United States Code

USC most recently checked for updates: Aug 15, 2020

§ 1078.
Federal payments to reduce student interest costs
(a)
Federal interest subsidies
(1)
Types of loans that qualify
Each student who has received a loan for study at an eligible institution for which the first disbursement is made before July 1, 2010, and—
(A)
which is insured by the Secretary under this part; or
(B)
which is insured under a program of a State or of a nonprofit private institution or organization which was contracted for, and paid to the student, within the period specified in paragraph (5), and which—
(i)
in the case of a loan insured prior to July 1, 1967, was made by an eligible lender and is insured under a program which meets the requirements of subparagraph (E) of subsection (b)(1) and provides that repayment of such loan shall be in installments beginning not earlier than 60 days after the student ceases to pursue a course of study (as described in subparagraph (D) of subsection (b)(1)) at an eligible institution, or
(ii)
in the case of a loan insured after June 30, 1967, was made by an eligible lender and is insured under a program covered by an agreement made pursuant to subsection (b),
shall be entitled to have paid on his or her behalf and for his or her account to the holder of the loan a portion of the interest on such loan under circumstances described in paragraph (2).
(2)
Additional requirements to receive subsidy
(A)
Each student qualifying for a portion of an interest payment under paragraph (1) shall—
(i)
have provided to the lender a statement from the eligible institution, at which the student has been accepted for enrollment, or at which the student is in attendance, which—
(I)
sets forth the loan amount for which the student shows financial need; and
(II)
sets forth a schedule for disbursement of the proceeds of the loan in installments, consistent with the requirements of section 1078–7 of this title;
(ii)
meet the requirements of subparagraph (B); and
(iii)
have provided to the lender at the time of application for a loan made, insured, or guaranteed under this part, the student’s driver’s number, if any.
(B)
For the purpose of clause (ii) of subparagraph (A), a student shall qualify for a portion of an interest payment under paragraph (1) if the eligible institution has determined and documented the student’s amount of need for a loan based on the student’s estimated cost of attendance, estimated financial assistance, and, for the purpose of an interest payment pursuant to this section, expected family contribution (as determined under part F), subject to the provisions of subparagraph (D).
(C)
For the purpose of this paragraph—
(i)
a student’s cost of attendance shall be determined under section 1087ll of this title;
(ii)
a student’s estimated financial assistance means, for the period for which the loan is sought—
(I)
the amount of assistance such student will receive under subpart 1 of part A of this subchapter (as determined in accordance with section 1091(b) of this title), subpart 3 of part A of this subchapter, and parts C and E; plus
(II)
other scholarship, grant, or loan assistance, but excluding—
(aa)
any national service education award or post-service benefit under title I of the National and Community Service Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 12511 et seq.]; and
(bb)
any veterans’ education benefits as defined in section 1087vv(c) of this title; and
(iii)
the determination of need and of the amount of a loan by an eligible institution under subparagraph (B) with respect to a student shall be calculated in accordance with part F.
(D)
An eligible institution may not, in carrying out the provisions of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of this paragraph, provide a statement which certifies the eligibility of any student to receive any loan under this part in excess of the maximum amount applicable to such loan.
(E)
For the purpose of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of this paragraph, any loan obtained by a student under section 1078–1 1
1
 See References in Text note below.
or 1078–8 of this title or a parent under section 1078–2 of this title or under any State-sponsored or private loan program for an academic year for which the determination is made may be used to offset the expected family contribution of the student for that year.
(3)
Amount of interest subsidy
(A)
(i)
Subject to section 1087–1(c) of this title, the portion of the interest on a loan which a student is entitled to have paid, on behalf of and for the account of the student, to the holder of the loan pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection shall be equal to the total amount of the interest on the unpaid principal amount of the loan—
(I)
which accrues prior to the date the student ceases to carry at least one-half the normal full-time academic workload (as determined by the institution), or
(II)
which accrues during a period in which principal need not be paid (whether or not such principal is in fact paid) by reason of a provision described in subsection (b)(1)(M) of this section or in section 1077(a)(2)(C) of this title.
(ii)
Such portion of the interest on a loan shall not exceed, for any period, the amount of the interest on that loan which is payable by the student after taking into consideration the amount of any interest on that loan which the student is entitled to have paid on his or her behalf for that period under any State or private loan insurance program.
(iii)
The holder of a loan with respect to which payments are required to be made under this section shall be deemed to have a contractual right, as against the United States, to receive from the Secretary the portion of interest which has been so determined without administrative delay after the receipt by the Secretary of an accurate and complete request for payment pursuant to paragraph (4).
(iv)
The Secretary shall pay this portion of the interest to the holder of the loan on behalf of and for the account of the borrower at such times as may be specified in regulations in force when the applicable agreement entered into pursuant to subsection (b) was made, or, if the loan was made by a State or is insured under a program which is not covered by such an agreement, at such times as may be specified in regulations in force at the time the loan was paid to the student.
(v)
A lender may not receive interest on a loan for any period that precedes the date that is—
(I)
in the case of a loan disbursed by check, 10 days before the first disbursement of the loan;
(II)
in the case of a loan disbursed by electronic funds transfer, 3 days before the first disbursement of the loan; or
(III)
in the case of a loan disbursed through an escrow agent, 3 days before the first disbursement of the loan.
(B)
If—
(i)
a State student loan insurance program is covered by an agreement under subsection (b),
(ii)
a statute of such State limits the interest rate on loans insured by such program to a rate which is less than the applicable interest rate under this part, and
(iii)
the Secretary determines that subsection (d) does not make such statutory limitation inapplicable and that such statutory limitation threatens to impede the carrying out of the purpose of this part,
then the Secretary may pay an administrative cost allowance to the holder of each loan which is insured under such program and which is made during the period beginning on the 60th day after October 16, 1968, and ending 120 days after the adjournment of such State’s first regular legislative session which adjourns after January 1, 1969. Such administrative cost allowance shall be paid over the term of the loan in an amount per year (determined by the Secretary) which shall not exceed 1 percent of the unpaid principal balance of the loan.
(4)
Submission of statements by holders on amount of payment

Each holder of a loan with respect to which payments of interest are required to be made by the Secretary shall submit to the Secretary, at such time or times and in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe, statements containing such information as may be required by or pursuant to regulation for the purpose of enabling the Secretary to determine the amount of the payment which he must make with respect to that loan.

(5)
Duration of authority to make interest subsidized loans

The period referred to in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) of this subsection shall begin on November 8, 1965, and end at the close of June 30, 2010.

(6)
Assessment of borrower’s financial condition not prohibited or required

Nothing in this chapter or any other Act shall be construed to prohibit or require, unless otherwise specifically provided by law, a lender to evaluate the total financial situation of a student making application for a loan under this part, or to counsel a student with respect to any such loan, or to make a decision based on such evaluation and counseling with respect to the dollar amount of any such loan.

(7)
Loans that have not been consummated

Lenders may not charge interest or receive interest subsidies or special allowance payments for loans for which the disbursement checks have not been cashed or for which electronic funds transfers have not been completed.

(b)
Insurance program agreements to qualify loans for interest subsidies
(1)
Requirements of insurance program
Any State or any nonprofit private institution or organization may enter into an agreement with the Secretary for the purpose of entitling students who receive loans which are insured under a student loan insurance program of that State, institution, or organization to have made on their behalf the payments provided for in subsection (a) if the Secretary determines that the student loan insurance program—
(A)
authorizes the insurance in any academic year, as defined in section 1088(a)(2) of this title, or its equivalent (as determined under regulations of the Secretary) for any student who is carrying at an eligible institution or in a program of study abroad approved for credit by the eligible home institution at which such student is enrolled at least one-half the normal full-time academic workload (as determined by the institution) in any amount up to a maximum of—
(i)
in the case of a student at an eligible institution who has not successfully completed the first year of a program of undergraduate education—
(I)
$3,500, if such student is enrolled in a program whose length is at least one academic year in length; and
(II)
if such student is enrolled in a program of undergraduate education which is less than 1 academic year, the maximum annual loan amount that such student may receive may not exceed the amount that bears the same ratio to the amount specified in subclause (I) as the length of such program measured in semester, trimester, quarter, or clock hours bears to 1 academic year;
(ii)
in the case of a student at an eligible institution who has successfully completed such first year but has not successfully completed the remainder of a program of undergraduate education—
(I)
$4,500; or
(II)
if such student is enrolled in a program of undergraduate education, the remainder of which is less than one academic year, the maximum annual loan amount that such student may receive may not exceed the amount that bears the same ratio to the amount specified in subclause (I) as such remainder measured in semester, trimester, quarter, or clock hours bears to one academic year;
(iii)
in the case of a student at an eligible institution who has successfully completed the first and second years of a program of undergraduate education but has not successfully completed the remainder of such program—
(I)
$5,500; or
(II)
if such student is enrolled in a program of undergraduate education, the remainder of which is less than one academic year, the maximum annual loan amount that such student may receive may not exceed the amount that bears the same ratio to the amount specified in subclause (I) as such remainder measured in semester, trimester, quarter, or clock hours bears to one academic year;
(iv)
in the case of a student who has received an associate or baccalaureate degree and is enrolled in an eligible program for which the institution requires such degree for admission, the number of years that a student has completed in a program of undergraduate education shall, for the purposes of clauses (ii) and (iii), include any prior enrollment in the eligible program of undergraduate education for which the student was awarded such degree;
(v)
in the case of a graduate or professional student (as defined in regulations of the Secretary) at an eligible institution, $8,500; and
(vi)
in the case of a student enrolled in coursework specified in sections 1091(b)(3)(B) and 1091(b)(4)(B) of this title—
(I)
$2,625 for coursework necessary for enrollment in an undergraduate degree or certificate program, and, in the case of a student who has obtained a baccalaureate degree, $5,500 for coursework necessary for enrollment in a graduate or professional degree or certification program; and
(II)
in the case of a student who has obtained a baccalaureate degree, $5,500 for coursework necessary for a professional credential or certification from a State required for employment as a teacher in an elementary school or secondary school;
except in cases where the Secretary determines, pursuant to regulations, that a higher amount is warranted in order to carry out the purpose of this part with respect to students engaged in specialized training requiring exceptionally high costs of education, but the annual insurable limit per student shall not be deemed to be exceeded by a line of credit under which actual payments by the lender to the borrower will not be made in any years in excess of the annual limit;
(B)
provides that the aggregate insured unpaid principal amount for all such insured loans made to any student shall be any amount up to a maximum of—
(i)
$23,000, in the case of any student who has not successfully completed a program of undergraduate education, excluding loans made under section 1078–1 1 or 1078–2 of this title; and
(ii)
$65,500, in the case of any graduate or professional student (as defined by regulations of the Secretary), and (I) including any loans which are insured by the Secretary under this section, or by a guaranty agency, made to such student before the student became a graduate or professional student, but (II) excluding loans made under section 1078–1 1 or 1078–2 of this title,
except that the Secretary may increase the limit applicable to students who are pursuing programs which the Secretary determines are exceptionally expensive;
(C)
authorizes the insurance of loans to any individual student for at least 6 academic years of study or their equivalent (as determined under regulations of the Secretary);
(D)
provides that (i) the student borrower shall be entitled to accelerate without penalty the whole or any part of an insured loan, (ii) the student borrower may annually change the selection of a repayment plan under this part, and (iii) the note, or other written evidence of any loan, may contain such reasonable provisions relating to repayment in the event of default by the borrower as may be authorized by regulations of the Secretary in effect at the time such note or written evidence was executed, and shall contain a notice that repayment may, following a default by the borrower, be subject to income contingent repayment in accordance with subsection (m);
(E)
subject to subparagraphs (D) and (L), and except as provided by subparagraph (M), provides that—
(i)
not more than 6 months prior to the date on which the borrower’s first payment is due, the lender shall offer the borrower of a loan made, insured, or guaranteed under this section or section 1078–8 of this title, the option of repaying the loan in accordance with a standard, graduated, income-sensitive, or extended repayment schedule (as described in paragraph (9)) established by the lender in accordance with regulations of the Secretary; and
(ii)
repayment of loans shall be in installments in accordance with the repayment plan selected under paragraph (9) and commencing at the beginning of the repayment period determined under paragraph (7);
(F)
authorizes interest on the unpaid balance of the loan at a yearly rate not in excess (exclusive of any premium for insurance which may be passed on to the borrower) of the rate required by section 1077a of this title;
(G)
insures 98 percent of the unpaid principal of loans insured under the program, except that—
(i)
such program shall insure 100 percent of the unpaid principal of loans made with funds advanced pursuant to subsection (j);
(ii)
for any loan for which the first disbursement of principal is made on or after July 1, 2006, and before July 1, 2010, the preceding provisions of this subparagraph shall be applied by substituting “97 percent” for “98 percent”; and
(iii)
notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this subparagraph, such program shall insure 100 percent of the unpaid principal amount of exempt claims as defined in subsection (c)(1)(G);
(H)
provides—
(i)
for loans for which the date of guarantee of principal is before July 1, 2006, for the collection of a single insurance premium equal to not more than 1.0 percent of the principal amount of the loan, by deduction proportionately from each installment payment of the proceeds of the loan to the borrower, and ensures that the proceeds of the premium will not be used for incentive payments to lenders; or
(ii)
for loans for which the date of guarantee of principal is on or after July 1, 2006, and that are first disbursed before July 1, 2010, for the collection, and the deposit into the Federal Student Loan Reserve Fund under section 1072a of this title of a Federal default fee of an amount equal to 1.0 percent of the principal amount of the loan, which fee shall be collected either by deduction from the proceeds of the loan or by payment from other non-Federal sources, and ensures that the proceeds of the Federal default fee will not be used for incentive payments to lenders;
(I)
provides that the benefits of the loan insurance program will not be denied any student who is eligible for interest benefits under subsection (a)(1) and (2);
(J)
provides that a student may obtain insurance under the program for a loan for any year of study at an eligible institution;
(K)
in the case of a State program, provides that such State program is administered by a single State agency, or by one or more nonprofit private institutions or organizations under supervision of a single State agency;
(L)
provides that the total of the payments by borrower—
(i)
except as otherwise provided by a repayment plan selected by the borrower under clause (ii), (iii), or (v) of paragraph (9)(A), during any year of any repayment period with respect to the aggregate amount of all loans to that borrower which are insured under this part shall not, unless the borrower and the lender otherwise agree, be less than $600 or the balance of all such loans (together with interest thereon), whichever amount is less (but in no instance less than the amount of interest due and payable, notwithstanding any payment plan under paragraph (9)(A)); and
(ii)
for a monthly or other similar payment period with respect to the aggregate of all loans held by the lender may, when the amount of a monthly or other similar payment is not a multiple of $5, be rounded to the next highest whole dollar amount that is a multiple of $5;
(M)
provides that periodic installments of principal need not be paid, but interest shall accrue and be paid by the Secretary, during any period—
(i)
during which the borrower—
(I)
is pursuing at least a half-time course of study as determined by an eligible institution, except that no borrower, notwithstanding the provisions of the promissory note, shall be required to borrow an additional loan under this subchapter in order to be eligible to receive a deferment under this clause; or
(II)
is pursuing a course of study pursuant to a graduate fellowship program approved by the Secretary, or pursuant to a rehabilitation training program for disabled individuals approved by the Secretary,
 except that no borrower shall be eligible for a deferment under this clause, or loan made under this part (other than a loan made under section 1078–2 or 1078–3 of this title), while serving in a medical internship or residency program;
(ii)
not in excess of 3 years during which the borrower is seeking and unable to find full-time employment, except that no borrower who provides evidence of eligibility for unemployment benefits shall be required to provide additional paperwork for a deferment under this clause;
(iii)
during which the borrower—
(I)
is serving on active duty during a war or other military operation or national emergency; or
(II)
is performing qualifying National Guard duty during a war or other military operation or national emergency,
 and for the 180-day period following the demobilization date for the service described in subclause (I) or (II);
(iv)
not in excess of 3 years for any reason which the lender determines, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary under section 1085(o) of this title, has caused or will cause the borrower to have an economic hardship; or
(v)
during which the borrower is receiving treatment for cancer and the 6 months after such period;
(N)
provides that funds borrowed by a student—
(i)
are disbursed to the institution by check or other means that is payable to, and requires the endorsement or other certification by, such student;
(ii)
in the case of a student who is studying outside the United States in a program of study abroad that is approved for credit by the home institution at which such student is enrolled, and only after verification of the student’s enrollment by the lender or guaranty agency, are, at the request of the student, disbursed directly to the student by the means described in clause (i), unless such student requests that the check be endorsed, or the funds transfer be authorized, pursuant to an authorized power-of-attorney; or
(iii)
in the case of a student who is studying outside the United States in a program of study at an eligible foreign institution, are, at the request of the foreign institution, disbursed directly to the student, only after verification of the student’s enrollment by the lender or guaranty agency by the means described in clause (i).2
2
 So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.
(O)
provides that the proceeds of the loans will be disbursed in accordance with the requirements of section 1078–7 of this title;
(P)
requires the borrower to notify the institution concerning any change in local address during enrollment and requires the borrower and the institution at which the borrower is in attendance promptly to notify the holder of the loan, directly or through the guaranty agency, concerning (i) any change of permanent address, (ii) when the student ceases to be enrolled on at least a half-time basis, and (iii) any other change in status, when such change in status affects the student’s eligibility for the loan;
(Q)
provides for the guarantee of loans made to students and parents under sections 1078–1 1 and 1078–2 of this title;
(R)
with respect to lenders which are eligible institutions, provides for the insurance of loans by only such institutions as are located within the geographic area served by such guaranty agency;
(S)
provides no restrictions with respect to the insurance of loans for students who are otherwise eligible for loans under such program if such a student is accepted for enrollment in or is attending an eligible institution within the State, or if such a student is a legal resident of the State and is accepted for enrollment in or is attending an eligible institution outside that State;
(T)
authorizes (i) the limitation of the total number of loans or volume of loans, made under this part to students attending a particular eligible institution during any academic year; and (ii) the limitation, suspension, or termination of the eligibility of an eligible institution if—
(I)
such institution is ineligible for the emergency action, limitation, suspension, or termination of eligible institutions under regulations issued by the Secretary or is ineligible pursuant to criteria, rules, or regulations issued under the student loan insurance program which are substantially the same as regulations with respect to emergency action, limitation, suspension, or termination of such eligibility issued by the Secretary;
(II)
there is a State constitutional prohibition affecting the eligibility of such an institution;
(III)
such institution fails to make timely refunds to students as required by regulations issued by the Secretary or has not satisfied within 30 days of issuance a final judgment obtained by a student seeking such a refund;
(IV)
such institution or an owner, director, or officer of such institution is found guilty in any criminal, civil, or administrative proceeding, or such institution or an owner, director, or officer of such institution is found liable in any civil or administrative proceeding, regarding the obtaining, maintenance, or disbursement of State or Federal grant, loan, or work assistance funds; or
(V)
such institution or an owner, director, or officer of such institution has unpaid financial liabilities involving the improper acquisition, expenditure, or refund of State or Federal financial assistance funds;
except that, if a guaranty agency limits, suspends, or terminates the participation of an eligible institution, the Secretary shall apply that limitation, suspension, or termination to all locations of such institution, unless the Secretary finds, within 30 days of notification of the action by the guaranty agency, that the guaranty agency’s action did not comply with the requirements of this section;
(U)
provides (i) for the eligibility of all lenders described in section 1085(d)(1) of this title under reasonable criteria, unless (I) that lender is eliminated as a lender under regulations for the emergency action, limitation, suspension, or termination of a lender under the Federal student loan insurance program or is eliminated as a lender pursuant to criteria issued under the student loan insurance program which are substantially the same as regulations with respect to such eligibility as a lender issued under the Federal student loan insurance program, or (II) there is a State constitutional prohibition affecting the eligibility of a lender, (ii) assurances that the guaranty agency will report to the Secretary concerning changes in such criteria, including any procedures in effect under such program to take emergency action, limit, suspend, or terminate lenders, and (iii) for (I) a compliance audit of each lender that originates or holds more than $5,000,000 in loans made under this subchapter for any lender fiscal year (except that each lender described in section 1085(d)(1)(A)(ii)(III) of this title shall annually submit the results of an audit required by this clause), at least once a year and covering the period since the most recent audit, conducted by a qualified, independent organization or person in accordance with standards established by the Comptroller General for the audit of governmental organizations, programs, and functions, and as prescribed in regulations of the Secretary, the results of which shall be submitted to the Secretary, or (II) with regard to a lender that is audited under chapter
(V)
provides authority for the guaranty agency to require a participation agreement between the guaranty agency and each eligible institution within the State in which it is designated, as a condition for guaranteeing loans made on behalf of students attending the institution;
(W)
provides assurances that the agency will implement all requirements of the Secretary for uniform claims and procedures pursuant to section 1082(l) of this title;
(X)
provides information to the Secretary in accordance with subsection (c)(9) and maintains reserve funds determined by the Secretary to be sufficient in relation to such agency’s guarantee obligations; and
(Y)
provides that—
(i)
the lender shall determine the eligibility of a borrower for a deferment described in subparagraph (M)(i) based on—
(I)
receipt of a request for deferment from the borrower and documentation of the borrower’s eligibility for the deferment;
(II)
receipt of a newly completed loan application that documents the borrower’s eligibility for a deferment;
(III)
receipt of student status information documenting that the borrower is enrolled on at least a half-time basis; or
(IV)
the lender’s confirmation of the borrower’s half-time enrollment status through use of the National Student Loan Data System, if the confirmation is requested by the institution of higher education;
(ii)
the lender will notify the borrower of the granting of any deferment under clause (i)(II) or (III) of this subparagraph and of the option to continue paying on the loan; and
(iii)
the lender shall, at the time the lender grants a deferment to a borrower who received a loan under section 1078–8 of this title and is eligible for a deferment under subparagraph (M) of this paragraph, provide information to the borrower to assist the borrower in understanding the impact of the capitalization of interest on the borrower’s loan principal and on the total amount of interest to be paid during the life of the loan.
(2)
Contents of insurance program agreement
Such an agreement shall—
(A)
provide that the holder of any such loan will be required to submit to the Secretary, at such time or times and in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe, statements containing such information as may be required by or pursuant to regulation for the purpose of enabling the Secretary to determine the amount of the payment which must be made with respect to that loan;
(B)
include such other provisions as may be necessary to protect the United States from the risk of unreasonable loss and promote the purpose of this part, including such provisions as may be necessary for the purpose of section 1087 of this title, and as are agreed to by the Secretary and the guaranty agency, as the case may be;
(C)
provide for making such reports, in such form and containing such information, including financial information, as the Secretary may reasonably require to carry out the Secretary’s functions under this part and protect the financial interest of the United States, and for keeping such records and for affording such access thereto as the Secretary may find necessary to assure the correctness and verification of such reports;
(D)
provide for—
(i)
conducting, except as provided in clause (ii), financial and compliance audits of the guaranty agency on at least an annual basis and covering the period since the most recent audit, conducted by a qualified, independent organization or person in accordance with standards established by the Comptroller General for the audit of governmental organizations, programs, and functions, and as prescribed in regulations of the Secretary, the results of which shall be submitted to the Secretary; or
(ii)
with regard to a guaranty program of a State which is audited under chapter 75 of title 31, deeming such audit to satisfy the requirements of clause (i) for the period of time covered by such audit;
(E)
(i)
provide that any guaranty agency may transfer loans which are insured under this part to any other guaranty agency with the approval of the holder of the loan and such other guaranty agency; and
(ii)
provide that the lender (or the holder of the loan) shall, not later than 120 days after the borrower has left the eligible institution, notify the borrower of the date on which the repayment period begins; and
(F)
provide that, if the sale, other transfer, or assignment of a loan made under this part to another holder will result in a change in the identity of the party to whom the borrower must send subsequent payments or direct any communications concerning the loans, then—
(i)
the transferor and the transferee will be required, not later than 45 days from the date the transferee acquires a legally enforceable right to receive payment from the borrower on such loan, either jointly or separately to provide a notice to the borrower of—
(I)
the sale or other transfer;
(II)
the identity of the transferee;
(III)
the name and address of the party to whom subsequent payments or communications must be sent;
(IV)
the telephone numbers of both the transferor and the transferee;
(V)
the effective date of the transfer;
(VI)
the date on which the current servicer (as of the date of the notice) will stop accepting payments; and
(VII)
the date on which the new servicer will begin accepting payments; and
(ii)
the transferee will be required to notify the guaranty agency, and, upon the request of an institution of higher education, the guaranty agency shall notify the last such institution the student attended prior to the beginning of the repayment period of any loan made under this part, of—
(I)
any sale or other transfer of the loan; and
(II)
the address and telephone number by which contact may be made with the new holder concerning repayment of the loan,
except that this subparagraph (F) shall only apply if the borrower is in the grace period described in section 1077(a)(2)(B) of this title or subsection (b)(7) or is in repayment status.
(3)
Restrictions on inducements, payments, mailings, and advertising
A guaranty agency shall not—
(A)
offer, directly or indirectly, premiums, payments, stock or other securities, prizes, travel, entertainment expenses, tuition payment or reimbursement, or other inducements to—
(i)
any institution of higher education, any employee of an institution of higher education, or any individual or entity in order to secure applicants for loans made under this part; or
(ii)
any lender, or any agent, employee, or independent contractor of any lender or guaranty agency, in order to administer or market loans made under this part (other than a loan made as part of the guaranty agency’s lender-of-last-resort program pursuant to subsection (j)), for the purpose of securing the designation of the guaranty agency as the insurer of such loans;
(B)
conduct unsolicited mailings, by postal or electronic means, of student loan application forms to students enrolled in secondary schools or postsecondary educational institutions, or to the families of such students, except that applications may be mailed, by postal or electronic means, to students or borrowers who have previously received loans guaranteed under this part by the guaranty agency;
(C)
perform, for an institution of higher education participating in a program under this subchapter, any function that such institution is required to perform under this subchapter, except that the guaranty agency may perform functions on behalf of such institution in accordance with section 1092(b) or 1092(l) of this title;
(D)
pay, on behalf of an institution of higher education, another person to perform any function that such institution is required to perform under this subchapter, except that the guaranty agency may perform functions on behalf of such institution in accordance with section 1092(b) or 1092(l) of this title; or
(E)
conduct fraudulent or misleading advertising concerning loan availability, terms, or conditions.
It shall not be a violation of this paragraph for a guaranty agency to provide technical assistance to institutions of higher education comparable to the technical assistance provided to institutions of higher education by the Department.
(4)
Special rule

With respect to the graduate fellowship program referred to in paragraph (1)(M)(i)(II), the Secretary shall approve any course of study at a foreign university that is accepted for the completion of a recognized international fellowship program by the administrator of such a program. Requests for deferment of repayment of loans under this part by students engaged in graduate or postgraduate fellowship-supported study (such as pursuant to a Fulbright grant) outside the United States shall be approved until completion of the period of the fellowship.

(5)
Guaranty agency information transfers
(A)
Until such time as the Secretary has implemented section 1092b of this title and is able to provide to guaranty agencies the information required by such section, any guaranty agency may request information regarding loans made after January 1, 1987, to students who are residents of the State for which the agency is the designated guarantor, from any other guaranty agency insuring loans to such students.
(B)
Upon a request pursuant to subparagraph (A), a guaranty agency shall provide—
(i)
the name and the social security number of the borrower; and
(ii)
the amount borrowed and the cumulative amount borrowed.
(C)
Any costs associated with fulfilling the request of a guaranty agency for information on students shall be paid by the guaranty agency requesting the information.
(6)
State guaranty agency information request of State licensing boards

Each guaranty agency is authorized to enter into agreements with each appropriate State licensing board under which the State licensing board, upon request, will furnish the guaranty agency with the address of a student borrower in any case in which the location of the student borrower is unknown or unavailable to the guaranty agency.

(7)
Repayment period
(A)
In the case of a loan made under section 1077 of this title or this section, the repayment period shall exclude any period of authorized deferment or forbearance and shall begin the day after 6 months after the date the student ceases to carry at least one-half the normal full-time academic workload (as determined by the institution).
(B)
In the case of a loan made under section 1078–8 of this title, the repayment period shall exclude any period of authorized deferment or forbearance, and shall begin as described in subparagraph (A), but interest shall begin to accrue or be paid by the borrower on the day the loan is disbursed.
(C)
In the case of a loan made under section 1078–2 or 1078–3 of this title, the repayment period shall begin on the day the loan is disbursed, or, if the loan is disbursed in multiple installments, on the day of the last such disbursement, and shall exclude any period of authorized deferment or forbearance.
(D)
There shall be excluded from the 6-month period that begins on the date on which a student ceases to carry at least one-half the normal full-time academic workload as described in subparagraph (A) any period not to exceed 3 years during which a borrower who is a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces named in section 10101 of title 10 is called or ordered to active duty for a period of more than 30 days (as defined in section 101(d)(2) of such title). Such period of exclusion shall include the period necessary to resume enrollment at the borrower’s next available regular enrollment period.
(8)
Means of disbursement of loan proceeds

Nothing in this subchapter shall be interpreted to prohibit the disbursement of loan proceeds by means other than by check or to allow the Secretary to require checks to be made co-payable to the institution and the borrower.

(9)
Repayment plans
(A)
Design and selection
In accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary, the lender shall offer a borrower of a loan made under this part the plans described in this subparagraph for repayment of such loan, including principal and interest thereon. No plan may require a borrower to repay a loan in less than 5 years unless the borrower, during the 6 months immediately preceding the start of the repayment period, specifically requests that repayment be made over of 3
3
 So in original.
a shorter period. The borrower may choose from—
(i)
a standard repayment plan, with a fixed annual repayment amount paid over a fixed period of time, not to exceed 10 years;
(ii)
a graduated repayment plan paid over a fixed period of time, not to exceed 10 years;
(iii)
an income-sensitive repayment plan, with income-sensitive repayment amounts paid over a fixed period of time, not to exceed 10 years, except that the borrower’s scheduled payments shall not be less than the amount of interest due;
(iv)
for new borrowers on or after October 7, 1998, who accumulate (after October 7, 1998) outstanding loans under this part totaling more than $30,000, an extended repayment plan, with a fixed annual or graduated repayment amount paid over an extended period of time, not to exceed 25 years, except that the borrower shall repay annually a minimum amount determined in accordance with paragraph (1)(L)(i); and
(v)
beginning July 1, 2009, an income-based repayment plan that enables a borrower who has a partial financial hardship to make a lower monthly payment in accordance with section 1098e of this title, except that the plan described in this clause shall not be available to a borrower for a loan under section 1078–2 of this title made on behalf of a dependent student or for a consolidation loan under section 1078–3 of this title, if the proceeds of such loan were used to discharge the liability of a loan under section 1078–2 of this title made on behalf of a dependent student.
(B)
Lender selection of option if borrower does not select

If a borrower of a loan made under this part does not select a repayment plan described in subparagraph (A), the lender shall provide the borrower with a repayment plan described in subparagraph (A)(i).

(c)
Guaranty agreements for reimbursing losses
(1)
Authority to enter into agreements
(A)
The Secretary may enter into a guaranty agreement with any guaranty agency, whereby the Secretary shall undertake to reimburse it, under such terms and conditions as the Secretary may establish, with respect to losses (resulting from the default of the student borrower) on the unpaid balance of the principal and accrued interest of any insured loan. The guaranty agency shall be deemed to have a contractual right against the United States, during the life of such loan, to receive reimbursement according to the provisions of this subsection. Upon receipt of an accurate and complete request by a guaranty agency for reimbursement with respect to such losses, the Secretary shall pay promptly and without administrative delay. Except as provided in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph and in paragraph (7), the amount to be paid a guaranty agency as reimbursement under this subsection shall be equal to 100 percent of the amount expended by it in discharge of its insurance obligation incurred under its loan insurance program. A guaranty agency shall file a claim for reimbursement with respect to losses under this subsection within 30 days after the guaranty agency discharges its insurance obligation on the loan.
(B)
Notwithstanding subparagraph (A)—
(i)
if, for any fiscal year, the amount of such reimbursement payments by the Secretary under this subsection exceeds 5 percent of the loans which are insured by such guaranty agency under such program and which were in repayment at the end of the preceding fiscal year, the amount to be paid as reimbursement under this subsection for such excess shall be equal to 85 percent of the amount of such excess; and
(ii)
if, for any fiscal year, the amount of such reimbursement payments exceeds 9 percent of such loans, the amount to be paid as reimbursement under this subsection for such excess shall be equal to 75 percent of the amount of such excess.
(C)
For the purpose of this subsection, the amount of loans of a guaranty agency which are in repayment shall be the original principal amount of loans made by a lender which are insured by such a guaranty agency reduced by—
(i)
the amount the insurer has been required to pay to discharge its insurance obligations under this part;
(ii)
the original principal amount of loans insured by it which have been fully repaid; and
(iii)
the original principal amount insured on those loans for which payment of the first installment of principal has not become due pursuant to subsection (b)(1)(E) of this section or such first installment need not be paid pursuant to subsection (b)(1)(M) of this section.
(D)
Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section, in the case of a loan made pursuant to a lender-of-last-resort program, the Secretary shall apply the provisions of—
(i)
the fourth sentence of subparagraph (A) by substituting “100 percent” for “95 percent”; 1
(ii)
subparagraph (B)(i) by substituting “100 percent” for “85 percent”; and
(iii)
subparagraph (B)(ii) by substituting “100 percent” for “75 percent”.
(E)
Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section, in the case of an outstanding loan transferred to a guaranty agency from another guaranty agency pursuant to a plan approved by the Secretary in response to the insolvency of the latter such guarantee agency, the Secretary shall apply the provision of—
(i)
the fourth sentence of subparagraph (A) by substituting “100 percent” for “95 percent”; 1
(ii)
subparagraph (B)(i) by substituting “90 percent” for “85 percent”; and
(iii)
subparagraph (B)(ii) by substituting “80 percent” for “75 percent”.
(F)
(i)
Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section, in the case of exempt claims, the Secretary shall apply the provisions of—
(I)
the fourth sentence of subparagraph (A) by substituting “100 percent” for “95 percent”; 1
(II)
subparagraph (B)(i) by substituting “100 percent” for “85 percent”; and
(III)
subparagraph (B)(ii) by substituting “100 percent” for “75 percent”.
(ii)
For purposes of clause (i) of this subparagraph, the term “exempt claims” means claims with respect to loans for which it is determined that the borrower (or the student on whose behalf a parent has borrowed), without the lender’s or the institution’s knowledge at the time the loan was made, provided false or erroneous information or took actions that caused the borrower or the student to be ineligible for all or a portion of the loan or for interest benefits thereon.
(G)
Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the Secretary shall exclude a loan made pursuant to a lender-of-last-resort program when making reimbursement payment calculations under subparagraphs (B) and (C).
(2)
Contents of guaranty agreements
The guaranty agreement—
(A)
shall set forth such administrative and fiscal procedures as may be necessary to protect the United States from the risk of unreasonable loss thereunder, to ensure proper and efficient administration of the loan insurance program, and to assure that due diligence will be exercised in the collection of loans insured under the program, including (i) a requirement that each beneficiary of insurance on the loan submit proof that the institution was contacted and other reasonable attempts were made to locate the borrower (when the location of the borrower is unknown) and proof that contact was made with the borrower (when the location is known) and (ii) requirements establishing procedures to preclude consolidation lending from being an excessive proportion of guaranty agency recoveries on defaulted loans under this part;
(B)
shall provide for making such reports, in such form and containing such information, as the Secretary may reasonably require to carry out the Secretary’s functions under this subsection, and for keeping such records and for affording such access thereto as the Secretary may find necessary to assure the correctness and verification of such reports;
(C)
shall set forth adequate assurances that, with respect to so much of any loan insured under the loan insurance program as may be guaranteed by the Secretary pursuant to this subsection, the undertaking of the Secretary under the guaranty agreement is acceptable in full satisfaction of State law or regulation requiring the maintenance of a reserve;
(D)
shall provide that if, after the Secretary has made payment under the guaranty agreement pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection with respect to any loan, any payments are made in discharge of the obligation incurred by the borrower with respect to such loan (including any payments of interest accruing on such loan after such payment by the Secretary), there shall be paid over to the Secretary (for deposit in the fund established by section 1081 of this title) such proportion of the amounts of such payments as is determined (in accordance with paragraph (6)(A)) to represent his equitable share thereof, but (i) shall provide for subrogation of the United States to the rights of any insurance beneficiary only to the extent required for the purpose of paragraph (8); and (ii) except as the Secretary may otherwise by or pursuant to regulation provide, amounts so paid by a borrower on such a loan shall be first applied in reduction of principal owing on such loan;
(E)
shall set forth adequate assurance that an amount equal to each payment made under paragraph (1) will be promptly deposited in or credited to the accounts maintained for the purpose of section 1072(c) of this title;
(F)
set forth adequate assurances that the guaranty agency will not engage in any pattern or practice which results in a denial of a borrower’s access to loans under this part because of the borrower’s race, sex, color, religion, national origin, age, handicapped status, income, attendance at a particular eligible institution within the area served by the guaranty agency, length of the borrower’s educational program, or the borrower’s academic year in school;
(G)
shall prohibit the Secretary from making any reimbursement under this subsection to a guaranty agency when a default claim is based on an inability to locate the borrower, unless the guaranty agency, at the time of filing for reimbursement, certifies to the Secretary that diligent attempts, including contact with the institution, have been made to locate the borrower through the use of reasonable skip-tracing techniques in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary; and
(H)
set forth assurances that—
(i)
upon the request of an eligible institution, the guaranty agency shall, subject to clauses (ii) and (iii), furnish to the institution information with respect to students (including the names and addresses of such students) who received loans made, insured, or guaranteed under this part for attendance at the eligible institution and for whom default aversion assistance activities have been requested under subsection (l);
(ii)
the guaranty agency shall not require the payment from the institution of any fee for such information; and
(iii)
the guaranty agency will require the institution to use such information only to assist the institution in reminding students of their obligation to repay student loans and shall prohibit the institution from disseminating the information for any other purpose.
(I)
may include such other provisions as may be necessary to promote the purpose of this part.
(3)
Forbearance
A guaranty agreement under this subsection—
(A)
shall contain provisions providing that—
(i)
upon request, a lender shall grant a borrower forbearance, renewable at 12-month intervals, on terms agreed to by the parties to the loan with the approval of the insurer and documented in accordance with paragraph (10), and otherwise consistent with the regulations of the Secretary, if the borrower—
(I)
is serving in a medical or dental internship or residency program, the successful completion of which is required to begin professional practice or service, or is serving in a medical or dental internship or residency program leading to a degree or certificate awarded by an institution of higher education, a hospital, or a health care facility that offers postgraduate training, provided that if the borrower qualifies for a deferment under section 1077(a)(2)(C)(vii) of this title or subsection (b)(1)(M)(vii) of this section as in effect prior to the enactment of the Higher Education Amendments of 1992, or section 1077(a)(2)(C) of this title or subsection (b)(1)(M) of this section as amended by such amendments, the borrower has exhausted his or her eligibility for such deferment;
(II)
has a debt burden under this subchapter that equals or exceeds 20 percent of income;
(III)
is serving in a national service position for which the borrower receives a national service educational award under the National and Community Service Trust Act of 1993; or
(IV)
is eligible for interest payments to be made on such loan for service in the Armed Forces under section 2174 of title 10, and, pursuant to that eligibility, the interest is being paid on such loan under subsection (o);
(ii)
the length of the forbearance granted by the lender—
(I)
under clause (i)(I) shall equal the length of time remaining in the borrower’s medical or dental internship or residency program, if the borrower is not eligible to receive a deferment described in such clause, or such length of time remaining in the program after the borrower has exhausted the borrower’s eligibility for such deferment;
(II)
under clause (i)(II) or (IV) shall not exceed 3 years; or
(III)
under clause (i)(III) shall not exceed the period for which the borrower is serving in a position described in such clause; and
(iii)
no administrative or other fee may be charged in connection with the granting of a forbearance under clause (i), and no adverse information regarding a borrower may be reported to a consumer reporting agency solely because of the granting of such forbearance;
(B)
may, to the extent provided in regulations of the Secretary, contain provisions that permit such forbearance for the benefit of the student borrower as may be agreed upon by the parties to an insured loan and approved by the insurer;
(C)
shall contain provisions that specify that—
(i)
the form of forbearance granted by the lender pursuant to this paragraph, other than subparagraph (A)(i)(IV), shall be temporary cessation of payments, unless the borrower selects forbearance in the form of an extension of time for making payments, or smaller payments than were previously scheduled;
(ii)
the form of forbearance granted by the lender pursuant to subparagraph (A)(i)(IV) shall be the temporary cessation of all payments on the loan other than payments of interest on the loan that are made under subsection (o);
(iii)
the lender shall, at the time of granting a borrower forbearance, provide information to the borrower to assist the borrower in understanding the impact of capitalization of interest on the borrower’s loan principal and total amount of interest to be paid during the life of the loan; and
(iv)
the lender shall contact the borrower not less often than once every 180 days during the period of forbearance to inform the borrower of—
(I)
the amount of unpaid principal and the amount of interest that has accrued since the last statement of such amounts provided to the borrower by the lender;
(II)
the fact that interest will accrue on the loan for the period of forbearance;
(III)
the amount of interest that will be capitalized, and the date on which capitalization will occur;
(IV)
the option of the borrower to pay the interest that has accrued before the interest is capitalized; and
(V)
the borrower’s option to discontinue the forbearance at any time; and
(D)
shall contain provisions that specify that—
(i)
forbearance for a period not to exceed 60 days may be granted if the lender reasonably determines that such a suspension of collection activity is warranted following a borrower’s request for deferment, forbearance, a change in repayment plan, or a request to consolidate loans, in order to collect or process appropriate supporting documentation related to the request, and
(ii)
during such period interest shall accrue but not be capitalized.
Guaranty agencies shall not be precluded from permitting the parties to such a loan from entering into a forbearance agreement solely because the loan is in default. The Secretary shall permit lenders to exercise administrative forbearances that do not require the agreement of the borrower, under conditions authorized by the Secretary. Such forbearances shall include (i) forbearances for borrowers who are delinquent at the time of the granting of an authorized period of deferment under subsection (b)(1)(M) or section 1077(a)(2)(C) of this title, and (ii) if the borrower is less than 60 days delinquent on such loans at the time of sale or transfer, forbearances for borrowers on loans which are sold or transferred.
(4)
Definitions

For the purpose of this subsection, the terms “insurance beneficiary” and “default” have the meanings assigned to them by section 1085 of this title.

(5)
Applicability to existing loans

In the case of any guaranty agreement with a guaranty agency, the Secretary may, in accordance with the terms of this subsection, undertake to guarantee loans described in paragraph (1) which are insured by such guaranty agency and are outstanding on the date of execution of the guaranty agreement, but only with respect to defaults occurring after the execution of such guaranty agreement or, if later, after its effective date.

(6)
Secretary’s equitable share
(A)
For the purpose of paragraph (2)(D), the Secretary’s equitable share of payments made by the borrower shall be that portion of the payments remaining after the guaranty agency with which the Secretary has an agreement under this subsection has deducted from such payments—
(i)
a percentage amount equal to the complement of the reinsurance percentage in effect when payment under the guaranty agreement was made with respect to the loan; and
(ii)
an amount equal to 24 percent of such payments for use in accordance with section 1072b of this title, except that—
(I)
beginning October 1, 2003 and ending September 30, 2007, this clause shall be applied by substituting “23 percent” for “24 percent”; and
(II)
beginning October 1, 2007, this clause shall be applied by substituting “16 percent” for “24 percent”.
(B)
A guaranty agency shall—
(i)
on or after October 1, 2006
(I)
not charge the borrower collection costs in an amount in excess of 18.5 percent of the outstanding principal and interest of a defaulted loan that is paid off through consolidation by the borrower under this subchapter; and
(II)
remit to the Secretary a portion of the collection charge under subclause (I) equal to 8.5 percent of the outstanding principal and interest of such defaulted loan; and
(ii)
on and after October 1, 2009, remit to the Secretary the entire amount charged under clause (i)(I) with respect to each defaulted loan that is paid off with excess consolidation proceeds.
(C)
For purposes of subparagraph (B), the term “excess consolidation proceeds” means, with respect to any guaranty agency for any Federal fiscal year beginning on or after October 1, 2009, the proceeds of consolidation of defaulted loans under this subchapter that exceed 45 percent of the agency’s total collections on defaulted loans in such Federal fiscal year.
(7)
New programs eligible for 100 percent reinsurance
(A)
Notwithstanding paragraph (1)(C), the amount to be paid a guaranty agency for any fiscal year—
(i)
which begins on or after October 1, 1977 and ends before October 1, 1991; and
(ii)
which is either the fiscal year in which such guaranty agency begins to actively carry on a student loan insurance program which is subject to a guaranty agreement under subsection (b) of this section, or is one of the 4 succeeding fiscal years,
shall be 100 percent of the amount expended by such guaranty agency in discharge of its insurance obligation insured under such program.
(B)
Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1)(C), the Secretary may pay a guaranty agency 100 percent of the amount expended by such agency in discharge of such agency’s insurance obligation for any fiscal year which—
(i)
begins on or after October 1, 1991; and
(ii)
is the fiscal year in which such guaranty agency begins to actively carry on a student loan insurance program which is subject to a guaranty agreement under subsection (b) or is one of the 4 succeeding fiscal years.
(C)
The Secretary shall continuously monitor the operations of those guaranty agencies to which the provisions of subparagraph (A) or (B) are applicable and revoke the application of such subparagraph to any such guaranty agency which the Secretary determines has not exercised reasonable prudence in the administration of such program.
(8)
Assignment to protect Federal fiscal interest

If the Secretary determines that the protection of the Federal fiscal interest so requires, a guaranty agency shall assign to the Secretary any loan of which it is the holder and for which the Secretary has made a payment pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(9)
Guaranty agency reserve level
(A)
Each guaranty agency which has entered into an agreement with the Secretary pursuant to this subsection shall maintain in the agency’s Federal Student Loan Reserve Fund established under section 1072a of this title a current minimum reserve level of at least 0.25 percent of the total attributable amount of all outstanding loans guaranteed by such agency. For purposes of this paragraph, such total attributable amount does not include amounts of outstanding loans transferred to the guaranty agency from another gu
(B)
The Secretary shall collect, on an annual basis, information from each guaranty agency having an agreement under this subsection to enable the Secretary to evaluate the financial solvency of each such agency. The information collected shall include the level of such agency’s current reserves, cash disbursements and accounts receivable.
(C)
If (i) any guaranty agency falls below the required minimum reserve level in any 2 consecutive years, (ii) any guaranty agency’s Federal reimbursement payments are reduced to 85 percent pursuant to paragraph (1)(B)(i), or (iii) the Secretary determines that the administrative or financial condition of a guaranty agency jeopardizes such agency’s continued ability to perform its responsibilities under its guaranty agreement, then the Secretary shall require the guaranty agency to submit and implement a management plan acceptable to the Secretary within 45 working days of any such event.
(D)
(i)
If the Secretary is not seeking to terminate the guaranty agency’s agreement under subparagraph (E), or assuming the guaranty agency’s functions under subparagraph (F), a management plan described in subparagraph (C) shall include the means by which the guaranty agency will improve its financial and administrative condition to the required level within 18 months.
(ii)
If the Secretary is seeking to terminate the guaranty agency’s agreement under subparagraph (E), or assuming the guaranty agency’s functions under subparagraph (F), a management plan described in subparagraph (C) shall include the means by which the Secretary and the guaranty agency shall work together to ensure the orderly termination of the operations, and liquidation of the assets, of the guaranty agency.
(E)
The Secretary may terminate a guaranty agency’s agreement in accordance with subparagraph (F) if—
(i)
a guaranty agency required to submit a management plan under this paragraph fails to submit a plan that is acceptable to the Secretary;
(ii)
the Secretary determines that a guaranty agency has failed to improve substantially its administrative and financial condition;
(iii)
the Secretary determines that the guaranty agency is in danger of financial collapse;
(iv)
the Secretary determines that such action is necessary to protect the Federal fiscal interest; or
(v)
the Secretary determines that such action is necessary to ensure the continued availability of loans to student or parent borrowers.
(F)
If a guaranty agency’s agreement under this subsection is terminated pursuant to subparagraph (E), then the Secretary shall assume responsibility for all functions of the guaranty agency under the loan insurance program of such agency. In performing such functions the Secretary is authorized to—
(i)
permit the transfer of guarantees to another guaranty agency;
(ii)
revoke the reinsurance agreement of the guaranty agency at a specified date, so as to require the merger, consolidation, or termination of the guaranty agency;
(iii)
transfer guarantees to the Department of Education for the purpose of payment of such claims and process such claims using the claims standards of the guaranty agency, if such standards are determined by the Secretary to be in compliance with this chapter;
(iv)
design and implement a plan to restore the guaranty agency’s viability;
(v)
provide the guaranty agency with additional advance funds in accordance with section 1072(c)(7) of this title, with such restrictions on the use of such funds as is determined appropriate by the Secretary, in order to—
(I)
meet the immediate cash needs of the guaranty agency;
(II)
ensure the uninterrupted payment of claims; or
(III)
ensure that the guaranty agency will make loans as the lender-of-last-resort, in accordance with subsection (j);
(vi)
use all funds and assets of the guaranty agency to assist in the activities undertaken in accordance with this subparagraph and take appropriate action to require the return, to the guaranty agency or the Secretary, of any funds or assets provided by the guaranty agency, under contract or otherwise, to any person or organization; or
(vii)
take any other action the Secretary determines necessary to ensure the continued availability of loans made under this part to residents of the State or States in which the guaranty agency did business, the full honoring of all guarantees issued by the guaranty agency prior to the Secretary’s assumption of the functions of such agency, and the proper servicing of loans guaranteed by the guaranty agency prior to the Secretary’s assumption of the functions of such agency, and to avoid disruption of the student loan program.
(G)
Notwithstanding any other provision of Federal or State law, if the Secretary has terminated or is seeking to terminate a guaranty agency’s agreement under subparagraph (E), or has assumed a guaranty agency’s functions under subparagraph (F)—
(i)
no State court may issue any order affecting the Secretary’s actions with respect to such guaranty agency;
(ii)
any contract with respect to the administration of a guaranty agency’s reserve funds, or the administration of any assets purchased or acquired with the reserve funds of the guaranty agency, that is entered into or extended by the guaranty agency, or any other party on behalf of or with the concurrence of the guaranty agency, after August 10, 1993, shall provide that the contract is terminable by the Secretary upon 30 days notice to the contracting parties if the Secretary determines that such contract includes an impermissible transfer of the reserve funds or assets, or is otherwise inconsistent with the terms or purposes of this section; and
(iii)
no provision of State law shall apply to the actions of the Secretary in terminating the operations of a guaranty agency.
(H)
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary’s liability for any outstanding liabilities of a guaranty agency (other than outstanding student loan guarantees under this part), the functions of which the Secretary has assumed, shall not exceed the fair market value of the reserves of the guaranty agency, minus any necessary liquidation or other administrative costs.
(I)
The Secretary shall not take any action under subparagraph (E) or (F) without giving the guaranty agency notice and the opportunity for a hearing that, if commenced after September 24, 1998, shall be on the record.
(J)
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the information transmitted to the Secretary pursuant to this paragraph shall be confidential and exempt from disclosure under section 552 of title 5, relating to freedom of information, or any other Federal law.
(K)
The Secretary, within 6 months after the end of each fiscal year, shall submit to the authorizing committees a report specifying the Secretary’s assessment of the fiscal soundness of the guaranty agency system.
(10)
Documentation of forbearance agreements

For the purposes of paragraph (3), the terms of forbearance agreed to by the parties shall be documented by confirming the agreement of the borrower by notice to the borrower from the lender, and by recording the terms in the borrower’s file.

(d)
Usury laws inapplicable
No provision of any law of the United States (other than this chapter and section 3937 of title 50) or of any State (other than a statute applicable principally to such State’s student loan insurance program) which limits the rate or amount of interest payable on loans shall apply to a loan—
(1)
which bears interest (exclusive of any premium for insurance) on the unpaid principal balance at a rate not in excess of the rate specified in this part; and
(2)
which is insured (i) by the United States under this part, or (ii) by a guaranty agency under a program covered by an agreement made pursuant to subsection (b) of this section.
(e)
Repealed. Pub. L. 110–315, title IV, § 422(h), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3231
(f)
Payments of certain costs
(1)
4
4
 So in original. No par. (2) has been enacted.
Payment for certain activities
(A)
In general
The Secretary—
(i)
for loans originated during fiscal years beginning on or after October 1, 1998, and before October 1, 2003, and in accordance with the provisions of this paragraph, shall, except as provided in subparagraph (C), pay to each guaranty agency, a loan processing and issuance fee equal to 0.65 percent of the total principal amount of the loans on which insurance was issued under this part during such fiscal year by such agency; and
(ii)
for loans originated on or after October 1, 2003, and first disbursed before July 1, 2010, and in accordance with the provisions of this paragraph, shall, except as provided in subparagraph (C), pay to each guaranty agency, a loan processing and issuance fee equal to 0.40 percent of the total principal amount of the loans on which insurance was issued under this part during such fiscal year by such agency.
(B)
Payment

The payment required by subparagraph (A) shall be paid on a quarterly basis. The guaranty agency shall be deemed to have a contractual right against the United States to receive payments according to the provisions of this paragraph. Payments shall be made promptly and without administrative delay to any guaranty agency submitting an accurate and complete application under this subparagraph.

(C)
Requirement for payment

No payment may be made under this paragraph for loans for which the disbursement checks have not been cashed or for which electronic funds transfers have not been completed.

(g)
Action on insurance program and guaranty agreements
If a nonprofit private institution or organization—
(1)
applies to enter into an agreement with the Secretary under subsections (b) and (c) with respect to a student loan insurance program to be carried on in a State with which the Secretary does not have an agreement under subsection (b), and
(2)
as provided in the application, undertakes to meet the requirements of section 1072(c)(6)(B)(i), (ii), and (iii) of this title,
the Secretary shall consider and act upon such application within 180 days, and shall forthwith notify the authorizing committees of his actions.
(h)
Repealed. Pub. L. 110–315, title IV, § 438(a)(2)(B), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3258
(i)
Multiple disbursement of loans
(1)
Escrow accounts administered by escrow agent

Any guaranty agency or eligible lender (hereafter in this subsection referred to as the “escrow agent”) may enter into an agreement with any other eligible lender that is not an eligible institution or an agency or instrumentality of the State (hereafter in this subsection referred to as the “lender”) for the purpose of authorizing disbursements of the proceeds of a loan to a student. Such agreement shall provide that the lender will pay the proceeds of such loans into an escrow account to be administered by the escrow agent in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (2) of this subsection. Such agreement may allow the lender to make payments into the escrow account in amounts that do not exceed the sum of the amounts required for disbursement of initial or subsequent installments to borrowers and to make such payments not more than 10 days prior to the date of the disbursement of such installment to such borrowers. Such agreement shall require the lender to notify promptly the eligible institution when funds are escrowed under this subsection for a student at such institution.

(2)
Authority of escrow agent
Each escrow agent entering into an agreement under paragraph (1) of this subsection is authorized to—
(A)
make the disbursements in accordance with the note evidencing the loan;
(B)
commingle the proceeds of all loans paid to the escrow agent pursuant to the escrow agreement entered into under such paragraph (1);
(C)
invest the proceeds of such loans in obligations of the Federal Government or obligations which are insured or guaranteed by the Federal Government;
(D)
retain interest or other earnings on such investment; and
(E)
return to the lender undisbursed funds when the student ceases to carry at an eligible institution at least one-half of the normal full-time academic workload as determined by the institution.
(j)
Lenders-of-last-resort
(1)
General requirement

In each State, the guaranty agency or an eligible lender in the State described in section 1085(d)(1)(D) of this title shall, before July 1, 2010, make loans directly, or through an agreement with an eligible lender or lenders, to eligible students and parents who are otherwise unable to obtain loans under this part (except for consolidation loans under section 1078–3 of this title) or who attend an institution of higher education in the State that is designated under paragraph (4). Loans made under this subsection shall not exceed the amount of the need of the borrower, as determined under subsection (a)(2)(B), nor be less than $200. No loan under section 1078, 1078–2, or 1078–8 of this title that is made pursuant to this subsection shall be made with interest rates, origination or default fees, or other terms and conditions that are more favorable to the borrower than the maximum interest rates, origination or default fees, or other terms and conditions applicable to that type of loan under this part. The guaranty agency shall consider the request of any eligible lender, as defined under section 1085(d)(1)(A) of this title, to serve as the lender-of-last-resort pursuant to this subsection.

(2)
Rules and operating procedures
The guaranty agency shall develop rules and operating procedures for the lender-of-last-resort program designed to ensure that—
(A)
the program establishes operating hours and methods of application designed to facilitate application by students and ensure a response within 60 days after the student’s original complete application is filed under this subsection;
(B)
consistent with standards established by the Secretary, students applying for loans under this subsection shall not be subject to additional eligibility requirements or requests for additional information beyond what is required under this subchapter in order to receive a loan under this part from an eligible lender, nor, in the case of students and parents applying for loans under this subsection because of an inability to otherwise obtain loans under this part (except for consolidation loans under section 1078–3 of this title), be required to receive more than two rejections from eligible lenders in order to obtain a loan under this subsection;
(C)
information about the availability of loans under the program is made available to institutions of higher education in the State; and
(D)
appropriate steps are taken to ensure that borrowers receiving loans under the program are appropriately counseled on their loan obligation.
(3)
Advances to guaranty agencies for lender-of-last-resort services
(A)
In order to ensure the availability of loan capital, the Secretary is authorized to provide a guaranty agency designated for a State with additional advance funds in accordance with subparagraph (C) and section 1072(c)(7) of this title, with such restrictions on the use of such funds as are determined appropriate by the Secretary, in order to ensure that the guaranty agency will make loans as the lender-of-last-resort. Such agency shall make such loans in accordance with this subsection and the requirements of the Secretary.
(B)
Notwithstanding any other provision in this part, a guaranty agency serving as a lender-of-last-resort under this paragraph shall be paid a fee, established by the Secretary, for making such loans in lieu of interest and special allowance subsidies, and shall be required to assign such loans to the Secretary on demand. Upon such assignment, the portion of the advance represented by the loans assigned shall be considered repaid by such guaranty agency.
(C)
The Secretary shall exercise the authority described in subparagraph (A) only if the Secretary determines that eligible borrowers are seeking and are unable to obtain loans under this part or designates an institution of higher education for participation in the program under this subsection under paragraph (4), and that the guaranty agency designated for that State has the capability to provide lender-of-last-resort loans in a timely manner, in accordance with the guaranty agency’s obligations under paragraph (1), but cannot do so without advances provided by the Secretary under this paragraph. If the Secretary makes the determinations described in the preceding sentence and determines that it would be cost-effective to do so, the Secretary may provide advances under this paragraph to such guaranty agency. If the Secretary determines that such guaranty agency does not have such capability, or will not provide such loans in a timely fashion, the Secretary may provide such advances to enable another guaranty agency, that the Secretary determines to have such capability, to make lender-of-last-resort loans to eligible borrowers in that State who are experiencing loan access problems or to eligible borrowers who attend an institution in the State that is designated under paragraph (4).
(4)
Institution-wide student qualification

Upon the request of an institution of higher education and pursuant to standards developed by the Secretary, the Secretary shall designate such institution for participation in the lender-of-last-resort program under this paragraph.5

5
 So in original. Probably should be “subsection.”
If the Secretary designates an institution under this paragraph, the guaranty agency designated for the State in which the institution is located shall make loans, in the same manner as such loans are made under paragraph (1), to students and parent borrowers of the designated institution, regardless of whether the students or parent borrowers are otherwise unable to obtain loans under this part (other than a consolidation loan under section 1078–3 of this title).

(5)
In developing standards with respect to paragraph (4), the Secretary may require—
(A)
an institution of higher education to demonstrate that, despite due diligence on the part of the institution, the institution has been unable to secure the commitment of eligible lenders willing to make loans under this part to a significant number of students attending the institution;
(B)
that, prior to making a request under such paragraph for designation for participation in the lender-of-last-resort program, an institution of higher education shall demonstrate that the institution has met a minimum threshold, as determined by the Secretary, for the number or percentage of students at such institution who have received rejections from eligible lenders for loans under this part; and
(C)
any other standards and guidelines the Secretary determines to be appropriate.
(6)
Expiration of authority

The Secretary’s authority under paragraph (4) to designate institutions of higher education for participation in the program under this subsection shall expire on June 30, 2010.

(7)
Expiration of designation

The eligibility of an institution of higher education, or borrowers from such institution, to participate in the program under this subsection pursuant to a designation of the institution by the Secretary under paragraph (4) shall expire on June 30, 2010. After such date, borrowers from an institution designated under paragraph (4) shall be eligible to participate in the program under this subsection as such program existed on the day before May 7, 2008.

(8)
Prohibition on inducements and marketing
Each guaranty agency or eligible lender that serves as a lender-of-last-resort under this subsection—
(A)
shall be subject to the prohibitions on inducements contained in subsection (b)(3) and the requirements of section 1085(d)(5) of this title; and
(B)
shall not advertise, market, or otherwise promote loans under this subsection, except that nothing in this paragraph shall prohibit a guaranty agency from fulfilling its responsibilities under paragraph (2)(C).
(9)
Dissemination and reporting
(A)
In general
The Secretary shall—
(i)
broadly disseminate information regarding the availability of loans made under this subsection;
(ii)
during the period beginning July 1, 2008 and ending June 30, 2011, provide to the authorizing committees and make available to the public—
(I)
copies of any new or revised plans or agreements made by guaranty agencies or the Department related to the authorities under this subsection;
(II)
quarterly reports on—
(aa)
the number and amounts of loans originated or approved pursuant to this subsection by each guaranty agency and eligible lender; and
(bb)
any related payments by the Department, a guaranty agency, or an eligible lender; and
(III)
a budget estimate of the costs to the Federal Government (including subsidy and administrative costs) for each 100 dollars loaned, of loans made pursuant to this subsection between May 7, 2008, and June 30, 2010, disaggregated by type of loan, compared to such costs to the Federal Government during such time period of comparable loans under this part and part D, disaggregated by part and by type of loan; and
(iii)
beginning July 1, 2011, provide to the authorizing committees and make available to the public—
(I)
copies of any new or revised plans or agreements made by guaranty agencies or the Department related to the authorities under this subsection; and
(II)
annual reports on—
(aa)
the number and amounts of loans originated or approved pursuant to this subsection by each guaranty agency and eligible lender; and
(bb)
any related payments by the Department, a guaranty agency, or an eligible lender.
(B)
Separate reporting

The information required to be reported under subparagraph (A)(ii)(II) shall be reported separately for loans originated or approved pursuant to paragraph (4), or payments related to such loans, for the time period in which the Secretary is authorized to make designations under paragraph (4).

(k)
Information on defaults
(1)
Provision of information to eligible institutions

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in order to notify eligible institutions of former students who are in default of their continuing obligation to repay student loans, each guaranty agency shall, upon the request of an eligible institution, furnish information with respect to students who were enrolled at the eligible institution and who are in default on the repayment of any loan made, insured, or guaranteed under this part. The information authorized to be furnished under this subsection shall include the names and addresses of such students.

(2)
Public dissemination not authorized

Nothing in paragraph (1) of this subsection shall be construed to authorize public dissemination of the information described in paragraph (1).

(3)
Borrower location information

Any information provided by the institution relating to borrower location shall be used by the guaranty agency in conducting required skip-tracing activities.

(4)
Provision of information to borrowers in default
Each guaranty agency that has received a default claim from a lender regarding a borrower, shall provide the borrower in default, on not less than two separate occasions, with a notice, in simple and understandable terms, of not less than the following information:
(A)
The options available to the borrower to remove the borrower’s loan from default.
(B)
The relevant fees and conditions associated with each option.
(l)
Default aversion assistance
(1)
Assistance required

Upon receipt of a complete request from a lender received not earlier than the 60th day of delinquency, a guaranty agency having an agreement with the Secretary under subsection (c) shall engage in default aversion activities designed to prevent the default by a borrower on a loan covered by such agreement.

(2)
Reimbursement
(A)
In general

A guaranty agency, in accordance with the provisions of this paragraph, may transfer from the Federal Student Loan Reserve Fund under section 1072a of this title to the Agency Operating Fund under section 1072b of this title a default aversion fee. Such fee shall be paid for any loan on which a claim for default has not been paid as a result of the loan being brought into current repayment status by the guaranty agency on or before the 300th day after the loan becomes 60 days delinquent.

(B)
Amount
The default aversion fee shall be equal to 1 percent of the total unpaid principal and accrued interest on the loan at the time the request is submitted by the lender. A guaranty agency may transfer such fees earned under this subsection not more frequently than monthly. Such a fee shall not be paid more than once on any loan for which the guaranty agency averts the default unless—
(i)
at least 18 months has elapsed between the date the borrower entered current repayment status and the date the lender filed a subsequent default aversion assistance request; and
(ii)
during the period between such dates, the borrower was not more than 30 days past due on any payment of principal and interest on the loan.
(C)
Definition

For the purpose of earning the default aversion fee, the term “current repayment status” means that the borrower is not delinquent in the payment of any principal or interest on the loan.

(m)
Income contingent and income-based repayment
(1)
Authority of Secretary to require

The Secretary may require borrowers who have defaulted on loans made under this part that are assigned to the Secretary under subsection (c)(8) to repay those loans under an income contingent repayment plan or income-based repayment plan, the terms and conditions of which shall be established by the Secretary and the same as, or similar to, an income contingent repayment plan established for purposes of part D of this subchapter or an income-based repayment plan under section 1098e of this title, as the case may be.

(2)
Loans for which income contingent or income-based repayment may be required

A loan made under this part may be required to be repaid under this subsection if the note or other evidence of the loan has been assigned to the Secretary pursuant to subsection (c)(8).

(n)
Blanket certificate of loan guaranty
(1)
In general
Subject to paragraph (3), any guaranty agency that has entered into or enters into any insurance program agreement with the Secretary under this part may—
(A)
offer eligible lenders participating in the agency’s guaranty program a blanket certificate of loan guaranty that permits the lender to make loans without receiving prior approval from the guaranty agency of individual loans for eligible borrowers enrolled in eligible programs at eligible institutions; and
(B)
provide eligible lenders with the ability to transmit electronically data to the agency concerning loans the lender has elected to make under the agency’s insurance program via standard reporting formats, with such reporting to occur at reasonable and standard intervals.
(2)
Limitations on blanket certificate of guaranty
(A)
An eligible lender may not make a loan to a borrower under this section after such lender receives a notification from the guaranty agency that the borrower is not an eligible borrower.
(B)
A guaranty agency may establish limitations or restrictions on the number or volume of loans issued by a lender under the blanket certificate of guaranty.
(3)
Participation level

During fiscal years 1999 and 2000, the Secretary may permit, on a pilot basis, a limited number of guaranty agencies to offer blanket certificates of guaranty under this subsection. Beginning in fiscal year 2001, any guaranty agency that has an insurance program agreement with the Secretary may offer blanket certificates of guaranty under this subsection.

(4)
Report required

The Secretary shall, at the conclusion of the pilot program under paragraph (3), provide a report to the authorizing committees on the impact of the blanket certificates of guaranty on program efficiency and integrity.

(o)
Armed Forces student loan interest payment program
(1)
Authority

Using funds received by transfer to the Secretary under section 2174 of title 10 for the payment of interest and any special allowance on a loan to a member of the Armed Forces that is made, insured, or guaranteed under this part, the Secretary shall pay the interest and special allowance on such loan as due for a period not in excess of 36 consecutive months. The Secretary may not pay interest or any special allowance on such a loan out of any funds other than funds that have been so transferred.

(2)
Forbearance

During the period in which the Secretary is making payments on a loan under paragraph (1), the lender shall grant the borrower forbearance in accordance with the guaranty agreement under subsection (c)(3)(A)(i)(IV).

(3)
Special allowance defined

For the purposes of this subsection, the term “special allowance”,6

6
 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.
means a special allowance that is payable with respect to a loan under section 1087–1 of this title.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title IV, § 428, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title IV, § 402(a), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1367; amended Pub. L. 100–50, § 10(a)–(c), (e)–(m), June 3, 1987, 101 Stat. 341–343; Pub. L. 100–203, title III, §§ 3001(b), 3002(b), 3003, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–38, 1330–39; Pub. L. 100–369, §§ 5(b)(2), 7(c), 11(a), July 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 836–838; Pub. L. 101–239, title II, §§ 2002(a)(2), (b)(1), 2004(b)(1), (3), 2006(b), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2111, 2116, 2118; Pub. L. 101–508, title III, §§ 3002, 3004(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–25, 1388–27; Pub. L. 102–26, § 9, Apr. 9, 1991, 105 Stat. 128; Pub. L. 102–164, title VI, §§ 601(b), 602(b), 604, 605(b)(2), Nov. 15, 1991, 105 Stat. 1065, 1066, 1068; Pub. L. 102–325, title IV, §§ 411(b)(2), 416(a)–(e)(1), (f)–(p)(7), (q)–(t), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 510, 516–525, 527–529; Pub. L. 103–66, title IV, §§ 4041(a)(1), (2)(B), (b), 4043(a), 4044, 4045, 4102(c), 4107(a), (b), 4108(a), (b), 4110(a), 4112(a), 4201(a), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 354, 355, 358, 359, 367–370; Pub. L. 103–82, title I, § 102(c)(1), Sept. 21, 1993, 107 Stat. 823; Pub. L. 103–208, § 2(c)(11)–(28), Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2462–2465; Pub. L. 103–382, title III, § 355(a), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3967; Pub. L. 105–33, title VI, §§ 6101(b), 6104(2), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 652; Pub. L. 105–244, title IV, § 417(a)–(c)(1)(A), (2)–(k), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1682–1690; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title VI, § 651(b), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2579; Pub. L. 109–171, title VIII, §§ 8004(b)(2), 8005(b), 8007(a), 8008(a), 8009(b)(1), 8014(a)(1), (b)(1), (c)(1), (d), (e), (j)(1)–(3), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 158, 160, 162, 164, 168–171; Pub. L. 110–84, title II, § 202(a), title III, §§ 301, 302(b)(1), 303(a), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 791, 796, 797; Pub. L. 110–227, §§ 3(b), 5(a), May 7, 2008, 122 Stat. 742, 743; Pub. L. 110–315, title I, § 103(b)(4), title IV, §§ 422(a)(1), (b)–(g)(1), (h)–(j), 424(b), 432(b)(2), 438(a)(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3088, 3227–3231, 3233, 3246, 3258; Pub. L. 110–350, § 2, Oct. 7, 2008, 122 Stat. 3947; Pub. L. 111–39, title IV, § 402(a)(1), (b)(1), (f)(1), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1940, 1943; Pub. L. 111–152, title II, § 2204, Mar. 30, 2010, 124 Stat. 1075; Pub. L. 112–74, div. F, title III, § 309(d)(1), Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 1101; Pub. L. 114–113, div. H, title III, § 311, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2638; Pub. L. 115–245, div. B, title III, § 309(c), Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3106.)
cite as: 20 USC 1078