 through 2024, the Secretary shall provide to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report describing the protection provided, and accounting for the expenditures made, pursuant to this section.

(Pub. L. 115–334, title XII, § 12520, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 5001.)