1 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a comma.
2 See References in Text note below.
of this title is inadmissible until the alien has been outside the United States for a continuous period of 5 years after the date of the violation.
3 So in original. Probably should be a reference to section 1229c of this title.
of this title) prior to the commencement of proceedings under
4 So in original. Probably should be preceded by “ineligible for”.
of status.
5 So in original.
Any alien described in this paragraph, who is denied admission to the United States, shall be immediately removed in the manner provided by
6 So in original. Probably should be “Secretary’s”.
discretion, may waive the application of—
7 So in original. Probably should be “(10)(E))”.
if the activities rendering the alien inadmissible under the provision were caused by, or were incident to, the victimization described in
8 So in original.
by an H–1B-dependent employer (as defined in paragraph (3)) or by an employer that has been found, on or after
9 So in original. Probably should be “or”.
disability of the Secretary of Labor) shall personally certify that reasonable cause exists and shall approve commencement of the investigation. The investigation may be initiated for reasons other than completeness and obvious inaccuracies by the employer in complying with this subsection.
10 So in original. Probably should be “clause”.
(i) or (ii), prior to the commencement of an investigation under such clauses, of the intent to conduct an investigation. The notice shall be provided in such a manner, and shall contain sufficient detail, to permit the employer to respond to the allegations before an investigation is commenced. The Secretary of Labor is not required to comply with this clause if the Secretary of Labor determines that to do so would interfere with an effort by the Secretary of Labor to secure compliance by the employer with the requirements of this subsection. There shall be no judicial review of a determination by the Secretary of Labor under this clause.
11 So in original. Two subsecs. (t) have been enacted.
Nonimmigrant professionals; labor attestations
12 So in original. Two subsecs. (t) have been enacted.
Foreign residence requirement
Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 107(c) of Pub. L. 108–77, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2003 Amendment note below.

Editorial Notes
References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original, “this Act”, meaning act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, known as the Immigration and Nationality Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of this title and Tables.

Section 3(a) of the Torture Victim Protection Act of 1991, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(E)(iii)(II), is section 3(a) of Pub. L. 102–256, which is set out as a note under section 1350 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Section 301 of the Immigration Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (a)(6)(E)(ii), (9)(B)(iii)(III), is section 301 of Pub. L. 101–649, which is set out as a note under section 1255a of this title.

Section 112 of the Immigration Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (a)(6)(E)(ii), is section 112 of Pub. L. 101–649, which is set out as a note under section 1153 of this title.

Section 1184(l) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(6)(G), probably means the subsec. (l) of section 1184, which relates to nonimmigrant elementary and secondary school students and was added by Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, § 625(a)(1), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–699, and redesignated subsec. (m) of section 1184 by Pub. L. 106–386, div. A, § 107(e)(2)(A), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1478.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (m)(6)(B), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Titles XVIII and XIX of the Act are classified generally to subchapters XVIII (§ 1395 et seq.) and XIX (§ 1396 et seq.), respectively, of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Part A of title XVIII of the Act is classified generally to part A (§ 1395c et seq.) of subchapter XVIII of chapter 7 of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

Subsection (j)(3), which required the Director of the United States Information Agency to transmit an annual report to Congress on aliens submitting affidavits described in subsection (j)(1)(E) of this section, terminated, effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, page 193 of House Document No. 103–7.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (a)(4)(E). Pub. L. 113–4 added subpar. (E).

2010—Subsec. (a)(1)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 111–287 substituted “subparagraph (F) or (G) of section 1101(b)(1) of this title;” for “section 1101(b)(1)(F) of this title,”.

2009—Subsec. (a)(3)(E)(ii). Pub. L. 111–122 struck out “conduct outside the United States that would, if committed in the United States or by a United States national, be” before “genocide”.

2008—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 110–293 substituted a semicolon for “, which shall include infection with the etiologic agent for acquired immune deficiency syndrome,”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(H)(i). Pub. L. 110–457 substituted “who commits or conspires to commit human trafficking offenses in the United States or outside the United States, or who the consular officer, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Secretary of State,” for “who is listed in a report submitted pursuant to section 7108(b) of title 22, or who the consular officer”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(G). Pub. L. 110–340 added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (a)(7)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 110–229, § 702(b)(2), amended cl. (iii) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For provision authorizing waiver of clause (i) in the case of visitors to Guam, see subsection (l) of this section.”

Subsec. (d)(7). Pub. L. 110–229, § 702(d), inserted “the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands,” after “Guam,”.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 110–229, § 702(b)(3), amended subsec. (l) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (l) consisted of pars. (1) to (3) relating to waiver of requirements for nonimmigrant visitors to Guam.

2007—Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 110–161, § 691(c), substituted “Subclause (IX)” for “Subclause (VII)” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 110–161, § 691(a), amended cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (i) read as follows: “The Secretary of State, after consultation with the Attorney General and the Secretary of Homeland Security, or the Secretary of Homeland Security, after consultation with the Secretary of State and the Attorney General, may conclude in such Secretary’s sole unreviewable discretion that subsection (a)(3)(B)(i)(IV)(bb) or (a)(3)(B)(i)(VII) of this section shall not apply to an alien, that subsection (a)(3)(B)(iv)(VI) of this section shall not apply with respect to any material support an alien afforded to an organization or individual that has engaged in a terrorist activity, or that subsection (a)(3)(B)(vi)(III) of this section shall not apply to a group solely by virtue of having a subgroup within the scope of that subsection. The Secretary of State may not, however, exercise discretion under this clause with respect to an alien once removal proceedings against the alien are instituted under section 1229a of this title.”

2006—Subsec. (a)(4)(C)(i)(I). Pub. L. 109–271, § 6(b)(1)(A)(i), which directed the amendment of subsec. (a)(4)(C)(i)(II) by substituting a semicolon for “, or”, was executed to subsec. (a)(4)(C)(i)(I), to reflect the probable intent of Congress. The quoted matter did not appear in subsec. (a)(4)(C)(i)(II).

Subsec. (a)(4)(C)(i)(III). Pub. L. 109–271, § 6(b)(1)(A)(ii), added subcl. (III).

Subsec. (a)(6)(A)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 109–271, § 6(b)(1)(B), amended subcl. (I) generally. Prior to amendment, subcl. (I) read as follows: “the alien qualifies for immigrant status under subparagraph (A)(iii), (A)(iv), (B)(ii), or (B)(iii) of section 1154(a)(1) of this title,”.

Subsec. (a)(9)(B)(iii)(V). Pub. L. 109–162, § 802(a), added subcl. (V).

Subsec. (a)(9)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 109–271, § 6(b)(1)(C), substituted “the Secretary of Homeland Security has consented to the alien’s reapplying for admission.” for “the Attorney General has consented to the alien’s reapplying for admission. The Attorney General in the Attorney General’s discretion may waive the provisions of subsection (a)(9)(C)(i) of this section in the case of an alien to whom the Attorney General has granted classification under clause (iii), (iv), or (v) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title, or classification under clause (ii), (iii), or (iv) of section 1154(a)(1)(B) of this title, in any case in which there is a connection between—

“(1) the alien’s having been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty; and

“(2) the alien’s—

“(A) removal;

“(B) departure from the United States;

“(C) reentry or reentries into the United States; or

“(D) attempted reentry into the United States.”

Subsec. (a)(9)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 109–271, § 6(b)(1)(C), added subpar. (iii).

Subsec. (d)(13), (14). Pub. L. 109–162, § 802(b), substituted “Secretary of Homeland Security” for “Attorney General” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (g)(1)(C). Pub. L. 109–271, § 6(b)(2), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: “qualifies for classification under clause (iii) or (iv) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title or classification under clause (ii) or (iii) of section 1154(a)(1)(B) of this title;”.

Subsec. (h)(1)(C). Pub. L. 109–271, § 6(b)(3), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: “the alien qualifies for classification under clause (iii) or (iv) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title or classification under clause (ii) or (iii) of section 1154(a)(1)(B) of this title; and”.

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 109–271, § 6(b)(4), substituted “a VAWA self-petitioner” for “an alien granted classification under clause (iii) or (iv) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title or clause (ii) or (iii) of section 1154(a)(1)(B) of this title”.

2005—Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 109–13, § 103(a), reenacted heading without change and amended first sentence of cl. (i) generally, substituting general provisions relating to inadmissibility of aliens engaging in terrorist activities for former provisions relating to inadmissibility of any alien who had engaged in a terrorist activity, any alien who a consular officer or the Attorney General knew or reasonably believed had engaged in terrorist activity, any alien who had incited terrorist activity, any alien who was a representative of a foreign terrorist organization or group that had publicly endorsed terrorist acts, any alien who was a member of a foreign terrorist organization, any alien who had used the alien’s position of prominence to endorse terrorist activity, and any alien who was the spouse or child of an alien who had been found inadmissible, if the activity causing the alien to be found inadmissible had occurred within the last 5 years.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 109–13, § 103(b), reenacted heading without change and amended text of cl. (iv) generally, substituting provisions defining the term “engage in terrorist activity” in subcls. (I) to (VI), including provisions relating to demonstration of certain knowledge by clear and convincing evidence, for provisions defining the term “engage in terrorist activity” in somewhat similar subcls. (I) to (VI) which did not include provisions relating to demonstration of certain knowledge by clear and convincing evidence.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(vi). Pub. L. 109–13, § 103(c), amended heading and text of cl. (vi) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “As used in clause (i)(VI) and clause (iv), the term ‘terrorist organization’ means an organization—

“(I) designated under section 1189 of this title;

“(II) otherwise designated, upon publication in the Federal Register, by the Secretary of State in consultation with or upon the request of the Attorney General, as a terrorist organization, after finding that the organization engages in the activities described in subclause (I), (II), or (III) of clause (iv), or that the organization provides material support to further terrorist activity; or

“(III) that is a group of two or more individuals, whether organized or not, which engages in the activities described in subclause (I), (II), or (III) of clause (iv).”

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 109–13, § 104, designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), redesignated former subpars. (A) and (B) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 109–13, § 501(d)(1), inserted “or section 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title” after “section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1) of this title” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (t)(3)(C)(i)(II), (ii)(II), (iii)(II). Pub. L. 109–13, § 501(d)(2), substituted “1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1), or 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii)” for “or 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1)”.

2004—Subsec. (a)(2)(G). Pub. L. 108–458, § 5502(a), amended heading and text of subpar. (G) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Any alien who, while serving as a foreign government official, was responsible for or directly carried out, at any time during the preceding 24-month period, particularly severe violations of religious freedom, as defined in section 6402 of title 22, and the spouse and children, if any, are inadmissible.”

Subsec. (a)(3)(E). Pub. L. 108–458, § 5501(a)(3), which directed substitution of “Participants in Nazi persecution, genocide, or the commission of any act of torture or extrajudicial killing” for “Participants in nazi persecution or genocide” in heading, was executed by making the substitution for “Participants in Nazi persecutions or genocide” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a)(3)(E)(ii). Pub. L. 108–458, § 5501(a)(1), substituted “ordered, incited, assisted, or otherwise participated in conduct outside the United States that would, if committed in the United States or by a United States national, be genocide, as defined in section 1091(a) of title 18, is inadmissible” for “has engaged in conduct that is defined as genocide for purposes of the International Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide is inadmissible”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(E)(iii). Pub. L. 108–458, § 5501(a)(2), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (d)(3)(A), (B). Pub. L. 108–458, § 5503, substituted “and clauses (i) and (ii) of paragraph (3)(E)” for “and (3)(E)”.

Subsec. (n)(1)(E)(ii). Pub. L. 108–447, § 422(a), struck out “October 1, 2003,” before “by an H–1B-dependent employer”.

Subsec. (n)(2)(G). Pub. L. 108–447, § 424(a)(1), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (n)(2)(H), (I). Pub. L. 108–447, § 424(b), added subpar. (H) and redesignated former subpar. (H) as (I).

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 108–449, § 1(b)(2)(A), which directed redesignation of subsec. (p), relating to consideration of benefits received as battered alien in determination of inadmissibility as likely to become public charge, as (s), could not be executed because of the previous temporary redesignation by Pub. L. 108–77, § 402(b)(1). See 2003 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (p)(3), (4). Pub. L. 108–447, § 423, added pars. (3) and (4).

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 108–449, § 1(b)(2)(A), which directed redesignation of subsec. (p), relating to consideration of benefits received as battered alien in determination of inadmissibility as likely to become public charge, as (s), could not be executed because of the previous redesignation by Pub. L. 108–77, § 402(b)(1). See 2003 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 108–449, § 1(b)(2)(B), added subsec. (t) relating to foreign residence requirement.

2003—Subsec. (d)(13). Pub. L. 108–193, § 8(a)(2), redesignated par. (13), relating to Attorney General’s determination whether a ground for inadmissibility exists with respect to a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(U) of this title, as (14).

Subsec. (d)(13)(A). Pub. L. 108–193, § 4(b)(4)(A), inserted “, except that the ground for inadmissibility described in subsection (a)(4) shall not apply with respect to such a nonimmigrant” before period at end.

Subsec. (d)(13)(B)(i). Pub. L. 108–193, § 4(b)(4)(B)(i), amended cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (i) read as follows: “paragraphs (1) and (4) of subsection (a) of this section; and”.

Subsec. (d)(13)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 108–193, § 4(b)(4)(B)(ii), substituted “subsection (a)” for “such subsection” and inserted “(4),” after “(3),”.

Subsec. (d)(14). Pub. L. 108–193, § 8(a)(2), redesignated par. (13), relating to Attorney General’s determination whether a ground for inadmissibility exists with respect to a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(U) of this title, as (14).

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 108–77, §§ 107(c), 402(b)(1), temporarily redesignated subsec. (p), relating to consideration of benefits received as battered alien in determination of inadmissibility as likely to become public charge, as (s). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2003 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (p)(1). Pub. L. 108–77, §§ 107(c), 402(c), temporarily substituted “(a)(5)(A), (n)(1)(A)(i)(II), and (t)(1)(A)(i)(II)” for “(n)(1)(A)(i)(II) and (a)(5)(A)”. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2003 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 108–77, §§ 107(c), 402(b)(1), temporarily redesignated subsec. (p), relating to consideration of benefits received as battered alien in determination of inadmissibility as likely to become public charge, as (s). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2003 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 108–77, §§ 107(c), 402(b)(2), temporarily added subsec. (t). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2003 Amendment note below.

2002—Subsec. (a)(4)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 107–150 substituted “(and any additional sponsor required under section 1183a(f) of this title or any alternative sponsor permitted under paragraph (5)(B) of such section)” for “(including any additional sponsor required under section 1183a(f) of this title)”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–273 substituted “section 1184(l)” for “section 1184(k)”.

2001—Subsec. (a)(2)(I). Pub. L. 107–56, § 1006(a), added subpar. (I).

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i)(II). Pub. L. 107–56, § 411(a)(1)(C), substituted “clause (iv)” for “clause (iii)”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i)(IV). Pub. L. 107–56, § 411(a)(1)(A)(i), amended subcl. (IV) generally. Prior to amendment, subcl. (IV) read as follows: “is a representative (as defined in clause (iv)) of a foreign terrorist organization, as designated by the Secretary under section 1189 of this title, or”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i)(V). Pub. L. 107–56, § 411(a)(1)(A)(ii), inserted “or” after “section 1189 of this title,”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i)(VI), (VII). Pub. L. 107–56, § 411(a)(1)(A)(iii), which directed addition of subcls. (VI) and (VII) at end of cl. (i), was executed by making the addition after subcl. (V) and before concluding provisions of cl. (i) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 107–56, § 411(a)(1)(D), added cl. (ii). Former cl. (ii) redesignated (iii).

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 107–56, § 411(a)(1)(E)(i), inserted “it had been” before “committed in the United States” in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 107–56, § 411(a)(1)(B), redesignated cl. (ii) as (iii). Former cl. (iii) redesignated (iv).

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(iii)(V)(b). Pub. L. 107–56, § 411(a)(1)(E)(ii), substituted “, firearm, or other weapon or dangerous device” for “or firearm”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 107–56, § 411(a)(1)(F), reenacted heading without change and amended text of cl. (iv) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “As used in this chapter, the term ‘engage in terrorist activity’ means to commit, in an individual capacity or as a member of an organization, an act of terrorist activity or an act which the actor knows, or reasonably should know, affords material support to any individual, organization, or government in conducting a terrorist activity at any time, including any of the following acts:

“(I) The preparation or planning of a terrorist activity.

“(II) The gathering of information on potential targets for terrorist activity.

“(III) The providing of any type of material support, including a safe house, transportation, communications, funds, false documentation or identification, weapons, explosives, or training, to any individual the actor knows or has reason to believe has committed or plans to commit a terrorist activity.

“(IV) The soliciting of funds or other things of value for terrorist activity or for any terrorist organization.

“(V) The solicitation of any individual for membership in a terrorist organization, terrorist government, or to engage in a terrorist activity.”

Pub. L. 107–56, § 411(a)(1)(B), redesignated cl. (iii) as (iv). Former cl. (iv) redesignated (v).

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(v). Pub. L. 107–56, § 411(a)(1)(B), redesignated cl. (iv) as (v).

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(vi). Pub. L. 107–56, § 411(a)(1)(G), added cl. (vi).

Subsec. (a)(3)(F). Pub. L. 107–56, § 411(a)(2), added subpar. (F).

2000—Subsec. (a)(2)(H). Pub. L. 106–386, § 111(d), added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (a)(5)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 106–313, § 106(c)(2), added cl. (iv).

Subsec. (a)(6)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 106–395, § 201(b)(2), amended heading and text of cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Any alien who falsely represents, or has falsely represented, himself or herself to be a citizen of the United States for any purpose or benefit under this chapter (including section 1324a of this title) or any other Federal or State law is inadmissible.”

Subsec. (a)(7)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 106–396 struck out “pilot” before “program” in heading and text.

Subsec. (a)(9)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 106–386, § 1505(a), inserted at end “The Attorney General in the Attorney General’s discretion may waive the provisions of subsection (a)(9)(C)(i) of this section in the case of an alien to whom the Attorney General has granted classification under clause (iii), (iv), or (v) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title, or classification under clause (ii), (iii), or (iv) of section 1154(a)(1)(B) of this title, in any case in which there is a connection between—” and added subcls. (1) and (2).

Subsec. (a)(10)(D). Pub. L. 106–395, § 201(b)(1), amended heading and text of subpar. (D) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Any alien who has voted in violation of any Federal, State, or local constitutional provision, statute, ordinance, or regulation is inadmissible.”

Subsec. (d)(13). Pub. L. 106–386, § 1513(e), added par. (13) relating to Attorney General’s determination whether a ground for inadmissibility exists with respect to a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(U) of this title.

Pub. L. 106–386, § 107(e)(3), added par. (13) relating to Attorney General’s determination whether a ground for inadmissibility exists with respect to a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(T) of this title.

Subsec. (g)(1)(C). Pub. L. 106–386, § 1505(d), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (h)(1)(C). Pub. L. 106–386, § 1505(e), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 106–386, § 1505(c)(1), inserted before period at end “or, in the case of an alien granted classification under clause (iii) or (iv) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title or clause (ii) or (iii) of section 1154(a)(1)(B) of this title, the alien demonstrates extreme hardship to the alien or the alien’s United States citizen, lawful permanent resident, or qualified alien parent or child”.

Subsec. (n)(1)(E)(ii). Pub. L. 106–313, § 107(a), substituted “October 1, 2003” for “October 1, 2001”.

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 106–386, § 1505(f), added subsec. (p) relating to consideration of benefits received as battered alien in determination of inadmissibility as likely to become public charge.

1999—Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 106–120 amended heading and text of subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Any alien who the consular or immigration officer knows or has reason to believe is or has been an illicit trafficker in any such controlled substance or is or has been a knowing assister, abettor, conspirator, or colluder with others in the illicit trafficking in any such controlled substance, is inadmissible.”

Subsec. (a)(5)(C). Pub. L. 106–95, § 4(a)(2), substituted “Subject to subsection (r), any alien who seeks” for “Any alien who seeks” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 106–95, § 2(b), amended subsec. (m) generally, adding provisions providing that no more than 33 percent of a facility’s workforce may be nonimmigrant aliens and making issuance of visas dependent upon State populations, and revising period of admission from a maximum of 6 years to 3 years.

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 106–95, § 4(a)(1), added subsec. (r).

1998—Subsec. (a)(2)(G). Pub. L. 105–292 added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (a)(10)(C)(ii), (iii). Pub. L. 105–277, § 2226(a), added cls. (ii) and (iii) and struck out heading and text of former cl. (ii). Text read as follows: “Clause (i) shall not apply so long as the child is located in a foreign state that is a party to the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction.”

Subsec. (n)(1). Pub. L. 105–277, § 412(b)(2), substituted “an H–1B nonimmigrant” for “a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b) of this title” in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 105–277, § 412(a)(2), (3), inserted at end “The application form shall include a clear statement explaining the liability under subparagraph (F) of a placing employer if the other employer described in such subparagraph displaces a United States worker as described in such subparagraph. Nothing in subparagraph (G) shall be construed to prohibit an employer from using legitimate selection criteria relevant to the job that are normal or customary to the type of job involved, so long as such criteria are not applied in a discriminatory manner.”

Subsec. (n)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 105–277, § 412(b)(2), substituted “an H–1B nonimmigrant” for “a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b) of this title” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (n)(1)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 105–277, § 412(c), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: “if there is no such bargaining representative, has posted notice of filing in conspicuous locations at the place of employment.”

Subsec. (n)(1)(E) to (G). Pub. L. 105–277, § 412(a)(1), added subpars. (E) to (G).

Subsec. (n)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–277, § 413(b)(2), substituted “Subject to paragraph (5)(A), the Secretary” for “The Secretary” in first sentence.

Subsec. (n)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–277, § 413(a), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: “If the Secretary finds, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, a failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1)(B), a substantial failure to meet a condition of paragraphs (1)(C) or (1)(D), a willful failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1)(A), or a misrepresentation of material fact in an application—

“(i) the Secretary shall notify the Attorney General of such finding and may, in addition, impose such other administrative remedies (including civil monetary penalties in an amount not to exceed $1,000 per violation) as the Secretary determines to be appropriate, and

“(ii) the Attorney General shall not approve petitions filed with respect to that employer under section 1154 or 1184(c) of this title during a period of at least 1 year for aliens to be employed by the employer.”

Subsec. (n)(2)(E). Pub. L. 105–277, § 413(c), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (n)(2)(F). Pub. L. 105–277, § 413(d), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (n)(2)(G). Pub. L. 105–277, § 413(e), temporarily added subpar. (G). See Effective and Termination Dates of 1998 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (n)(2)(H). Pub. L. 105–277, § 413(f), added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (n)(3), (4). Pub. L. 105–277, § 412(b)(1), added pars. (3) and (4).

Subsec. (n)(5). Pub. L. 105–277, § 413(b)(1), added par. (5).

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 105–277, § 415(a), added subsec. (p) relating to computation of prevailing wage level.

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 105–277, § 431(a), added subsec. (q).

1997—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 105–73, § 1(1), inserted “except as provided in subparagraph (C),” after “(ii)”.

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 105–73, § 1(2), added subpar. (C).

1996—Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(d)(1)(A), amended section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(d)(1)(C), substituted “is inadmissible” for “is excludable” wherever appearing in pars. (1) to (5), (6)(C) to (E), (G), (7), (8), (10)(A), (C)(i), (D), and (E).

Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(d)(1)(B), substituted “aliens ineligible for visas or admission” for “excludable aliens” in heading and substituted “Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, aliens who are inadmissible under the following paragraphs are ineligible to receive visas and ineligible to be admitted to the United States:” for “Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, the following describes classes of excludable aliens who are ineligible to receive visas and who shall be excluded from admission into the United States:” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii) to (iv). Pub. L. 104–208, § 341(a), added cl. (ii) and redesignated former cls. (ii) and (iii) as (iii) and (iv), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–208, § 322(a)(2)(B), struck out “actually imposed” after “confinement”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(D)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(f)(1)(C), substituted “admission” for “entry”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i)(I). Pub. L. 104–132, § 411(1)(A), struck out “or” at end.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i)(II). Pub. L. 104–132, § 411(1)(B), inserted “is engaged in or” after “ground to believe,”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i)(III). Pub. L. 104–208, § 342(a)(2), added subcl. (III). Former subcl. (III) redesignated (IV).

Pub. L. 104–132, § 411(1)(C), added subcl. (III).

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i)(IV). Pub. L. 104–208, § 355, inserted “which the alien knows or should have known is a terrorist organization” after “1189 of this title,”.

Pub. L. 104–208, § 342(a)(1), redesignated subcl. (III) as (IV). Former subcl. (IV) redesignated (V).

Pub. L. 104–132, § 411(1)(C), added subcl. (IV).

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i)(V). Pub. L. 104–208, § 342(a)(1), redesignated subcl. (IV) as (V).

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(iii)(III). Pub. L. 104–208, § 342(a)(3), inserted “documentation or” before “identification”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 104–132, § 411(2), added cl. (iv).

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 104–208, § 531(a), amended heading and text of par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Any alien who, in the opinion of the consular officer at the time of application for a visa, or in the opinion of the Attorney General at the time of application for admission or adjustment of status, is likely at any time to become a public charge is excludable.”

Pub. L. 104–208, § 305(c), which directed amendment of par. (4) by substituting “1227(a)(5)(B)” for “1251(a)(5)(B)” each place it appears, could not be executed because “1251(a)(5)(B)” did not appear in par. (4).

Subsec. (a)(5)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 104–208, § 624(a), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (a)(5)(C). Pub. L. 104–208, § 343(2), added subpar. (C). Former subpar. (C) redesignated (D).

Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(d)(1)(D), substituted “inadmissibility” for “exclusion”.

Subsec. (a)(5)(D). Pub. L. 104–208, § 343(1), redesignated subpar. (C) as (D).

Subsec. (a)(6)(A). Pub. L. 104–208, § 301(c)(1), amended heading and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Any alien who has been excluded from admission and deported and who again seeks admission within one year of the date of such deportation is excludable, unless prior to the alien’s reembarkation at a place outside the United States or attempt to be admitted from foreign contiguous territory the Attorney General has consented to the alien’s reapplying for admission.”

Subsec. (a)(6)(B). Pub. L. 104–208, § 301(c)(1), amended heading and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Any alien who—

“(i) has been arrested and deported,

“(ii) has fallen into distress and has been removed pursuant to this chapter or any prior Act,

“(iii) has been removed as an alien enemy, or

“(iv) has been removed at Government expense in lieu of deportation pursuant to section 1252(b) of this title,

and (a) who seeks admission within 5 years of the date of such deportation or removal, or (b) who seeks admission within 20 years in the case of an alien convicted of an aggravated felony, is excludable, unless before the date of the alien’s embarkation or reembarkation at a place outside the United States or attempt to be admitted from foreign contiguous territory the Attorney General has consented to the alien’s applying or reapplying for admission.”

Subsec. (a)(6)(C)(i). Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(f)(1)(D), substituted “admission” for “entry”.

Subsec. (a)(6)(C)(ii), (iii). Pub. L. 104–208, § 344(a), added cl. (ii) and redesignated former cl. (ii) as (iii).

Subsec. (a)(6)(F). Pub. L. 104–208, § 345(a)(1), amended heading and text of subpar. (F) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “An alien who is the subject of a final order for violation of section 1324c of this title is excludable.”

Subsec. (a)(6)(G). Pub. L. 104–208, § 346(a), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 104–208, § 301(b)(1), added par. (9). Former par. (9) redesignated (10).

Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 104–208, § 301(b)(1), redesignated par. (9) as (10).

Subsec. (a)(10)(B). Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(c)(2)(B), amended heading and text of subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Any alien accompanying another alien ordered to be excluded and deported and certified to be helpless from sickness or mental or physical disability or infancy pursuant to section 1227(e) of this title, whose protection or guardianship is required by the alien ordered excluded and deported, is excludable.”

Subsec. (a)(10)(D). Pub. L. 104–208, § 347(a), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (a)(10)(E). Pub. L. 104–208, § 352(a), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(d)(1)(F), which directed amendment of par. (2) by striking “or ineligible for entry”, was executed by striking the language in par. (1)(B) before “or adjustment”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the intervening redesignation of par. (2) as par. (1)(B) by Pub. L. 104–132, § 412(1). See below.

Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(d)(1)(E), substituted “inadmissible” for “excludable” wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 104–132, § 412, designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), if” for “If”, redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, realigned margins, and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–208, § 304(b), struck out subsec. (c) which read as follows: “Aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence who temporarily proceeded abroad voluntarily and not under an order of deportation, and who are returning to a lawful unrelinquished domicile of seven consecutive years, may be admitted in the discretion of the Attorney General without regard to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section (other than paragraphs (3) and (9)(C)). Nothing contained in this subsection shall limit the authority of the Attorney General to exercise the discretion vested in him under section 1181(b) of this title. This subsection shall not apply to an alien who is deportable by reason of having committed any criminal offense covered in section 1227(a)(2)(A)(iii), (B), (C), or (D) of this title, or any offense covered by section 1227(a)(2)(A)(ii) of this title for which both predicate offenses are, without regard to the date of their commission, otherwise covered by section 1227(a)(2)(A)(i) of this title.”

Pub. L. 104–132, § 440(d)(2), as amended by Pub. L. 104–208, §§ 306(d), 308(g)(1), (10)(H), substituted “is deportable by reason of having committed any criminal offense covered in section 1227(a)(2)(A)(iii), (B), (C), or (D) of this title, or any offense covered by section 1227(a)(2)(A)(ii) of this title for which both predicate offenses are, without regard to the date of their commission, otherwise covered by section 1227(a)(2)(A)(i) of this title.” for “has been convicted of one or more aggravated felonies and has served for such felony or felonies a term of imprisonment of at least 5 years.”

Pub. L. 104–132, § 440(d)(1), substituted “This” for “The first sentence of this” in third sentence.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(e)(1)(B), substituted “removal” for “deportation”.

Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(d)(1)(D), substituted “inadmissibility” for “exclusion”.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(d)(1)(E), substituted “inadmissible aliens” for “excludable aliens”.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(g)(1), substituted “section 1223(c)” for “section 1228(c)”.

Subsec. (d)(5)(A). Pub. L. 104–208, § 602(a), substituted “only on a case-by-case basis for urgent humanitarian reasons or significant public benefit” for “for emergent reasons or for reasons deemed strictly in the public interest”.

Subsec. (d)(7). Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(g)(4)(B), substituted “section 1231(c)” for “section 1227(a)”.

Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(e)(2)(A), substituted “removed” for “deported”.

Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(d)(1)(G), substituted “denied admission” for “excluded from admission”.

Subsec. (d)(11). Pub. L. 104–208, § 671(e)(3), inserted comma after “(4) thereof)”.

Pub. L. 104–208, § 351(a), inserted “an individual who at the time of such action was” after “aided only”.

Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(e)(1)(C), substituted “removal” for “deportation”.

Subsec. (d)(12). Pub. L. 104–208, § 345(a)(2), added par. (12).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–208, § 622(b), inserted “, or in the case of a waiver requested by an interested United States Government agency on behalf of an alien described in clause (iii),” before “the waiver shall be subject to”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–208, § 124(b)(1), inserted at end “Whenever the Attorney General finds that a commercial airline has failed to comply with regulations of the Attorney General relating to requirements of airlines for the detection of fraudulent documents used by passengers traveling to the United States (including the training of personnel in such detection), the Attorney General may suspend the entry of some or all aliens transported to the United States by such airline.”

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–208, § 341(b), substituted a semicolon for “, or” at end of par. (1)(B), inserted “in accordance with such terms, conditions, and controls, if any, including the giving of bond, as the Attorney General, in the discretion of the Attorney General after consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, may by regulation prescribe;” as par. (1) concluding provisions, and substituted pars. (2) and (3) for former par. (2) and concluding provisions which read as follows:

“(2) subsection (a)(1)(A)(ii) of this section in the case of any alien,

in accordance with such terms, conditions, and controls, if any, including the giving of bond, as the Attorney General, in his discretion after consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, may by regulation prescribe.”

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 104–208, § 348(a), inserted at end of concluding provisions “No waiver shall be granted under this subsection in the case of an alien who has previously been admitted to the United States as an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence if either since the date of such admission the alien has been convicted of an aggravated felony or the alien has not lawfully resided continuously in the United States for a period of not less than 7 years immediately preceding the date of initiation of proceedings to remove the alien from the United States. No court shall have jurisdiction to review a decision of the Attorney General to grant or deny a waiver under this subsection.”

Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(g)(10)(A), which directed substitution of “paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 1229b(a) of this title” for “subsection (c) of this section”, could not be executed because the language “subsection (c) of this section” did not appear.

Subsec. (h)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(f)(1)(E), substituted “admission” for “entry”.

Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(d)(1)(E), substituted “inadmissible” for “excludable” in two places.

Subsec. (h)(1)(B). Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(d)(1)(H), substituted “denial of admission” for “exclusion”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 104–208, § 349, amended subsec. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (i) read as follows: “The Attorney General may, in his discretion, waive application of clause (i) of subsection (a)(6)(C) of this section—

“(1) in the case of an immigrant who is the spouse, parent, or son or daughter of a United States citizen or of an immigrant lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or

“(2) if the fraud or misrepresentation occurred at least 10 years before the date of the immigrant’s application for a visa, entry, or adjustment of status and it is established to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that the admission to the United States of such immigrant would not be contrary to the national welfare, safety, or security of the United States.”

Subsec. (j)(1)(D). Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(f)(1)(F), substituted “admission” for “entry” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (j)(1)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(f)(3)(A), substituted “is admitted to” for “enters”.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(d)(1)(E), substituted “inadmissible” for “excludable”.

Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(d)(1)(D), substituted “inadmissibility” for “exclusion”.

Subsec. (l)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–208, § 308(e)(6), substituted “removal of” for “deportation against”.

1994—Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(i)(I). Pub. L. 103–416, § 203(a)(1), inserted “or an attempt or conspiracy to commit such a crime” after “offense)”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(i)(II). Pub. L. 103–416, § 203(a)(2), inserted “or attempt” after “conspiracy”.

Subsec. (a)(5)(C). Pub. L. 103–416, § 219(z)(5), amended directory language of Pub. L. 102–232, § 307(a)(6). See 1991 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 103–322 added par. (1).

Subsec. (d)(11). Pub. L. 103–416, § 219(e), substituted “voluntarily” for “voluntary”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–416, § 220(a), in first proviso, inserted “(or, in the case of an alien described in clause (iii), pursuant to the request of a State Department of Public Health, or its equivalent)” after “interested United States Government agency” and “except that in the case of a waiver requested by a State Department of Public Health, or its equivalent the waiver shall be subject to the requirements of section 1184(k) of this title” after “public interest”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103–416, § 203(a)(3), inserted before period at end “, or an attempt or conspiracy to commit murder or a criminal act involving torture”.

Subsec. (n)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 103–416, § 219(z)(1), made technical correction to Pub. L. 102–232, § 303(a)(7)(B)(i). See 1991 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 103–317, § 506(a), (c), temporarily added subsec. (o) which read as follows: “An alien who has been physically present in the United States shall not be eligible to receive an immigrant visa within ninety days following departure therefrom unless—

“(1) the alien was maintaining a lawful nonimmigrant status at the time of such departure, or

“(2) the alien is the spouse or unmarried child of an individual who obtained temporary or permanent resident status under section 1160 or 1255a of this title or section 202 of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 at any date, who—

“(A) as of May 5, 1988, was the unmarried child or spouse of the individual who obtained temporary or permanent resident status under section 1160 or 1255a of this title or section 202 of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986;

“(B) entered the United States before May 5, 1988, resided in the United States on May 5, 1988, and is not a lawful permanent resident; and

“(C) applied for benefits under section 301(a) of the Immigration Act of 1990.”

See Effective and Termination Dates of 1994 Amendment note below.

1993—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 103–43 inserted at end “which shall include infection with the etiologic agent for acquired immune deficiency syndrome,”.

1991—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 102–232, § 307(a)(1), inserted “or” at end.

Subsec. (a)(3)(A)(i). Pub. L. 102–232, § 307(a)(2), inserted “(I)” after “any activity” and “(II)” after “sabotage or”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(iii)(III). Pub. L. 102–232, § 307(a)(3), substituted “a terrorist activity” for “an act of terrorist activity”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(C)(iv). Pub. L. 102–232, § 307(a)(5), substituted “identity” for “identities”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(D)(iv). Pub. L. 102–232, § 307(a)(4), substituted “if the immigrant” for “if the alien”.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 102–232, § 302(e)(6), repealed Pub. L. 101–649, § 162(e)(1). See 1990 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a)(5)(C). Pub. L. 102–232, § 307(a)(6), as amended by Pub. L. 103–416, § 219(z)(5), substituted “immigrants seeking admission or adjustment of status under paragraph (2) or (3) of section 1153(b) of this title” for “preference immigrant aliens described in paragraph (3) or (6) of section 1153(a) of this title and to nonpreference immigrant aliens described in section 1153(a)(7) of this title”.

Subsec. (a)(6)(B). Pub. L. 102–232, § 307(a)(7), in closing provisions, substituted “(a) who seeks” for “who seeks”, “, or (b) who seeks admission” for “(or”, and “felony,” for “felony)”.

Subsec. (a)(6)(E)(ii), (iii). Pub. L. 102–232, § 307(a)(8), added cl. (ii) and redesignated former cl. (ii) as (iii).

Subsec. (a)(8)(B). Pub. L. 102–232, § 307(a)(9), substituted “person” for “alien” after “Any”.

Subsec. (a)(9)(C)(i). Pub. L. 102–232, § 307(a)(10)(A), substituted “an order by a court in the United States granting custody to a person of a United States citizen child who detains or retains the child, or withholds custody of the child, outside the United States from the person granted custody by that order, is excludable until the child is surrendered to the person granted custody by that order” for “a court order granting custody to a citizen of the United States of a child having a lawful claim to United States citizenship, detains, retains, or withholds custody of the child outside the United States from the United States citizen granted custody, is excludable until the child is surrendered to such United States citizen”.

Subsec. (a)(9)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 102–232, § 307(a)(10)(B), substituted “so long as the child is located in a foreign state that is a party” for “to an alien who is a national of a foreign state that is a signatory”.

Subsec. (a)(17). Pub. L. 102–232, § 306(a)(12), amended Pub. L. 101–649, § 514(a). See 1990 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–232, § 307(b), substituted “paragraphs (3) and (9)(C)” for “subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), or (E) of paragraph (3)”.

Pub. L. 102–232, § 306(a)(10), substituted “one or more aggravated felonies and has served for such felony or felonies” for “an aggravated felony and has served”.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 102–232, § 307(c), substituted “(3)(A)(i)(I), (3)(A)(ii), (3)(A)(iii),” for “(3)(A),” in two places and “(3)(E)” for “(3)(D)” in two places.

Subsec. (d)(11). Pub. L. 102–232, § 307(d), inserted “and in the case of an alien seeking admission or adjustment of status as an immediate relative or immigrant under section 1153(a) of this title (other than paragraph (4) thereof)” after “section 1181(b) of this title”.

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 102–232, § 307(e), substituted “subsection (a)(1)(A)(i)” for “section (a)(1)(A)(i)”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 102–232, § 307(f)(1), struck out “in the case of an immigrant who is the spouse, parent, son, or daughter of a citizen of the United States or alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence” after “marijuana” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 102–232, § 307(f)(2), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and inserted “in the case of any immigrant” in introductory provisions, redesignated former subpars. (A) to (C) as cls. (i) to (iii), respectively, struck out “and” at end of cl. (i), substituted “or” for “and” at end of cl. (iii), and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 102–232, § 307(g), substituted “immigrant” and “immigrant’s” for “alien” and “alien’s”, respectively, wherever appearing.

Subsec. (j)(1)(D). Pub. L. 102–232, § 309(b)(7), substituted “United States Information Agency” for “International Communication Agency”.

Subsec. (j)(2). Pub. L. 102–232, § 303(a)(5)(B), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which related to inapplicability of par. (1)(A) and (B)(ii)(I) requirements between effective date of subsec. and Dec. 31, 1983.

Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 102–232, § 309(b)(7), substituted “United States Information Agency” for “International Communication Agency”.

Subsec. (m)(2)(A). Pub. L. 102–232, § 302(e)(9), inserted, after first sentence of closing provisions, sentence relating to attestation that facility will not replace nurse with nonimmigrant for period of one year after layoff.

Subsec. (n)(1). Pub. L. 102–232, § 303(a)(7)(B)(ii), (iii), redesignated matter after first sentence of subpar. (D) as closing provisions of par. (1), substituted “(and such accompanying documents as are necessary)” for “(and accompanying documentation)”, and inserted last two sentences providing for review and certification by Secretary of Labor.

Subsec. (n)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 102–232, § 303(a)(7)(B)(i), as amended by Pub. L. 103–416, § 219(z)(1), in introductory provisions substituted “admitted or provided status as a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b) of this title” for “and to other individuals employed in the occupational classification and in the area of employment”, in closing provisions substituted “based on the best information available” for “determined”, and amended subcl. (I) generally. Prior to amendment, subcl. (I) read as follows: “the actual wage level for the occupational classification at the place of employment, or”.

Subsec. (n)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 102–232, § 303(a)(6), substituted “for such a nonimmigrant” for “for such aliens”.

Subsec. (n)(1)(D). Pub. L. 102–232, § 303(a)(7)(B)(iii), redesignated matter after first sentence as closing provisions of par. (1).

Subsec. (n)(2)(C). Pub. L. 102–232, § 303(a)(7)(B)(iv), substituted “of paragraph (1)(B), a substantial failure to meet a condition of paragraphs (1)(C) or (1)(D), a willful failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1)(A), or a misrepresentation” for “(or a substantial failure in the case of a condition described in subparagraph (C) or (D) of paragraph (1)) or misrepresentation”.

Subsec. (n)(2)(D). Pub. L. 102–232, § 303(a)(7)(B)(v), (vi), substituted “If” for “In addition to the sanctions provided under subparagraph (C), if” and inserted before period at end “, whether or not a penalty under subparagraph (C) has been imposed”.

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–649, § 601(a), amended subsec. (a) generally, decreasing number of classes of excludable aliens from 34 to 9 by broadening descriptions of such classes.

Pub. L. 101–649, § 514(a), as amended by Pub. L. 102–232, § 306(a)(12), substituted “20 years” for “ten years” in par. (17).

Pub. L. 101–649, § 162(e)(1), which provided that par. (5) is amended in subpar. (A), by striking “Any alien who seeks to enter the United States for the purpose of performing skilled or unskilled labor” and inserting “Any alien who seeks admission or status as an immigrant under paragraph (2) or (3) of section 1153(b) of this title, in subpar. (B), by inserting “who seeks admission or status as an immigrant under paragraph (2) or (3) of section 1153(b) of this title” after “An alien” the first place it appears, and by striking subpar. (C), was repealed by Pub. L. 102–232, § 302(e)(6). See Construction of 1990 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 101–246, § 131(a), added par. (34) which read as follows: “Any alien who has committed in the United States any serious criminal offense, as defined in section 1101(h) of this title, for whom immunity from criminal jurisdiction was exercised with respect to that offense, who as a consequence of the offense and the exercise of immunity has departed the United States, and who has not subsequently submitted fully to the jurisdiction of the court in the United States with jurisdiction over the offense.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–649, § 601(b), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which related to nonapplicability of subsec. (a)(25).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–649, § 601(d)(1), substituted “subsection (a) of this section (other than subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), or (E) of paragraph (3))” for “paragraph (1) through (25) and paragraphs (30) and (31) of subsection (a) of this section”.

Pub. L. 101–649, § 511(a), inserted at end “The first sentence of this subsection shall not apply to an alien who has been convicted of an aggravated felony and has served a term of imprisonment of at least 5 years.”

Subsec. (d)(1), (2). Pub. L. 101–649, § 601(d)(2)(A), struck out pars. (1) and (2) which related to applicability of subsec. (a)(11), (25), and (28).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 101–649, § 601(d)(2)(B), substituted “under subsection (a) (other than paragraphs (3)(A), (3)(C), and (3)(D) of such subsection)” for “under one or more of the paragraphs enumerated in subsection (a) (other than paragraphs (27), (29), and (33))” wherever appearing, and inserted at end “The Attorney General shall prescribe conditions, including exaction of such bonds as may be necessary, to control and regulate the admission and return of excludable aliens applying for temporary admission under this paragraph.”

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 101–649, § 601(d)(2)(C), substituted “(7)(B)(i)” for “(26)”.

Subsec. (d)(5)(A). Pub. L. 101–649, § 202(b), inserted “or in section 1184(f) of this title” after “except as provided in subparagraph (B)”.

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 101–649, § 601(d)(2)(A), struck out par. (6) which directed that Attorney General prescribe conditions to control excludable aliens applying for temporary admission.

Subsec. (d)(7). Pub. L. 101–649, § 601(d)(2)(D), substituted “(other than paragraph (7))” for “of this section, except paragraphs (20), (21), and (26),”.

Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 101–649, § 601(d)(2)(E), substituted “(3)(A), (3)(B), (3)(C), and (7)(B)” for “(26), (27), and (29)”.

Subsec. (d)(9), (10). Pub. L. 101–649, § 601(d)(2)(A), struck out pars. (9) and (10) which related to applicability of pars. (7) and (15), respectively, of subsec. (a).

Subsec. (d)(11). Pub. L. 101–649, § 601(d)(2)(F), added par. (11).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–649, § 601(d)(3), amended subsec. (g) generally, substituting provisions relating to waiver of application for provisions relating to admission of mentally retarded, tubercular, and mentally ill aliens.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–649, § 601(d)(4), amended subsec. (h) generally, substituting provisions relating to waiver of certain subsec. (a)(2) provisions for provisions relating to nonapplicability of subsec. (a)(9), (10), (12), (23), and (34).

Pub. L. 101–246, § 131(c), substituted “(12), or (34)” for “or (12)”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 101–649, § 601(d)(5), amended subsec. (i) generally, substituting provisions relating to waiver of subsec. (a)(6)(C)(i) of this section for provisions relating to admission of alien spouse, parent or child excludable for fraud.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 101–649, § 601(d)(6), substituted “paragraph (5)(A) or (7)(A)(i)” for “paragraph (14), (20), or (21)”.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 101–649, § 601(d)(7), substituted “paragraph (7)(B)(i)” for “paragraph (26)(B)”.

Subsec. (m)(2)(A). Pub. L. 101–649, § 162(f)(2)(B), in opening provision, struck out “, with respect to a facility for which an alien will perform services,” before “is an attestation”, in cl. (iii) inserted “employed by the facility” after “The alien”, and inserted at end “In the case of an alien for whom an employer has filed an attestation under this subparagraph and who is performing services at a worksite other than the employer’s or other than a worksite controlled by the employer, the Secretary may waive such requirements for the attestation for the worksite as may be appropriate in order to avoid duplicative attestations, in cases of temporary, emergency circumstances, with respect to information not within the knowledge of the attestor, or for other good cause.”

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 101–649, § 205(c)(3), added subsec. (n).

1989—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 101–238 added subsec. (m).

1988—Subsec. (a)(17). Pub. L. 100–690 inserted “(or within ten years in the case of an alien convicted of an aggravated felony)” after “within five years”.

Subsec. (a)(19). Pub. L. 100–525, § 7(c)(1), made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 99–639, § 6(a). See 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a)(32). Pub. L. 100–525, § 9(i)(1), substituted “Secretary of Education” for “Commissioner of Education” and “Secretary of Health and Human Services” for “Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare”.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 100–525, § 8(f), added Pub. L. 99–653, § 7(d)(2). See 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–525, § 9(i)(2), substituted “Director of the United States Information Agency” for “Secretary of State” the first place appearing, and “Director” for “Secretary of State” each subsequent place appearing.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 100–525, § 9(i)(3), substituted “Secretary of Health and Human Services” for “Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 100–525, § 9(i)(4), substituted “paragraph (9)” for “paragraphs (9)”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 100–525, § 7(c)(3), added Pub. L. 99–639, § 6(b). See 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 100–525, § 3(1)(A), made technical correction to Pub. L. 99–396, § 14(a). See 1986 Amendment note below.

1987—Subsec. (a)(23). Pub. L. 100–204 amended par. (23) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (23) read as follows: “Any alien who has been convicted of a violation of, or a conspiracy to violate, any law or regulation of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to a controlled substance (as defined in section 802 of title 21); or any alien who the consular officer or immigration officer know or have reason to believe is or has been an illicit trafficker in any such controlled substance;”.

1986—Subsec. (a)(19). Pub. L. 99–639, § 6(a), as amended by Pub. L. 100–525, § 7(c)(1), amended par. (19) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (19) read as follows: “Any alien who seeks to procure, or has sought to procure, or has procured a visa or other documentation, or seeks to enter the United States, by fraud, or by willfully misrepresenting a material fact;”.

Subsec. (a)(23). Pub. L. 99–570 substituted “any law or regulation of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to a controlled substance (as defined in section 802 of title 21)” for “any law or regulation relating to the illicit possession of or traffic in narcotic drugs or marihuana, or who has been convicted of a violation of, or a conspiracy to violate, any law or regulation governing or controlling the taxing, manufacture, production, compounding, transportation, sale, exchange, dispensing, giving away, importation, exportation, or the possession for the purpose of the manufacture, production, compounding, transportation, sale, exchange, dispensing, giving away, importation, or exportation of opium, coca leaves, heroin, marihuana, or any salt derivative, or preparation of opium or coca leaves, or isonipecaine or any addiction-forming or addiction-sustaining opiate” and “any such controlled substance” for “any of the aforementioned drugs”.

Subsec. (a)(24). Pub. L. 99–653 struck out par. (24) which related to aliens seeking admission from foreign contiguous territory or adjacent islands who arrived there on vessel or aircraft of nonsignatory line or noncomplying transportation line and have not resided there at least two years subsequent to such arrival, except for aliens described in section 1101(a)(27)(A) of this title and aliens born in Western Hemisphere, and further provided that no paragraph following par. (24) shall be redesignated as result of this amendment.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 99–653, § 7(d)(2), as added by Pub. L. 100–525, § 8(f), substituted “section 1228(c) of this title” for “section 1228(d) of this title”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–639, § 6(b), as added by Pub. L. 100–525, § 7(c)(3), inserted “or other benefit under this chapter” after “United States,”.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 99–396, § 14(a), as amended by Pub. L. 100–525, § 3(1)(A), amended subsec. (l) generally, designating existing provisions as par. (1) and redesignating former pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, inserting in par. (1) as so designated reference to consultation with the Governor of Guam, inserting in subpar. (B) as so redesignated reference to the welfare, safety, and security of the territories and commonwealths of the United States, and adding pars. (2) and (3).

1984—Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 98–473 amended last sentence generally. Prior to amendment, last sentence read as follows: “Any alien who would be excludable because of a conviction of a misdemeanor classifiable as a petty offense under the provisions of section 1(3) of title 18, by reason of the punishment actually imposed, or who would be excludable as one who admits the commission of an offense that is classifiable as a misdemeanor under the provisions of section 1(2) of title 18, by reason of the punishment which might have been imposed upon him, may be granted a visa and admitted to the United States if otherwise admissible: Provided, That the alien has committed only one such offense, or admits the commission of acts which constitute the essential elements of only one such offense;”.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 98–454 added subsec. (l).

1981—Subsec. (a)(17). Pub. L. 97–116, § 4(1), inserted “and who seek admission within five years of the date of such deportation or removal,” after “section 1252(b) of this title,”.

Subsec. (a)(32). Pub. L. 97–116, §§ 5(a)(1), 18(e)(1), substituted “in the United States)” for “in the United States” and inserted provision that for purposes of this paragraph an alien who is a graduate of a medical school be considered to have passed parts I and II of the National Board of Medical Examiners examination if the alien was fully and permanently licensed to practice medicine in a State on Jan. 9, 1978, and was practicing medicine in a State on that date.

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 97–116, § 4(2), struck out provision that the Attorney General make a detailed report to Congress in any case in which he exercises his authority under par. (3) of this subsection on behalf of any alien excludable under subsec. (a)(9), (10), and (28) of this section.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 97–116, § 4(3), substituted “paragraphs (9), (10), or (12) of subsection (a) of this section or paragraph (23) of such subsection as such paragraph relates to a single offense of simple possession of 30 grams or less of marihuana” for “paragraphs (9), (10), or (12) of subsection (a) of this section”.

Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 97–116, § 5(b)(1), inserted “as follows” after “training are”.

Subsec. (j)(1)(A). Pub. L. 97–116, § 5(b)(3), (4), substituted “Secretary of Education” for “Commissioner of Education” and a period for the semicolon at the end.

Subsec. (j)(1)(B). Pub. L. 97–116, § 5(a)(2), (b)(3), (7)(A), (B), substituted “Secretary of Education” for “Commissioner of Education”, “(ii)(I)” for “(ii)”, and “Secretary of Health and Human Services” for “Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare”; inserted “(II)” before “has competency”, “(III)” before “will be able to adapt”, and “(IV)” before “has adequate prior education”; and inserted provision that for purposes of this subparagraph an alien who is a graduate of a medical school be considered to have passed parts I and II of the National Board of Medical Examiners examination if the alien was fully and permanently licensed to practice medicine in a State on Jan. 9, 1978, and was practicing medicine in a State on that date.

Subsec. (j)(1)(C). Pub. L. 97–116, § 5(b)(2)–(4), struck out “(including any extension of the duration thereof under subparagraph (D))” after “to the United States” and substituted “Secretary of Health and Human Services” for “Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare” and a period for “; and” at end.

Subsec. (j)(1)(D). Pub. L. 97–116, § 5(b)(5), substituted provision permitting aliens coming to the United States to study in medical residency training programs to remain until the typical completion date of the program, as determined by the Director of the International Communication Agency at the time of the alien’s entry, based on criteria established in coordination with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, except that such duration be limited to seven years unless the alien demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Director that the country to which the alien will return after such specialty education has exceptional need for an individual trained in such specialty, and that the alien may change enrollment in programs once within two years after coming to the United States if approval of the Director is obtained and further commitments are obtained from the alien to assure that, upon completion of the program, the alien would return to his country for provision limiting the duration of the alien’s participation in the program for which he is coming to the United States to not more than 2 years, with a possible one year extension.

Subsec. (j)(1)(E). Pub. L. 97–116, § 5(b)(6), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (j)(2)(A). Pub. L. 97–116, § 5(b)(7)(C)–(F), substituted “and (B)(ii)(I)” for “and (B)” and “1983” for “1981”; inserted “(i) the Secretary of Health and Human Services determines, on a case-by-case basis, that” after “if”; and added cl. (ii).

Subsec. (j)(2)(B). Pub. L. 97–116, § 5(b)(7)(G), inserted provision directing Secretary of Health and Human Services, in coordination with Attorney General and Director of the International Communication Agency, to monitor the issuance of waivers under subpar. (A) and the needs of the communities, with respect to which such waivers are issued, to assure that quality medical care is provided and to review each program with such a waiver to assure that the plan described in subpar. (A)(ii) is being carried out and that the participants in such program are being provided appropriate supervision in their medical education and training.

Subsec. (j)(2)(C). Pub. L. 97–116, § 5(b)(7)(G), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 97–116, § 5(b)(8), added par. (3).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 97–116, § 18(e)(2), added subsec. (k).

1980—Subsec. (a)(14), (32). Pub. L. 96–212, § 203(d), substituted “1153(a)(7)” for “1153(a)(8)”.

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 96–212, § 203(f), redesignated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted provision excepting subpar. (B), and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (j)(2)(A). Pub. L. 96–538 substituted “December 30, 1981” for “December 30, 1980”.

1979—Subsec. (d)(9), (10). Pub. L. 96–70 added pars. (9) and (10).

1978—Subsec. (a)(33). Pub. L. 95–549, § 101, added par. (33).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 95–549, § 102, inserted reference to par. (33) in parenthetical text.

1977—Subsec. (a)(32). Pub. L. 95–83, § 307(q)(1), inserted “not accredited by a body or bodies approved for the purpose by the Commissioner of Education (regardless of whether such school of medicine is in the United States” after “graduates of a medical school” in first sentence and struck out second sentence exclusion of aliens provision with respect to application to special immigrants defined in section 1101(a)(27)(A) of this title (other than the parents, spouses, or children of the United States citizens or of aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence).

Subsec. (j)(1)(B). Pub. L. 95–83, § 307(q)(2)(A), inserted cl. (i) and designated existing provisions as cl. (ii).

Subsec. (j)(1)(C). Pub. L. 95–83, § 307(q)(2)(B), substituted “that there is a need in that country for persons with the skills the alien will acquire in such education or training” for “that upon such completion and return, he will be appointed to a position in which he will fully utilize the skills acquired in such education or training in the government of that country or in an educational or other appropriate institution or agency in that country”.

Subsec. (j)(1)(D). Pub. L. 95–83, § 307(q)(2)(C), substituted “at the written request” for “at the request”, struck out cl. “(i) such government provides a written assurance, satisfactory to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, that the alien will, at the end of such extension, be appointed to a position in which he will fully utilize the skills acquired in such education or training in the government of that country or in an educational or other appropriate institution or agency in that country,”, and redesignated as cls. (i) and (ii) former cls. (ii) and (iii).

Subsec. (j)(2)(A). Pub. L. 95–83, § 307(q)(2)(D), substituted “(A) and (B)” for “(A) through (D)”.

1976—Subsec. (a)(14). Pub. L. 94–571, § 5, in revising par. (14), inserted in cl. (A) “(or equally qualified in the case of aliens who are members of the teaching profession or who have exceptional ability in the sciences or the arts)” and struck out “in the United States” after “sufficient workers” and “destined” before “to perform” and introductory provision of last sentence making exclusion of aliens under par. (14) applicable to special immigrants defined in former provision of section 1101(a)(27)(A) of this title (other than the parents, spouses, or children of United States citizens or of aliens lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence).

Subsec. (a)(24). Pub. L. 94–571, § 7(d), substituted in parenthetical text “section 1101(a)(27)(A) of this title and aliens born in the Western Hemisphere” for “section 1101(a)(27)(A) and (B) of this title”.

Subsec. (a)(32). Pub. L. 94–484, § 601(a), added par. (32).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–484, § 601(c), substituted “(i) whose” for “whose (i)”, and “residence, (ii)” for “residence, or (ii)”, inserted “or (iii) who came to the United States or acquired such status in order to receive graduate medical education or training,” before “shall be eligible”, and inserted “, except in the case of an alien described in clause (iii),” in second proviso.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 94–484, § 601(d), added subsec. (j).

1970—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 91–225 inserted cls. (i) and (ii) and reference to eligibility for nonimmigrant visa under section 1101(a)(15)(L) of this title, provided for waiver of requirement of two-year foreign residence abroad where alien cannot return to the country of his nationality or last residence because he would be subject to persecution on account of race, religion, or political opinion or where the foreign country of alien’s nationality or last residence has furnished a written statement that it has no objection to such waiver for such alien, and struck out alternative provision for residence and physical presence in another foreign country and former first and final provisos which read as follows: “Provided, That such residence in another foreign country shall be considered to have satisfied the requirements of this subsection if the Secretary of State determines that it has served the purpose and the intent of the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961” and “And provided further, That the provisions of this subchapter shall apply also to those persons who acquired exchange visitor status under the United States Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948, as amended.”

1965—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 89–236, § 15(a), substituted “mentally retarded” for “feebleminded”.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 89–236, § 15(b), substituted “or sexual deviation” for “epilepsy”.

Subsec. (a)(14). Pub. L. 89–236, § 10(a), inserted requirement that Secretary of Labor make an affirmative finding that any alien seeking to enter the United States as a worker, skilled or otherwise, will not replace a worker in the United States nor will the employment of the alien adversely affect the wages and working conditions of individuals in the United States similarly employed, and made the requirement applicable to special immigrants (other than the parents, spouses, and minor children of U.S. citizens or permanent resident aliens), preference immigrants described in sections 1153(a)(3) and 1153(a)(6) of this title, and nonpreference immigrants.

Subsec. (a)(20). Pub. L. 89–236, § 10(b), substituted “1181(a)” for “1181(e)”.

Subsec. (a)(21). Pub. L. 89–236, § 10(c), struck out “quota” before “immigrant”.

Subsec. (a)(24). Pub. L. 89–236, § 10(d), substituted “other than aliens described in section 1101(a)(27)(A) and (B)” for “other than those aliens who are nativeborn citizens of countries enumerated in section 1101(a)(27) of this title and aliens described in section 1101(a)(27)(B) of this title”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 89–236, § 15(c), redesignated subsec. (f) of sec. 212 of the Immigration and Nationality Act as subsec. (g) thereof, which for purposes of codification had already been designated as subsec. (g) of this section and granted the Attorney General authority to admit any alien who is the spouse, unmarried son or daughter, minor adopted child, or parent of a citizen or lawful permanent resident and who is mentally retarded or has a past history of mental illness under the same conditions as authorized in the case of such close relatives afflicted with tuberculosis.

Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 89–236, § 15(c), redesignated subsecs. (g) and (h) of sec. 212 of the Immigration and Nationality Act as subsecs. (h) and (i) respectively thereof, which for purposes of codification had already been designated as subsecs. (h) and (i) of this section.

1961—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 87–301, § 11, struck out references to tuberculosis and leprosy.

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 87–301, § 13, authorized admission of aliens who would be excluded because of conviction of a violation classifiable as an offense under section 1(3) of title 18, by reason of punishment actually imposed, or who admit commission of an offense classifiable as a misdemeanor under section 1(2) of title 18, by reason of punishment which might have been imposed, if otherwise admissible and provided the alien has committed, or admits to commission of, only one such offense.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 87–256 added subsec. (e) and redesignated former subsec. (e) as (f).

Subsecs. (g) to (i). Pub. L. 87–301, §§ 12, 14, 15, added subsecs. (f) to (h), which for purposes of codification have been designated as subsecs. (g) to (i).

1960—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 86–648 inserted “or marihuana” after “narcotic drugs” in cl. (23).

1959—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 86–3 struck out provisions from cl. (7) which related to aliens who left Hawaii and to persons who were admitted to Hawaii under section 8(a)(1) of the act of March 24, 1934, or as nationals of the United States.

1958—Subsec. (d)(7). Pub. L. 85–508 struck out provisions which related to aliens who left Alaska.

1956—Subsec. (a)(23). Act July 18, 1956, included conspiracy to violate a narcotic law, and the illicit possession of narcotics, as additional grounds for exclusion.

Change of Name

Committee on International Relations of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–122, § 3(c), Dec. 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 3481, provided that:

“The amendments made by subsections (b), (c), and (d) of the Child Soldiers Accountability Act of 2008 (Public Law 110–340) [probably means subsecs. (b) to (d) of section 2 of Public Law 110–340, amending this section and section 1227 of this title] shall apply to offenses committed before, on, or after the date of the enactment of the Child Soldiers Accountability Act of 2008 [Oct. 3, 2008].”

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–229 effective on the transition program effective date described in section 1806 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions, see section 705(b) of Pub. L. 110–229, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1806 of Title 48.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–161, div. J, title VI, § 691(f), Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2366, provided that:

“The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this section [Dec. 26, 2007], and these amendments and sections 212(a)(3)(B) and 212(d)(3)(B) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(B) and 1182(d)(3)(B)), as amended by these sections, shall apply to—
“(1) removal proceedings instituted before, on, or after the date of enactment of this section; and
“(2) acts and conditions constituting a ground for inadmissibility, excludability, deportation, or removal occurring or existing before, on, or after such date.”

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–13, div. B, title I, § 103(d), May 11, 2005, 119 Stat. 308, provided that:

“The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this division [May 11, 2005], and these amendments, and section 212(a)(3)(B) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(B)), as amended by this section, shall apply to—
“(1) removal proceedings instituted before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this division; and
“(2) acts and conditions constituting a ground for inadmissibility, excludability, deportation, or removal occurring or existing before, on, or after such date.”

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–458, title V, § 5501(c), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3740, provided that:

“The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1227 of this title] shall apply to offenses committed before, on, or after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004].”

Pub. L. 108–447, div. J, title IV, § 424(a)(2), Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3355, provided that:

“The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect as if enacted on October 1, 2003.”

Pub. L. 108–447, div. J, title IV, § 430, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3361, provided that:

“(a)
In General.—
Except as provided in subsection (b), this subtitle [subtitle B (§§ 421–430) of title IV of div. J of Pub. L. 108–447, enacting section 1381 of this title, amending this section, sections 1184, and 1356 of this title, section 2916a of Title 29, Labor, and section 1869c of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 1101 and 1184 of this title] and the amendments made by this subtitle shall take effect 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 8, 2004].
“(b)
Exceptions.—
The amendments made by sections 422(b), 426(a), and 427 [amending sections 1184 and 1356 of this title] shall take effect upon the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 8, 2004].”

Effective and Termination Dates of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–77 effective on the date the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement enters into force (Jan. 1, 2004), and ceases to be effective on the date the Agreement ceases to be in force, see section 107 of Pub. L. 108–77, set out in a note under section 3805 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title I, § 11018(d), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1825, provided that:

“The amendments made by this section [amending this section, section 1184 of this title, and provisions set out as a note under this section] shall take effect as if this Act [see Tables for classification] were enacted on May 31, 2002.”

Pub. L. 107–150, § 2(b), Mar. 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 75, provided that:

“The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and section 1183a of this title] shall apply with respect to deaths occurring before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 13, 2002], except that, in the case of a death occurring before such date, such amendments shall apply only if—
“(1)
the sponsored alien—
“(A) requests the Attorney General to reinstate the classification petition that was filed with respect to the alien by the deceased and approved under section 204 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1154) before such death; and
“(B) demonstrates that he or she is able to satisfy the requirement of section 212(a)(4)(C)(ii) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(4)(C)(ii)) by reason of such amendments; and
“(2) the Attorney General reinstates such petition after making the determination described in section 213A(f)(5)(B)(ii) of such Act [8 U.S.C. 1183a(f)(5)(B)(ii)] (as amended by subsection (a)(1) of this Act).”

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–56, title IV, § 411(c), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 348, provided that:

“(1)
In general.—
Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1158, 1189, and 1227 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 26, 2001] and shall apply to—
“(A) actions taken by an alien before, on, or after such date; and
“(B)
all aliens, without regard to the date of entry or attempted entry into the United States—
“(i) in removal proceedings on or after such date (except for proceedings in which there has been a final administrative decision before such date); or
“(ii) seeking admission to the United States on or after such date.
“(2)
Special rule for aliens in exclusion or deportation proceedings.—
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, sections 212(a)(3)(B) and 237(a)(4)(B) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended by this Act [8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(B), 1227(a)(4)(B)], shall apply to all aliens in exclusion or deportation proceedings on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 26, 2001] (except for proceedings in which there has been a final administrative decision before such date) as if such proceedings were removal proceedings.
“(3)
Special rule for section 219 organizations and organizations designated under section 212(a)(3)(B)(vi)(II).—
“(A)
In general.—
Notwithstanding paragraphs (1) and (2), no alien shall be considered inadmissible under section 212(a)(3) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)), or deportable under section 237(a)(4)(B) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1227(a)(4)(B)), by reason of the amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section], on the ground that the alien engaged in a terrorist activity described in subclause (IV)(bb), (V)(bb), or (VI)(cc) of section 212(a)(3)(B)(iv) of such Act (as so amended) with respect to a group at any time when the group was not a terrorist organization designated by the Secretary of State under section 219 of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1189) or otherwise designated under section 212(a)(3)(B)(vi)(II) of such Act (as so amended).
“(B)
Statutory construction.—
Subparagraph (A) shall not be construed to prevent an alien from being considered inadmissible or deportable for having engaged in a terrorist activity—
“(i) described in subclause (IV)(bb), (V)(bb), or (VI)(cc) of section 212(a)(3)(B)(iv) of such Act (as so amended) with respect to a terrorist organization at any time when such organization was designated by the Secretary of State under section 219 of such Act or otherwise designated under section 212(a)(3)(B)(vi)(II) of such Act (as so amended); or
“(ii) described in subclause (IV)(cc), (V)(cc), or (VI)(dd) of section 212(a)(3)(B)(iv) of such Act (as so amended) with respect to a terrorist organization described in section 212(a)(3)(B)(vi)(III) of such Act (as so amended).
“(4)
Exception.—
The Secretary of State, in consultation with the Attorney General, may determine that the amendments made by this section shall not apply with respect to actions by an alien taken outside the United States before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 26, 2001] upon the recommendation of a consular officer who has concluded that there is not reasonable ground to believe that the alien knew or reasonably should have known that the actions would further a terrorist activity.”

[Another section 411(c) of Pub. L. 107–56 amended section 1189 of this title.]

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–395, title II, § 201(b)(3), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1634, provided that:

“The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall be effective as if included in the enactment of section 347 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (Public Law 104–208; 110 Stat. 3009–638) and shall apply to voting occurring before, on, or after September 30, 1996. The amendment made by paragraph (2) [amending this section] shall be effective as if included in the enactment of section 344 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (Public Law 104–208; 110 Stat. 3009–637) and shall apply to representations made on or after September 30, 1996. Such amendments shall apply to individuals in proceedings under the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.] on or after September 30, 1996.”

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–95, § 2(e), Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1317, as amended by Pub. L. 109–423, § 2(2), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2900, provided that:

“The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1101 of this title] shall apply to classification petitions filed for nonimmigrant status only during the period—
“(1) beginning on the date that interim or final regulations are first promulgated under subsection (d) [set out as a note below]; and
“(2) ending on the date that is 3 years after the date of the enactment of the Nursing Relief for Disadvantaged Areas Reauthorization Act of 2005 [Dec. 20, 2006].”

[Pub. L. 109–423, § 3, Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2900, provided that:

“The requirements of chapter 5 of title 5, United States Code (commonly referred to as the ‘Administrative Procedure Act’) or any other law relating to rulemaking, information collection or publication in the Federal Register, shall not apply to any action to implement the amendments made by section 2 [amending provisions set out as a note above] to the extent the Secretary Homeland of Security [sic], the Secretary of Labor, or the Secretary of Health and Human Services determines that compliance with any such requirement would impede the expeditious implementation of such amendments.”
]

Pub. L. 106–95, § 4(b), Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1318, provided that:

“The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 12, 1999], without regard to whether or not final regulations to carry out such amendments have been promulgated by such date.”

Effective and Termination Dates of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–292, title VI, § 604(b), Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2814, provided that:

“The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to aliens seeking to enter the United States on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 27, 1998].”

Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title IV, § 412(d), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–645, provided that:

“The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] apply to applications filed under section 212(n)(1) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [subsec. (n)(1) of this section] on or after the date final regulations are issued to carry out such amendments, and the amendments made by subsections (b) and (c) [amending this section] take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998].”
[Interim final regulations implementing these amendments were promulgated on Dec. 19, 2000, published Dec. 20, 2000, 65 F.R. 80110, and effective, except as otherwise provided, Jan. 19, 2001.]

Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title IV, § 413(e)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–651, as amended by Pub. L. 106–313, title I, § 107(b), Oct. 17, 2000, 114 Stat. 1255, provided that:

“The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall cease to be effective on September 30, 2003.”

Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title IV, § 415(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–655, provided that:

“The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] applies to prevailing wage computations made—
“(1) for applications filed on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]; and
“(2) for applications filed before such date, but only to the extent that the computation is subject to an administrative or judicial determination that is not final as of such date.”

Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title IV, § 431(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–658, provided that:

“The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to activities occurring on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998].”

Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. B, title XXII, § 2226(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–821, provided that:

“The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to aliens seeking admission to the United States on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998].”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 301(b)(3), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–578, provided that:

“In applying section 212(a)(9)(B) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(9)(B)], as inserted by paragraph (1), no period before the title III–A effective date [see section 309 of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title] shall be included in a period of unlawful presence in the United States.”

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 301(c)(2), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–579, provided that:

“The requirements of subclauses (II) and (III) of section 212(a)(6)(A)(ii) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(6)(A)(ii)(II), (III)], as inserted by paragraph (1), shall not apply to an alien who demonstrates that the alien first arrived in the United States before the title III–A effective date (described in section 309(a) of this division [set out as a note under section 1101 of this title]).”

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 306(d), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–612, provided that the amendment made by section 306(d) is effective as if included in the enactment of Pub. L. 104–132.

Amendment by sections 301(b)(1), (c)(1), 304(b), 305(c), 306(d), and 308(c)(2)(B), (d)(1), (e)(1)(B), (C), (2)(A), (6), (f)(1)(C)–(F), (3)(A), (g)(1), (4)(B), (10)(A), (H) of div. C of Pub. L. 104–208 effective on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Sept. 30, 1996, with certain transitional provisions, including authority for Attorney General to waive application of subsec. (a)(9) of this section in case of an alien provided benefits under section 301 of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as a note under section 1255a of this title, and including provision that no period of time before Sept. 30, 1996, be included in the period of 1 year described in subsec. (a)(6)(B)(i) of this section, see section 309 of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Amendment by section 322(a) of Pub. L. 104–208 applicable to convictions and sentences entered before, on, or after Sept. 30, 1996, see section 322(c) of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 341(c), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–636, provided that:

“The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to applications for immigrant visas or for adjustment of status filed after September 30, 1996.”

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 342(b), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–636, provided that:

“The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996] and shall apply to incitement regardless of when it occurs.”

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 344(c), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–637, provided that:

“The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1251 [now 1227] of this title] shall apply to representations made on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996].”

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 346(b), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–638, provided that:

“The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to aliens who obtain the status of a nonimmigrant under section 101(a)(15)(F) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(F)] after the end of the 60-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996], including aliens whose status as such a nonimmigrant is extended after the end of such period.”

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 347(c), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–639, provided that:

“The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1251 of this title] shall apply to voting occurring before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996].”

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 348(b), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–639 provided that:

“The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996] and shall apply in the case of any alien who is in exclusion or deportation proceedings as of such date unless a final administrative order in such proceedings has been entered as of such date.”

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 351(c), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–640, provided that:

“The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1251 of this title] shall apply to applications for waivers filed before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996], but shall not apply to such an application for which a final determination has been made as of the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 352(b), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–641, provided that:

“The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to individuals who renounce United States citizenship on and after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996].”

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 358, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–644, provided that:

“The amendments made by this subtitle [subtitle D (§§ 354–358) of title III of div. C of Pub. L. 104–208, amending this section and sections 1189, 1531, 1532, 1534, and 1535 of this title] shall be effective as if included in the enactment of subtitle A of title IV of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (Public Law 104–132).”

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title V, § 531(b), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–675, provided that:

“The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to applications submitted on or after such date, not earlier than 30 days and not later than 60 days after the date the Attorney General promulgates under section 551(c)(2) of this division [set out as a note under section 1183a of this title] a standard form for an affidavit of support, as the Attorney General shall specify, but subparagraphs (C) and (D) of section 212(a)(4) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(4)(C), (D)], as so amended, shall not apply to applications with respect to which an official interview with an immigration officer was conducted before such effective date.”

Effective and Termination Dates of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–416, title II, § 203(c), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4311, provided that:

“The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1251 of this title] shall apply to convictions occurring before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 25, 1994].”

Amendment by section 219(e) of Pub. L. 103–416 effective as if included in the enactment of the Immigration Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–649, see section 219(dd) of Pub. L. 103–416, set out as an Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note under section 1101 of this title.

Pub. L. 103–416, title II, § 219(z), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4318, provided that the amendment made by subsec. (z)(1), (5) of that section is effective as if included in the Miscellaneous and Technical Immigration and Naturalization Amendments of 1991, Pub. L. 102–232.

Pub. L. 103–416, title II, § 220(c), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4320, as amended by Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, § 622(a), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–695; Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title I, § 11018(b), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1825; Pub. L. 108–441, § 1(a)(1), Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2630; Pub. L. 109–477, § 2, Jan. 12, 2007, 120 Stat. 3572; Pub. L. 110–362, § 1, Oct. 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 4013; Pub. L. 111–9, § 2, Mar. 20, 2009, 123 Stat. 989; Pub. L. 111–83, title V, § 568(b), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2186; Pub. L. 112–176, § 4, Sept. 28, 2012, 126 Stat. 1325, provided that:

“The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1184 of this title] shall apply to aliens admitted to the United States under section 101(a)(15)(J) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(J)], or acquiring such status after admission to the United States, before, on, or after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 25, 1994] and before September 30, 2015.”

[Pub. L. 116–94, div. I, title I, § 103, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 3019, provided that:

“Section 220(c) of the Immigration and Nationality Technical Corrections Act of 1994 [Pub. L. 103–416] (8 U.S.C. 1182 note) [set out above] shall be applied by substituting ‘September 30, 2020’ for ‘September 30, 2015’.”
]

[Pub. L. 116–6, div. H, title I, § 103, Feb. 15, 2019, 133 Stat. 475, provided that:

“Section 220(c) of the Immigration and Nationality Technical Corrections Act of 1994 [Pub. L. 103–416] (8 U.S.C. 1182 note) [set out above] shall be applied by substituting ‘September 30, 2019’ for ‘September 30, 2015’.”
]

[Pub. L. 115–141, div. M, title II, § 203, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1049, provided that:

“Section 220(c) of the Immigration and Nationality Technical Corrections Act of 1994 [Pub. L. 103–416] (8 U.S.C. 1182 note) [set out above] shall be applied by substituting ‘September 30, 2018’ for ‘September 30, 2015’.”
]

[Pub. L. 115–31, div. F, title V, § 541, May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 432, provided that:

“Section 220(c) of the Immigration and Nationality Technical Corrections Act of 1994 [Pub. L. 103–416] (8 U.S.C. 1182 note) [set out above] shall be applied by substituting ‘September 30, 2017’ for ‘September 30, 2015’.”
]

[Pub. L. 114–113, div. F, title V, § 574, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2526, provided that:

“Section 220(c) of the Immigration and Nationality Technical Corrections Act of 1994 [Pub. L. 103–416] (8 U.S.C. 1182 note) [set out above] shall be applied by substituting ‘September 30, 2016’ for the date specified in section 106(3) of the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2016 (Public Law 114–53) [Dec. 11, 2015, which had been substituted as applied by Pub. L. 114–53, div. B, § 133, Sept. 30, 2015, 129 Stat. 509].”
]

[Pub. L. 109–477, § 3, Jan. 12, 2007, 120 Stat. 3572, provided that:

“The amendment made by section 2 [amending section 220(c) of Pub. L. 103–416, set out above] shall take effect as if enacted on May 31, 2006.”
]

[Pub. L. 108–441, § 1(a)(2), Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2630, provided that:

“The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending section 220(c) of Pub. L. 103–416, set out above] shall take effect as if enacted on May 31, 2004.”
]

Pub. L. 103–317, title V, § 506(c), Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1766, as amended by Pub. L. 105–46, § 123, Sept. 30, 1997, 111 Stat. 1158; Pub. L. 105–119, title I, § 111(b), Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2458, provided that:

“The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1994, and shall cease to have effect on October 1, 1997. The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending section 1255 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1994.”

Pub. L. 105–46, § 123, Sept. 30, 1997, 111 Stat. 1158, which directed the amendment of section 506(c) of Pub. L. 103–317, set out above, by striking “September 30, 1997” and inserting “October 23, 1997” was probably intended by Congress to extend the termination date “October 1, 1997” to “October 23, 1997”. For further temporary extensions of the October 23, 1997 termination date, see list of continuing appropriations acts contained in a Continuing Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1998 note set out under section 635f of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–43, title XX, § 2007(b), June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 210, provided that:

“The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [June 10, 1993].”

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by sections 302(e)(6), 303(a)(5)(B), (6), (7)(B), 306(a)(10), (12), 307(a)–(g) of Pub. L. 102–232 effective as if included in the enactment of the Immigration Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–649, see section 310(1) of Pub. L. 102–232, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Pub. L. 102–232, title III, § 302(e)(9), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1746, provided that the amendment made by section 302(e)(9) is effective as if included in the Immigration Nursing Relief Act of 1989, Pub. L. 101–238.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by section 162(e)(1) of Pub. L. 101–649 effective Oct. 1, 1991, and applicable beginning with fiscal year 1992, with general transition provisions and admissibility standards, see section 161(a), (c), (d) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Amendment by section 162(f)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 101–649 applicable as though included in the enactment of Pub. L. 101–238, see section 162(f)(3) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Pub. L. 101–649, title II, § 202(c), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5014, provided that:

“The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1184 of this title] shall take effect 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1990].”

Amendment by section 205(c)(3) of Pub. L. 101–649 effective Oct. 1, 1991, see section 231 of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Pub. L. 101–649, title V, § 511(b), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5052, provided that:

“The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to admissions occurring after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1990].”

Pub. L. 101–649, title V, § 514(b), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5053, provided that:

“The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to admissions occurring on or after January 1, 1991.”

Amendment by section 601(a), (b), and (d) of Pub. L. 101–649 applicable to individuals entering United States on or after June 1, 1991, see section 601(e)(1) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–238, § 3(d), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2103, provided that:

“The amendments made by the previous provisions of this section [amending this section and section 1101 of this title] shall apply to classification petitions filed for nonimmigrant status only during the 5-year period beginning on the first day of the 9th month beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 1989].”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendments

Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, § 7349(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4473, provided that:

“The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to any alien convicted of an aggravated felony who seeks admission to the United States on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 18, 1988].”

Pub. L. 100–525, § 3, Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2614, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as if included in the enactment of Pub. L. 99–396.

Pub. L. 100–525, § 7(d), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2617, provided that:

“The amendments made by this section [amending this section, sections 1186a and 1255 of this title, and provisions set out as a note below] shall be effective as if they were included in the enactment of the Immigration Marriage Fraud Amendments of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–639].”

Amendment by section 8(f) of Pub. L. 100–525 effective as if included in the enactment of the Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1986, Pub. L. 99–653, see section 309(b)(15) of Pub. L. 102–232, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–653 applicable to visas issued, and admissions occurring, on or after Nov. 14, 1986, see section 23(a) of Pub. L. 99–653, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–639, § 6(c), formerly § 6(b), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3544, as redesignated and amended by Pub. L. 100–525, § 7(c)(2), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2616, provided that:

“The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to the receipt of visas by, and the admission of, aliens occurring after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1986] based on fraud or misrepresentations occurring before, on, or after such date.”

Pub. L. 99–570, title I, § 1751(c), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–47, provided that:

“The amendments made by the [sic] subsections (a) and (b) of this section [amending this section and section 1251 of this title] shall apply to convictions occurring before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this section [Oct. 27, 1986], and the amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to aliens entering the United States after the date of the enactment of this section.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–116, § 5(c), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1614, provided that:

“The amendments made by paragraphs (2), (5), and (6) of subsection (b) [striking out “including any extension of the duration thereof under subparagraph (D)” in subsec. (j)(1)(C) of this section, amending subsec. (j)(1)(D) of this section, and enacting subsec. (j)(1)(E) of this section] shall apply to aliens entering the United States as exchange visitors (or otherwise acquiring exchange visitor status) on or after January 10, 1978.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–116 effective Dec. 29, 1981, except as provided by section 5(c) of Pub. L. 97–116, see section 21(a) of Pub. L. 97–116, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by section 203(d) of Pub. L. 96–212 effective, except as otherwise provided, Apr. 1, 1980, and amendment by section 203(f) of Pub. L. 96–212 applicable, except as otherwise provided, to aliens paroled into the United States on or after the sixtieth day after Mar. 17, 1980, see section 204 of Pub. L. 96–212, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–70 effective Sept. 27, 1979, see section 3201(d)(1) of Pub. L. 96–70, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Pub. L. 96–70, title III, § 3201(d)(2), Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 497, provided that:

“Paragraph (9) of section 212(d) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [subsec. (d)(9) of this section], as added by subsection (b) of this section, shall cease to be effective at the end of the transition period [midnight Mar. 31, 1982, see section 2101 of Pub. L. 96–70, title II, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 493, formerly classified to section 3831 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse].”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–571 effective on first day of first month which begins more than sixty days after Oct. 20, 1976, see section 10 of Pub. L. 94–571, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Amendment by section 601(d) of Pub. L. 94–484 applicable only on and after Jan. 10, 1978, notwithstanding section 601(f) of Pub. L. 94–484, see section 602(d) of Pub. L. 94–484, as added by section 307(q)(3) of Pub. L. 95–83, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 1101 of this title.

Pub. L. 94–484, title VI, § 601(f), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2303, provided that:

“The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1101 of this title] shall take effect ninety days after the date of enactment of this section [Oct. 12, 1976].”

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 89–236 see section 20 of Pub. L. 89–236, set out as a note under section 1151 of this title.

Effective Date of 1956 Amendment

Amendment by act July 18, 1956, effective July 19, 1956, see section 401 of act July 18, 1956.

Construction of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–232, title III, § 302(e)(6), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1746, provided that:

“Paragraph (1) of section 162(e) of the Immigration Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–649, amending this section] is repealed, and the provisions of law amended by such paragraph are restored as though such paragraph had not been enacted.”

Regulations

Pub. L. 106–95, § 2(d), Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1316, provided that:

“Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 12, 1999], the Secretary of Labor (in consultation, to the extent required, with the Secretary of Health and Human Services) and the Attorney General shall promulgate final or interim final regulations to carry out section 212(m) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1182(m)] (as amended by subsection (b)).”
[Interim final regulations implementing subsec. (m) of this section were promulgated Aug. 21, 2000, published Aug. 22, 2000, 65 F.R. 51138, and effective Sept. 21, 2000.]

Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title IV, § 412(e), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–645, provided that:

“In first promulgating regulations to implement the amendments made by this section [amending this section] in a timely manner, the Secretary of Labor and the Attorney General may reduce to not less than 30 days the period of public comment on proposed regulations.”

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title I, § 124(b)(2), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–562, provided that:

“The Attorney General shall first issue, in proposed form, regulations referred to in the second sentence of section 212(f) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1182(f)], as added by the amendment made by paragraph (1), not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996].”

Transfer of Functions

United States Information Agency (other than Broadcasting Board of Governors and International Broadcasting Bureau) abolished and functions transferred to Secretary of State, see sections 6531 and 6532 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of this title.

Parole in Place for Members of the Armed Forces and Certain Military Dependents

Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title XVII, § 1758, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1860, provided that:

“(a)
In General.—
In evaluating a request from a covered individual for parole in place under section 212(d)(5) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(d)(5)), the Secretary of Homeland Security shall consider, on a case-by-case basis, whether granting the request would enable military family unity that would constitute a significant public benefit.
“(b)
Sense of Congress.—
It is the sense of Congress that—
“(1) parole in place reinforces the objective of military family unity;
“(2) except as required in furtherance of the missions of the Armed Forces, disruption to military family unity should be minimized in order to enhance military readiness and allow members of the Armed Forces to focus on the faithful execution of their military missions and objectives, with peace of mind regarding the well-being of their family members; and
“(3) the importance of the parole in place authority of the Secretary of Homeland Security is reaffirmed.
“(c)
Covered Individual Defined.—
In this section, the term ‘covered individual’ means an alien who—
“(1) is a member of the Armed Forces;
“(2) is the spouse, son, or daughter of a member of the Armed Forces;
“(3) is the parent of a member of the Armed Forces who supports the request of such parent for parole in place; or
“(4) is the widow, widower, parent, son, or daughter of a deceased member of the Armed Forces.”

Reciprocal Access to Tibet

Pub. L. 115–330, Dec. 19, 2018, 132 Stat. 4479, provided that:

“SECTION 1.
SHORT TITLE.

“This Act may be cited as the ‘Reciprocal Access to Tibet Act of 2018’.

“SEC. 2.
FINDINGS.
“Congress finds the following:
“(1) The Government of the People’s Republic of China does not grant United States diplomats and other officials, journalists, and other citizens access to China on a basis that is reciprocal to the access that the Government of the United States grants Chinese diplomats and other officials, journalists, and citizens.
“(2) The Government of China imposes greater restrictions on travel to Tibetan areas than to other areas of China.
“(3) Officials of China have stated that Tibet is open to foreign visitors.
“(4) The Government of China is promoting tourism in Tibetan areas, and at the Sixth Tibet Work Forum in August 2015, Premier Li Keqiang called for Tibet to build ‘major world tourism destinations’.
“(5) The Government of China requires foreigners to obtain permission from the Tibet Foreign and Overseas Affairs Office or from the Tibet Tourism Bureau to enter the Tibet Autonomous Region, a restriction that is not imposed on travel to any other provincial-level jurisdiction in China.
“(6)
The Department of State reports that—
“(A) officials of the Government of the United States submitted 39 requests for diplomatic access to the Tibet Autonomous Region between May 2011 and July 2015, but only four were granted; and
“(B) when such requests are granted, diplomatic personnel are closely supervised and given few opportunities to meet local residents not approved by authorities.
“(7) The Government of China delayed United States consular access for more than 48 hours after an October 28, 2013, bus crash in the Tibet Autonomous Region, in which three citizens of the United States died and more than a dozen others, all from Walnut, California, were injured, undermining the ability of the Government of the United States to provide consular services to the victims and their families, and failing to meet China’s obligations under the Convention on Consular Relations, done at Vienna April 24, 1963 (21 UST 77).
“(8) Following a 2015 earthquake that trapped dozens of citizens of the United States in the Tibet Autonomous Region, the United States Consulate General in Chengdu faced significant challenges in providing emergency consular assistance due to a lack of consular access.
“(9) The Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2015 of the Department of State stated ‘With the exception of a few highly controlled trips, the Chinese government also denied multiple requests by foreign diplomats for permission to visit the TAR.’.
“(10) Tibetan-Americans, attempting to visit their homeland, report having to undergo a discriminatory visa application process, different from what is typically required, at the Chinese embassy and consulates in the United States, and often find their requests to travel denied.
“(11) The Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016 of the Department of State stated ‘The few visits to the TAR by diplomats and journalists that were allowed were tightly controlled by local authorities.’.
“(12) A September 2016 article in the Washington Post reported that ‘The Tibet Autonomous Region . . . is harder to visit as a journalist than North Korea.’.
“(13) The Government of China has failed to respond positively to requests from the Government of the United States to open a consulate in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region.
“(14)
The Foreign Correspondents Club of China reports that—
“(A) 2008 rules prevent foreign reporters from visiting the Tibet Autonomous Region without prior permission from the Government of such Region;
“(B) such permission has only rarely been granted; and
“(C) although the 2008 rules allow journalists to travel freely in other parts of China, Tibetan areas outside such Region remain ‘effectively off-limits to foreign reporters’.
“(15)
The Department of State reports that in addition to having to obtain permission to enter the Tibet Autonomous Region, foreign tourists—
“(A) must be accompanied at all times by a government-designated tour guide;
“(B) are rarely granted permission to enter the region by road;
“(C) are largely barred from visiting around the March anniversary of a 1959 Tibetan uprising; and
“(D) are banned from visiting the area where Larung Gar, the world’s largest center for the study of Tibetan Buddhism, and the site of a large-scale campaign to expel students and demolish living quarters, is located.
“(16) Foreign visitors also face restrictions in their ability to travel freely in Tibetan areas outside the Tibet Autonomous Region.
“(17) The Government of the United States generally allows journalists and other citizens of China to travel freely within the United States. The Government of the United States requires diplomats from China to notify the Department of State of their travel plans, and in certain situations, the Government of the United States requires such diplomats to obtain approval from the Department of State before travel. However, where approval is required, it is almost always granted expeditiously.
“(18) The United States regularly grants visas to Chinese diplomats and other officials, scholars, and others who travel to the United States to discuss, promote, and display the perspective of the Government of China on the situation in Tibetan areas, even as the Government of China restricts the ability of citizens of the United States to travel to Tibetan areas to gain their own perspective.
“(19) Chinese diplomats based in the United States generally avail themselves of the freedom to travel to United States cities and lobby city councils, mayors, and governors to refrain from passing resolutions, issuing proclamations, or making statements of concern on Tibet.
“(20) The Government of China characterizes statements made by officials of the United States about the situation in Tibetan areas as inappropriate interference in the internal affairs of China.
“SEC. 3.
DEFINITIONS.
“In this Act:
“(1)
Appropriate congressional committees.—
The term ‘appropriate congressional committees’ means—
“(A) the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate; and
“(B) the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives.
“(2)
Tibetan areas.—
The term ‘Tibetan areas’ includes—
“(A) the Tibet Autonomous Region; and
“(B)
the areas that the Chinese Government designates as Tibetan Autonomous, as follows:
“(i) Kanlho (Gannan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, and Pari (Tianzhu) Tibetan Autonomous County located in Gansu Province.
“(ii) Golog (Guoluo) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Malho (Huangnan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Tsojang (Haibei) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Tsolho (Hainan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Tsonub (Haixi) Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, and Yulshul (Yushu) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, located in Qinghai Province.
“(iii) Garze (Ganzi) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Ngawa (Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, and Muli (Mili) Tibetan Autonomous County, located in Sichuan Province.
“(iv) Dechen (Diqing) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, located in Yunnan Province.
“SEC. 4.
ANNUAL REPORT ON ACCESS TO TIBETAN AREAS.
“(a)
In General.—
Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2018], and annually thereafter for the following five years, the Secretary of State shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees, and make available to the public on the website of the Department of State, a report that includes an assessment of the level of access Chinese authorities granted diplomats and other officials, journalists, and tourists from the United States to Tibetan areas, including—
“(1) a comparison with the level of access granted to other areas of China;
“(2) a comparison between the levels of access granted to Tibetan and non-Tibetan areas in relevant provinces;
“(3) a comparison of the level of access in the reporting year and the previous reporting year; and
“(4) a description of the required permits and other measures that impede the freedom to travel in Tibetan areas.
“(b)
Consolidation.—
After the issuance of the first report required by subsection (a), the Secretary of State is authorized to incorporate subsequent reports required by subsection (a) into other publicly available, annual reports produced by the Department of State, provided they are submitted to the appropriate congressional committees in a manner specifying that they are being submitted in fulfillment of the requirements of this Act.
“SEC. 5.
INADMISSIBILITY OF CERTAIN ALIENS.
“(a)
Ineligibility for Visas.—
No individual whom the Secretary of State has determined to be substantially involved in the formulation or execution of policies related to access for foreigners to Tibetan areas may be eligible to receive a visa to enter the United States or be admitted to the United States if the Secretary of State determines that—
“(1)
(A) the requirement for specific official permission for foreigners to enter the Tibetan Autonomous Region remains in effect; or
“(B) such requirement has been replaced by a regulation that has a similar effect and requires foreign travelers to gain a level of permission to enter the Tibet Autonomous Region that is not required for travel to other provinces in China; and
“(2) restrictions on travel by diplomats and other officials, journalists, and citizens of the United States to areas designated as ‘Tibetan Autonomous’ in the provinces of Sichuan, Qinghai, Yunnan, and Gansu of China are greater than any restrictions on travel by such officials and citizens to areas in such provinces that are not so designated.
“(b)
Current Visas Revoked.—
The Secretary of State shall revoke, in accordance with section 221(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1201(i)), the visa or other documentation to enter or be present in the United States issued for an alien who would be ineligible to receive such a visa or documentation under subsection (a).
“(c)
Report to Congress.—
Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2018], and annually thereafter for the following five years, the Secretary of State shall provide to the appropriate congressional committees a report identifying the individuals who have had visas denied or revoked pursuant to this section during the preceding year and, to the extent practicable, a list of Chinese officials who were substantially involved in the formulation or execution of policies to restrict access of United States diplomats and other officials, journalists, and citizens of the United States to Tibetan areas. The report required by this subsection shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.
“(d)
Waiver for National Interest.—
“(1)
In general.—
The Secretary of State may waive the application of subsection (a) or (b) in the case of an alien if the Secretary determines that such a waiver—
“(A) is necessary to permit the United States to comply with the Agreement Regarding the Headquarters of the United Nations, signed at Lake Success June 26, 1947, and entered into force November 21, 1947 (TIAS 1676), or any other applicable international obligation of the United States; or
“(B) is in the national interest of the United States.
“(2)
Notification.—
Upon granting a waiver under paragraph (1), the Secretary of State shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a document detailing the evidence and justification for the necessity of such waiver, including, if such waiver is granted pursuant to paragraph (1)(B), how such waiver relates to the national interest of the United States.
“SEC. 6.
SENSE OF CONGRESS.

“It is the sense of Congress that the Secretary of State, when granting diplomats and other officials from China access to parts of the United States, including consular access, should take into account the extent to which the Government of China grants diplomats and other officials from the United States access to parts of China, including the level of access afforded to such diplomats and other officials to Tibetan areas.”

Treatment of Rwandan Patriotic Front and Rwandan Patriotic Army Under Immigration and Nationality Act

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XII, § 1291, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2083, provided that:

“(a)
Removal of Treatment as Terrorist Organizations.—
“(1)
In general.—
Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Rwandan Patriotic Front and the Rwandan Patriotic Army shall be excluded from the definition of terrorist organization (as defined in section 212(a)(3)(B)(vi)(III) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(B)(vi)(III))) for purposes of such section 212(a)(3)(B) for any period before August 1, 1994.
“(2)
Exception.—
“(A)
In general.—
The Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Attorney General, or the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Attorney General, as applicable, may suspend the application of paragraph (1) for the Rwandan Patriotic Front or the Rwandan Patriotic Army in the sole and unreviewable discretion of such applicable Secretary.
“(B)
Report.—
Not later than, or contemporaneously with, a suspension of paragraph (1) under subparagraph (A), the Secretary of State or the Secretary of Homeland Security, as applicable, shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report on the justification for such suspension.
“(b)
Relief From Inadmissibility.—
“(1)
Activities before august 1, 1994.—
Section 212(a)(3)(B) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(B)) shall not apply to an alien with respect to any activity undertaken by the alien in association with the Rwandan Patriotic Front or the Rwandan Patriotic Army before August 1, 1994.
“(2)
Exceptions.—
“(A)
In general.—
Paragraph (1) shall not apply if the Secretary of State or the Secretary of Homeland Security, as applicable, determines in the sole unreviewable discretion of such applicable Secretary that—
“(i)
in the totality of the circumstances, such alien—
     “(I) poses a threat to the safety and security of the United States; or
     “(II) does not merit a visa, admission to the United States, or a grant of an immigration benefit or protection; or
“(ii)
such alien committed, ordered, incited, assisted, or otherwise participated in the commission of—
     “(I) an offense described in section 2441 of title 18, United States Code; or
     “(II) an offense described in Presidential Proclamation 8697, dated August 4, 2011 [set out under this section].
“(B)
Implementation.—
Subparagraph (A) shall be implemented by the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Attorney General.
“(c)
Appropriate Committees of Congress Defined.—
In this section, the term ‘appropriate committees of Congress’ means—
“(1) the Committee on the Judiciary, the Committee on Foreign Relations, the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate; and
“(2) the Committee on the Judiciary, the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Committee on Homeland Security, and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives.”

Treatment of Kurdistan Democratic Party and Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Under the Immigration and Nationality Act

Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title XII, § 1264, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3582, provided that:

“(a)
Removal of the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan From Treatment as Terrorist Organizations.—
“(1)
In general.—
Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan shall be excluded from the definition of terrorist organization (as defined in section 212(a)(3)(B)(vi)(III) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(B)(vi)(III))) for purposes of such section 212(a)(3)(B).
“(2)
Exception.—
The Secretary of State, after consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Attorney General, or the Secretary of Homeland Security, after consultation with the Secretary of State and the Attorney General, may suspend the application of paragraph (1) for either or both of the groups referred to in paragraph (1) in such Secretary’s sole and unreviewable discretion. Prior to or contemporaneous with such suspension, the Secretary of State or the Secretary of Homeland Security shall report their reasons for suspension to the Committees on Judiciary of the House of Representatives and of the Senate, the Committees on Appropriations in the House of Representatives and of the Senate, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate.
“(b)
Relief Regarding Admissibility of Nonimmigrant Aliens Associated With the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan.—
“(1)
For activities opposing the ba’ath regime.—
Paragraph (3)(B) of section 212(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(B)) shall not apply to an alien with respect to activities undertaken in association with the Kurdistan Democratic Party or the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan in opposition to the regime of the Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party and the autocratic dictatorship of Saddam Hussein in Iraq.
“(2)
For membership in the kurdistan democratic party and patriotic union of kurdistan.—
Paragraph (3)(B) of section 212(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(B)) shall not apply to an alien applying for a nonimmigrant visa, who presents themselves for inspection to an immigration officer at a port of entry as a nonimmigrant, or who is applying in the United States for nonimmigrant status, and who is a member of the Kurdistan Democratic Party or the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan and currently serves or has previously served as a senior official (such as Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister, Minister, Deputy Minister, President, Vice-President, Member of Parliament, provincial Governor or member of the National Security Council) of the Kurdistan Regional Government or the federal government of the Republic of Iraq.
“(3)
Exception.—
Neither paragraph (1) nor paragraph (2) shall apply if the Secretary of State or the Secretary of Homeland Security (or a designee of one of such Secretaries) determine in their sole unreviewable discretion that such alien poses a threat to the safety and security of the United States, or does not warrant a visa, admission to the United States, or a grant of an immigration benefit or protection, in the totality of the circumstances. This provision shall be implemented by the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security in consultation with the Attorney General.
“(c)
Prohibition on Judicial Review.—
Notwithstanding any other provision of law (whether statutory or nonstatutory), section 242 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1252), sections 1361 and 1651 of title 28, United States Code, section 2241 of such title, and any other habeas corpus provision of law, no court shall have jurisdiction to review any determination made pursuant to this section.”

African National Congress; Waiver of Certain Inadmissibility Grounds

Pub. L. 110–257, §§ 2, 3, July 1, 2008, 122 Stat. 2426, provided that:

“SEC. 2.
RELIEF FOR CERTAIN MEMBERS OF THE AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS REGARDING ADMISSIBILITY.
“(a)
Exemption Authority.—
The Secretary of State, after consultation with the Attorney General and the Secretary of Homeland Security, or the Secretary of Homeland Security, after consultation with the Secretary of State and the Attorney General, may determine, in such Secretary’s sole and unreviewable discretion, that paragraphs (2)(A)(i)(I), (2)(B), and (3)(B) (other than clause (i)(II)) of section 212(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)) shall not apply to an alien with respect to activities undertaken in association with the African National Congress in opposition to apartheid rule in South Africa.
“(b)
Sense of Congress.—
It is the sense of the Congress that the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security should immediately exercise in appropriate instances the authority in subsection (a) to exempt the anti-apartheid activities of aliens who are current or former officials of the Government of the Republic of South Africa.
“SEC. 3.
REMOVAL OF CERTAIN AFFECTED INDIVIDUALS FROM CERTAIN UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT DATABASES.

“The Secretary of State, in coordination with the Attorney General, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the Director of National Intelligence, shall take all necessary steps to ensure that databases used to determine admissibility to the United States are updated so that they are consistent with the exemptions provided under section 2.”

Availability of Other Nonimmigrant Professionals

Pub. L. 110–229, title VII, § 702(k), May 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 867, provided that:

“The requirements of section 212(m)(6)(B) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(m)(6)(B)) shall not apply to a facility in Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the Virgin Islands.”

Report on Duress Waivers

Pub. L. 110–161, div. J, title VI, § 691(e), Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2365, provided that:

“The Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide to the Committees on the Judiciary of the United States Senate and House of Representatives a report, not less than 180 days after the enactment of this Act [Dec. 26, 2007] and every year thereafter, which may include a classified annex, if appropriate, describing—
“(1) the number of individuals subject to removal from the United States for having provided material support to a terrorist group who allege that such support was provided under duress;
“(2) a breakdown of the types of terrorist organizations to which the individuals described in paragraph (1) have provided material support;
“(3) a description of the factors that the Department of Homeland Security considers when evaluating duress waivers; and
“(4) any other information that the Secretary believes that the Congress should consider while overseeing the Department’s application of duress waivers.”

Inadmissibility of Foreign Officials and Family Members Involved in Kleptocracy or Human Rights Violations

Pub. L. 116–94, div. G, title VII, § 7031(c), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 2865, provided that:

“(1)
Ineligibility.—
(A) Officials of foreign governments and their immediate family members about whom the Secretary of State has credible information have been involved, directly or indirectly, in significant corruption, including corruption related to the extraction of natural resources, or a gross violation of human rights shall be ineligible for entry into the United States.
“(B) The Secretary shall also publicly or privately designate or identify the officials of foreign governments and their immediate family members about whom the Secretary has such credible information without regard to whether the individual has applied for a visa.
“(2)
Exception.—
Individuals shall not be ineligible for entry into the United States pursuant to paragraph (1) if such entry would further important United States law enforcement objectives or is necessary to permit the United States to fulfill its obligations under the United Nations Headquarters Agreement: Provided, That nothing in paragraph (1) shall be construed to derogate from United States Government obligations under applicable international agreements.
“(3)
Waiver.—
The Secretary may waive the application of paragraph (1) if the Secretary determines that the waiver would serve a compelling national interest or that the circumstances which caused the individual to be ineligible have changed sufficiently.
“(4)
Report.—
Not later than 30 days after enactment of this Act [div. G of Pub. L. 116–94, approved Dec. 20, 2019], and every 90 days thereafter, the Secretary of State shall submit a report, including a classified annex if necessary, to the appropriate congressional committees [Committees on Appropriations and Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committees on Appropriations and Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives] and the Committees on the Judiciary describing the information related to corruption or violation of human rights concerning each of the individuals found ineligible in the previous 12 months pursuant to paragraph (1)(A) as well as the individuals who the Secretary designated or identified pursuant to paragraph (1)(B), or who would be ineligible but for the application of paragraph (2), a list of any waivers provided under paragraph (3), and the justification for each waiver.
“(5)
Posting of report.—
Any unclassified portion of the report required under paragraph (4) shall be posted on the Department of State website.
“(6)
Clarification.—
For purposes of paragraphs (1), (4), and (5), the records of the Department of State and of diplomatic and consular offices of the United States pertaining to the issuance or refusal of visas or permits to enter the United States shall not be considered confidential.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior acts:

Pub. L. 116–6, div. F, title VII, § 7031(c), Feb. 15, 2019, 133 Stat. 319.

Pub. L. 115–141, div. K, title VII, § 7031(c), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 884.

Pub. L. 115–31, div. J, title VII, § 7031(c), May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 640.

Pub. L. 114–113, div. K, title VII, § 7031(c), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2755.

Pub. L. 113–235, div. J, title VII, § 7031(c), Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2620.

Pub. L. 113–76, div. K, title VII, § 7031(c), Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 511.

Pub. L. 112–74, div. I, title VII, § 7031(c), Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 1211.

Pub. L. 111–117, div. F, title VII, § 7084, Dec. 16, 2009, 123 Stat. 3400.

Pub. L. 111–8, div. H, title VII, § 7086, Mar. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 912.

Pub. L. 110–161, div. J, title VI, § 699L, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2373.

Money Laundering Watchlist

Pub. L. 107–56, title X, § 1006(b), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 394, provided that:

“Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 26, 2001], the Secretary of State shall develop, implement, and certify to the Congress that there has been established a money laundering watchlist, which identifies individuals worldwide who are known or suspected of money laundering, which is readily accessible to, and shall be checked by, a consular or other Federal official prior to the issuance of a visa or admission to the United States. The Secretary of State shall develop and continually update the watchlist in cooperation with the Attorney General, the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Director of Central Intelligence.”

[Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director’s capacity as the head of the intelligence community deemed to be a reference to the Director of National Intelligence. Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director’s capacity as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency deemed to be a reference to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. See section 1081(a), (b) of Pub. L. 108–458, set out as a note under section 3001 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]

Recommendations for Alternative Remedy for Nursing Shortage

Pub. L. 106–95, § 3, Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1317, provided that:

“Not later than the last day of the 4-year period described in section 2(e) [set out as a note above], the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Labor shall jointly submit to the Congress recommendations (including legislative specifications) with respect to the following:
“(1) A program to eliminate the dependence of facilities described in section 212(m)(6) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1182(m)(6)] (as amended by section 2(b)) on nonimmigrant registered nurses by providing for a permanent solution to the shortage of registered nurses who are United States citizens or aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence.
“(2) A method of enforcing the requirements imposed on facilities under sections 101(a)(15)(H)(i)(c) and 212(m) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(c), 1182(m)] (as amended by section 2) that would be more effective than the process described in section 212(m)(2)(E) of such Act [8 U.S.C. 1182(m)(2)(E)] (as so amended).”

Issuance of Certified Statements

Pub. L. 106–95, § 4(c), Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1318, provided that:

“The Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools, or any approved equivalent independent credentialing organization, shall issue certified statements pursuant to the amendment under subsection (a) [amending this section] not more than 35 days after the receipt of a complete application for such a statement.”

Extension of Authorized Period of Stay for Certain Nurses

Pub. L. 104–302, § 1, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3656, provided that:

“(a)
Aliens Who Previously Entered the United States Pursuant to an H–1A Visa.—
“(1)
In general.—
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the authorized period of stay in the United States of any nonimmigrant described in paragraph (2) is hereby extended through September 30, 1997.
“(2)
Nonimmigrant described.—
A nonimmigrant described in this paragraph is a nonimmigrant—
“(A) who entered the United States as a nonimmigrant described in section 101(a)(15)(H)(i)(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(a)];
“(B) who was within the United States on or after September 1, 1995, and who is within the United States on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 11, 1996]; and
“(C) whose period of authorized stay has expired or would expire before September 30, 1997 but for the provisions of this section.
“(3)
Limitations.—
Nothing in this section may be construed to extend the validity of any visa issued to a nonimmigrant described in section 101(a)(15)(H)(i)(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act or to authorize the re-entry of any person outside the United States on the date of the enactment of this Act.
“(b)
Change of Employment.—
A nonimmigrant whose authorized period of stay is extended by operation of this section shall not be eligible to change employers in accordance with section 214.2(h)(2)(i)(D) of title 8, Code of Federal Regulations (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act).
“(c)
Regulations.—
Not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Attorney General shall issue regulations to carry out the provisions of this section.
“(d)
Interim Treatment.—
A nonimmigrant whose authorized period of stay is extended by operation of this section, and the spouse and child of such nonimmigrant, shall be considered as having continued to maintain lawful status as a nonimmigrant through September 30, 1997.”

References to Inadmissible Deemed To Include Excludable and References to Order of Removal Deemed To Include Order of Exclusion and Deportation

For purposes of carrying out this chapter, any reference in subsec. (a)(1)(A) of this section to “inadmissible” is deemed to include a reference to “excludable”, and any reference in law to an order of removal is deemed to include a reference to an order of exclusion and deportation or an order of deportation, see section 309(d) of Pub. L. 104–208, set out in an Effective Date of 1996 Amendment note under section 1101 of this title.

Annual Report on Aliens Paroled Into United States

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, § 602(b), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–689, provided that:

“Not later than 90 days after the end of each fiscal year, the Attorney General shall submit a report to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate describing the number and categories of aliens paroled into the United States under section 212(d)(5) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1182(d)(5)]. Each such report shall provide the total number of aliens paroled into and residing in the United States and shall contain information and data for each country of origin concerning the number and categories of aliens paroled, the duration of parole, the current status of aliens paroled, and the number and categories of aliens returned to the custody from which they were paroled during the preceding fiscal year.”

Assistance to Drug Traffickers

Pub. L. 103–447, title I, § 107, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4695, provided that:

“The President shall take all reasonable steps provided by law to ensure that the immediate relatives of any individual described in section 487(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2291f(a)), and the business partners of any such individual or of any entity described in such section, are not permitted entry into the United States, consistent with the provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.).”

Processing of Visas for Admission to United States

Pub. L. 103–236, title I, § 140(c), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 399, as amended by Pub. L. 103–415, § 1(d), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4299, provided that:

“(1)
(A) Beginning 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 30, 1994], whenever a United States consular officer issues a visa for admission to the United States, that official shall certify, in writing, that a check of the Automated Visa Lookout System, or any other system or list which maintains information about the excludability of aliens under the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.], has been made and that there is no basis under such system for the exclusion of such alien.
“(B) If, at the time an alien applies for an immigrant or nonimmigrant visa, the alien’s name is included in the Department of State’s visa lookout system and the consular officer to whom the application is made fails to follow the procedures in processing the application required by the inclusion of the alien’s name in such system, the consular officer’s failure shall be made a matter of record and shall be considered as a serious negative factor in the officer’s annual performance evaluation.
“(2) If an alien to whom a visa was issued as a result of a failure described in paragraph (1)(B) is admitted to the United States and there is thereafter probable cause to believe that the alien was a participant in a terrorist act causing serious injury, loss of life, or significant destruction of property in the United States, the Secretary of State shall convene an Accountability Review Board under the authority of title III of the Omnibus Diplomatic Security and Antiterrorism Act of 1986 [22 U.S.C. 4831 et seq.].”

Access to Interstate Identification Index of National Crime Information Center; Fingerprint Checks

Pub. L. 103–236, title I, § 140(d)–(g), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 400, as amended by Pub. L. 103–317, title V, § 505, Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1765; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, § 671(g)(2), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–724; Pub. L. 105–119, title I, § 126, Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2471, provided that:

“(d)
Access to the Interstate Identification Index.—
“(1) Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), the Department of State Consolidated Immigrant Visa Processing Center shall have on-line access, without payment of any fee or charge, to the Interstate Identification Index of the National Crime Information Center solely for the purpose of determining whether a visa applicant has a criminal history record indexed in such Index. Such access does not entitle the Department of State to obtain the full content of automated records through the Interstate Identification Index. To obtain the full content of a criminal history record, the Department shall submit a separate request to the Identification Records Section of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and shall pay the appropriate fee as provided for in the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1990 (Public Law 101–162) [103 Stat. 988, 998].
“(2) The Department of State shall be responsible for all one-time start-up and recurring incremental non-personnel costs of establishing and maintaining the access authorized in paragraph (1).
“(3) The individual primarily responsible for the day-to-day implementation of paragraph (1) shall be an employee of the Federal Bureau of Investigation selected by the Department of State, and detailed to the Department on a fully reimbursable basis.
“(e)
Fingerprint Checks.—
“(1) Effective not later than March 31, 1995, the Secretary of State shall in the ten countries with the highest volume of immigrant visa issuance for the most recent fiscal year for which data are available require the fingerprinting of applicants over sixteen years of age for immigrant visas. The Department of State shall submit records of such fingerprints to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in order to ascertain whether such applicants previously have been convicted of a felony under State or Federal law in the United States, and shall pay all appropriate fees.
“(2) The Secretary shall prescribe and publish such regulations as may be necessary to implement the requirements of this subsection, and to avoid undue processing costs and delays for eligible immigrants and the United States Government.
“(f) Not later than December 31, 1996, the Secretary of State and the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall jointly submit to the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate, a report on the effectiveness of the procedures authorized in subsections (d) and (e).
“(g) Subsections (d) and (e) shall cease to have effect after May 1, 1998.”

Visa Lookout Systems

Pub. L. 103–236, title I, § 140(b), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 399, provided that:

“Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 30, 1994], the Secretary of State shall implement an upgrade of all overseas visa lookout operations to computerized systems with automated multiple-name search capabilities.”

Pub. L. 102–138, title I, § 128, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 660, as amended by Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 308(d)(3)(C), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–617, provided that:

“(a)
Visas.—
The Secretary of State may not include in the Automated Visa Lookout System, or in any other system or list which maintains information about the inadmissibility of aliens under the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.], the name of any alien who is not inadmissible from the United States under the Immigration and Nationality Act, subject to the provisions of this section.
“(b)
Correction of Lists.—
Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1991], the Secretary of State shall—
“(1) correct the Automated Visa Lookout System, or any other system or list which maintains information about the inadmissibility of aliens under the Immigration and Nationality Act, by deleting the name of any alien not inadmissible under the Immigration and Nationality Act; and
“(2) report to the Congress concerning the completion of such correction process.
“(c)
Report on Correction Process.—
“(1) Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1991], the Secretary of State, in coordination with the heads of other appropriate Government agencies, shall prepare and submit to the appropriate congressional committees, a plan which sets forth the manner in which the Department of State will correct the Automated Visa Lookout System, and any other system or list as set forth in subsection (b).
“(2) Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1991], the Secretary of State shall report to the appropriate congressional committees on the progress made toward completing the correction of lists as set forth in subsection (b).
“(d)
Application.—
This section refers to the Immigration and Nationality Act as in effect on and after June 1, 1991.
“(e)
Limitation.—
“(1) The Secretary may add or retain in such system or list the names of aliens who are not inadmissible only if they are included for otherwise authorized law enforcement purposes or other lawful purposes of the Department of State. A name included for other lawful purposes under this paragraph shall include a notation which clearly and distinctly indicates that such person is not presently inadmissible. The Secretary of State shall adopt procedures to ensure that visas are not denied to such individuals for any reason not set forth in the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.].
“(2) The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register regulations and standards concerning maintenance and use by the Department of State of systems and lists for purposes described in paragraph (1).
“(3) Nothing in this section may be construed as creating new authority or expanding any existing authority for any activity not otherwise authorized by law.
“(f)
Definition.—
As used in this section the term ‘appropriate congressional committees’ means the Committee on the Judiciary and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate.”

Changes in Labor Certification Process

Pub. L. 101–649, title I, § 122, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4994, as amended by Pub. L. 103–416, title II, § 219(ff), Oct. 25, 1995, 108 Stat. 4319, provided that:

“[(a) Repealed. Pub. L. 103–416, title II, § 219(ff), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4319.]
“(b)
Notice in Labor Certifications.—
The Secretary of Labor shall provide, in the labor certification process under section 212(a)(5)(A) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(5)(A)], that—
“(1) no certification may be made unless the applicant for certification has, at the time of filing the application, provided notice of the filing (A) to the bargaining representative (if any) of the employer’s employees in the occupational classification and area for which aliens are sought, or (B) if there is no such bargaining representative, to employees employed at the facility through posting in conspicuous locations; and
“(2) any person may submit documentary evidence bearing on the application for certification (such as information on available workers, information on wages and working conditions, and information on the employer’s failure to meet terms and conditions with respect to the employment of alien workers and co-workers).”

Review of Exclusion Lists

Pub. L. 101–649, title VI, § 601(c), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5075, as amended by Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 308(d)(3)(B), (f)(1)(Q), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–617, 3009–621, provided that:

“The Attorney General and the Secretary of State shall develop protocols and guidelines for updating lookout books and the automated visa lookout system and similar mechanisms for the screening of aliens applying for visas for admission, or for admission, to the United States. Such protocols and guidelines shall be developed in a manner that ensures that in the case of an alien—
“(1) whose name is in such system, and
“(2) who either (A) applies for admission after the effective date of the amendments made by this section [see Effective Date of 1990 Amendment note above], or (B) requests (in writing to a local consular office after such date) a review, without seeking admission, of the alien’s continued inadmissibility under the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.],
if the alien is no longer inadmissible because of an amendment made by this section the alien’s name shall be removed from such books and system and the alien shall be informed of such removal and if the alien continues to be inadmissible the alien shall be informed of such determination.”

Implementation of Requirements for Admission of Nonimmigrant Nurses During 5-Year Period

Pub. L. 101–238, § 3(c), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2103, provided that:

“The Secretary of Labor (in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services) shall—
“(1) first publish final regulations to carry out section 212(m) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1182(m)] (as added by this section) not later than the first day of the 8th month beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 1989]; and
“(2)
provide for the appointment (by January 1, 1991) of an advisory group, including representatives of the Secretary, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Attorney General, hospitals, and labor organizations representing registered nurses, to advise the Secretary—
“(A) concerning the impact of this section on the nursing shortage,
“(B) on programs that medical institutions may implement to recruit and retain registered nurses who are United States citizens or immigrants who are authorized to perform nursing services,
“(C) on the formulation of State recruitment and retention plans under section 212(m)(3) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, and
“(D) on the advisability of extending the amendments made by this section [amending sections 1101 and 1182 of this title] beyond the 5-year period described in subsection (d) [set out above].”

Prohibition on Exclusion or Deportation of Aliens on Certain Grounds

Pub. L. 100–204, title IX, § 901, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1399, as amended by Pub. L. 100–461, title V, § 555, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2268–36; Pub. L. 101–246, title I, § 128, Feb. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 30, provided that no nonimmigrant alien was to be denied a visa or excluded from admission into the United States, or subject to deportation because of any past, current or expected beliefs, statements or associations which, if engaged in by a United States citizen in the United States, would be protected under the Constitution of the United States, and which provided construction regarding excludable aliens and standing to sue, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–649, title VI, § 603(a)(21), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5084.

Regulations Governing Admission, Detention, and Travel of Nonimmigrant Aliens in Guam Pursuant to Visa Waivers

Pub. L. 99–396, § 14(b), Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 842, as amended by Pub. L. 100–525, § 3(1)(B), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2614, directed Attorney General to issue, within 90 days after Aug. 27, 1986, regulations governing the admission, detention, and travel of nonimmigrant aliens pursuant to the visa waiver authorized by the amendment made by section 14(a) of Pub. L. 99–396, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–649, title VI, § 603(a)(19), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5084.

Annual Report to Congress on Implementation of Provisions Authorizing Waiver of Certain Requirements for Nonimmigrant Visitors to Guam

Pub. L. 99–396, § 14(c), Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 842, as amended by Pub. L. 100–525, § 3(1)(B), (C), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2614, directed Attorney General to submit a report each year on implementation of 8 U.S.C. 1182(l) to Committees on the Judiciary and Interior and Insular Affairs of House of Representatives and Committees on the Judiciary and Energy and Natural Resources of Senate, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–649, title VI, § 603(a)(19), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5084.

Sharing of Information Concerning Drug Traffickers

Pub. L. 99–93, title I, § 132, Aug. 16, 1985, 99 Stat. 420, provided that:

“(a)
Reporting Systems.—
In order to ensure that foreign narcotics traffickers are denied visas to enter the United States, as required by section 212(a)(23) of the Immigration and Naturalization Act ([former] 22 [8] U.S.C. 1182(a)(23))—
“(1) the Department of State shall cooperate with United States law enforcement agencies, including the Drug Enforcement Administration and the United States Customs Service, in establishing a comprehensive information system on all drug arrests of foreign nationals in the United States, so that that information may be communicated to the appropriate United States embassies; and
“(2) the National Drug Enforcement Policy Board shall agree on uniform guidelines which would permit the sharing of information on foreign drug traffickers.
“(b)
Report.—
Not later than six months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 16, 1985], the Chairman of the National Drug Enforcement Policy Board shall submit a report to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate on the steps taken to implement this section.”

[For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury, including functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203(1), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6. For establishment of U.S. Customs and Border Protection in the Department of Homeland Security, treated as if included in Pub. L. 107–296 as of Nov. 25, 2002, see section 211 of Title 6, as amended generally by Pub. L. 114–125, and section 802(b) of Pub. L. 114–125, set out as a note under section 211 of Title 6.]

Refugees From Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia); Temporary Parole Into United States for Fiscal Years 1979 and 1980

Pub. L. 95–431, title VI, § 605, Oct. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 1045, provided that it was the sense of Congress that United States give special consideration to plight of refugees from Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia) and that Attorney General should parole into United States, under section 1182(d)(5) of this title for fiscal year 1979, 7,500 aliens who are nationals or citizens of Democratic Kampuchea and for fiscal year 1980, 7,500 such aliens.

Retroactive Adjustment of Refugee Status

Pub. L. 95–412, § 5, Oct. 5, 1978, 92 Stat. 909, as amended by Pub. L. 96–212, title II, § 203(g), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 108, provided that any refugee, not otherwise eligible for retroactive adjustment of status, who was paroled into United States by Attorney General pursuant to section 1182(d)(5) of this title before Apr. 1, 1980, was to have his status adjusted pursuant to section 1153(g) and (h) of this title.

Report by Attorney General to Congressional Committees on Admission of Certain Excludable Aliens

Pub. L. 95–370, title IV, § 401, Sept. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 627, directed Attorney General, by October 30, 1979, to report to specific congressional committees on certain cases of the admission to the United States of aliens that may have been excludable under former section 1182(a)(27) to (29) of this title.

National Board of Medical Examiners Examination

Pub. L. 94–484, title VI, § 602(a), (b), as added by Pub. L. 95–83, title III, § 307(q)(3), Aug. 1, 1977, 91 Stat. 395, eff. Jan. 10, 1977, provided that an alien who is a graduate of a medical school would be considered to have passed parts I and II of the National Board of Medical Examiners Examination if the alien was on January 9, 1977, a doctor of medicine fully and permanently licensed to practice medicine in a State, held on that date a valid specialty certificate issued by a constituent board of the American Board of Medical Specialties, and was on that date practicing medicine in a State, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–116, § 5(a)(3), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1612.

Labor Certification for Graduates of Foreign Medical Schools; Development of Data by Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Not Later Than Oct. 12, 1977

Pub. L. 94–484, title IX, § 906, Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2325, directed Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, not later than one year after Oct. 12, 1976, to develop sufficient data to enable the Secretary of Labor to make equitable determinations with regard to applications for labor certification by graduates of foreign medical schools, such data to include the number of physicians (by specialty and by percent of population) in a geographic area necessary to provide adequate medical care, including such care in hospitals, nursing homes, and other health care institutions, in such area.

Resettlement of Refugee-Escapee; Reports; Formula; Termination Date; Persons Difficult To Resettle; Creation of Record of Admission for Permanent Residence

Pub. L. 86–648, §§ 1–4, 11, July 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 504, 505, as amended by Pub. L. 87–510, § 6, June 28, 1962, 76 Stat. 124; Pub. L. 89–236, § 16, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 919, provided:

“[Section 1. Repealed. Pub. L. 89–236, § 16, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 919.]
“[Sec. 2. Repealed. Pub. L. 89–236, § 16, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 919.]
“Sec. 3. Any alien who was paroled into the United States as a refugee-escapee, pursuant to section 1 of the Act, whose parole has not theretofore been terminated by the Attorney General pursuant to such regulations as he may prescribe under the authority of section 212(d)(5) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [subsec. (d)(5) of this section]; and who has been in the United States for at least two years, and who has not acquired permanent residence, shall forthwith return or be returned to the custody of the Immigration and Naturalization Service and shall thereupon be inspected and examined for admission into the United States, and his case dealt with in accordance with the provisions of sections 235, 236, and 237 of the Immigration and Nationality Act [sections 1225, 1226, and [former] 1227 of this title].
“Sec. 4. Any alien who, pursuant to section 3 of this Act, is found, upon inspection by the immigration officer or after hearing before a special inquiry officer, to be admissible as an immigrant under the Immigration and Nationality Act [this chapter] at the time of his inspection and examination, except for the fact that he was not and is not in possession of the documents required by section 212(a)(20) of the said Act [former subsec. (a)(20) of this section], shall be regarded as lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence as of the date of his arrival.
* * * * *
“[Sec. 11. Repealed. Pub. L. 89-236, § 16, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 919.]”

Creation of Record of Admission for Permanent Residence in the Case of Certain Hungarian Refugees

Pub. L. 85–559, July 25, 1958, 72 Stat. 419, provided:

“That any alien who was paroled into the United States as a refugee from the Hungarian revolution under section 212(d)(5) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [subsection (d)(5) of this section] subsequent to October 23, 1956, who has been in the United States for at least two years, and who has not acquired permanent residence, shall forthwith return or be returned to the custody of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and shall thereupon be inspected and examined for admission into the United States, and his case dealt with, in accordance with the provisions of sections 235, 236 and 237 of that Act [sections 1225, 1226 and [former] 1227 of this title].
“Sec. 2. Any such alien who, pursuant to section 1 of this Act, is found, upon inspection by an immigration officer or after hearing before a special inquiry officer, to have been and to be admissible as an immigrant at the time of his arrival in the United States and at the time of his inspection and examination, except for the fact that he was not and is not in possession of the documents required by section 212(a)(20) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [former subsection (a)(20) of this section], shall be regarded as lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence as of the date of his arrival.
“Sec. 3. Nothing contained in this Act shall be held to repeal, amend, alter, modify, affect, or restrict the powers, duties, functions, or authority of the Attorney General in the administration and enforcement of the Immigration and Nationality Act [this chapter] or any other law relating to immigration, nationality, or naturalization.”

Executive Documents
Presidential Proclamations Suspending Entry of Certain Aliens

Suspension of entry of certain aliens into the United States were contained in the following Presidential proclamations:

Proc. No. 10052, June 22, 2020, 85 F.R. 38263, as amended by Proc. No. 10054, June 29, 2020, 85 F.R. 40085, relating to immigrants and nonimmigrants who present a risk to the United States labor market following the COVID–19 pandemic.

Proc. No. 10043, May 29, 2020, 85 F.R. 34353, relating to certain students and researchers from the People’s Republic of China.

Proc. No. 10014, Apr. 22, 2020, 85 F.R. 23441, as amended by Proc. No. 10052, § 1, June 22, 2020, 85 F.R. 38264, relating to immigrants who present a risk to the United States labor market following the COVID–19 pandemic.

Proc. No. 9945, Oct. 4, 2019, 84 F.R. 53991, relating to immigrants who will financially burden the United States healthcare system.

Proc. No. 9932, Sept. 25, 2019, 84 F.R. 51935, relating to senior officials of the government of Iran.

Proc. No. 9931, Sept. 25, 2019, 84 F.R. 51931, relating to persons responsible for policies or actions that threaten Venezuela’s democratic institutions.

Proc. No. 8697, Aug. 4, 2011, 76 F.R. 49277, relating to persons who participate in serious human rights and humanitarian law violations and other abuses.

Proc. No. 8693, July 24, 2011, 76 F.R. 44751, relating to aliens subject to United Nations Security Council travel bans and International Emergency Economic Powers Act sanctions.

Proc. No. 8342, Jan. 16, 2009, 74 F.R. 4093, relating to foreign government officials responsible for failing to combat trafficking in persons.

Proc. No. 7750, Jan. 12, 2004, 69 F.R. 2287, relating to persons engaged in or benefiting from corruption.

Presidential Proclamations Suspending Entry as Immigrants and Nonimmigrants of Persons Who Pose a Risk of Transmitting 2019 Novel Coronavirus

Suspension of entry into the United States of aliens who were physically present in certain countries during the COVID–19 pandemic were contained in the following Presidential proclamations:

Proc. No. 10041, May 24, 2020, 85 F.R. 31933, as amended by Proc. No. 10042, May 25, 2020, 85 F.R. 32291, relating to aliens present in the Federative Republic of Brazil.

Proc. No. 9996, Mar. 14, 2020, 85 F.R. 15341, relating to aliens present in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland.

Proc. No. 9993, Mar. 11, 2020, 85 F.R. 15045, relating to aliens present in the Schengen Area.

Proc. No. 9992, Feb. 29, 2020, 85 F.R. 12855, relating to aliens present in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Proc. No. 9984, Jan. 31, 2020, 85 F.R. 6709, as amended by Proc. No. 9992, § 4, Feb. 29, 2020, 85 F.R. 12857, relating to aliens present in the People’s Republic of China.

Proc. No. 4865. High Seas Interdiction of Illegal Aliens

Proc. No. 4865, Sept. 29, 1981, 46 F.R. 48107, provided:

The ongoing migration of persons to the United States in violation of our laws is a serious national problem detrimental to the interests of the United States. A particularly difficult aspect of the problem is the continuing illegal migration by sea of large numbers of undocumented aliens into the southeastern United States. These arrivals have severely strained the law enforcement resources of the Immigration and Naturalization Service and have threatened the welfare and safety of communities in that region.

As a result of our discussions with the Governments of affected foreign countries and with agencies of the Executive Branch of our Government, I have determined that new and effective measures to curtail these unlawful arrivals are necessary. In this regard, I have determined that international cooperation to intercept vessels trafficking in illegal migrants is a necessary and proper means of insuring the effective enforcement of our laws.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, RONALD REAGAN, President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the statutes of the United States, including Sections 212(f) and 215(a)(1) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended (8 U.S.C. 1182(f) and 1185(a)(1)), in order to protect the sovereignty of the United States, and in accordance with cooperative arrangements with certain foreign governments, and having found that the entry of undocumented aliens, arriving at the borders of the United States from the high seas, is detrimental to the interests of the United States, do proclaim that:

The entry of undocumented aliens from the high seas is hereby suspended and shall be prevented by the interdiction of certain vessels carrying such aliens.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-ninth day of September, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and eighty-one, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and sixth.

Ronald Reagan.
Proc. No. 9645. Enhancing Vetting Capabilities and Processes for Detecting Attempted Entry Into the United States by Terrorists or Other Public-Safety Threats

Proc. No. 9645, Sept. 24, 2017, 82 F.R. 45161, as amended by Proc. No. 9723, § 1, Apr. 10, 2018, 83 F.R. 15939; Proc. No. 9983, § 3, Jan. 31, 2020, 85 F.R. 6706, provided:

In Executive Order 13780 of March 6, 2017 (Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States) [set out below], on the recommendations of the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Attorney General, I ordered a worldwide review of whether, and if so what, additional information would be needed from each foreign country to assess adequately whether their nationals seeking to enter the United States pose a security or safety threat. This was the first such review of its kind in United States history. As part of the review, the Secretary of Homeland Security established global requirements for information sharing in support of immigration screening and vetting. The Secretary of Homeland Security developed a comprehensive set of criteria and applied it to the information-sharing practices, policies, and capabilities of foreign governments. The Secretary of State thereafter engaged with the countries reviewed in an effort to address deficiencies and achieve improvements. In many instances, those efforts produced positive results. By obtaining additional information and formal commitments from foreign governments, the United States Government has improved its capacity and ability to assess whether foreign nationals attempting to enter the United States pose a security or safety threat. Our Nation is safer as a result of this work.

Despite those efforts, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Attorney General, has determined that a small number of countries—out of nearly 200 evaluated—remain deficient at this time with respect to their identity-management and information-sharing capabilities, protocols, and practices. In some cases, these countries also have a significant terrorist presence within their territory.

As President, I must act to protect the security and interests of the United States and its people. I am committed to our ongoing efforts to engage those countries willing to cooperate, improve information-sharing and identity-management protocols and procedures, and address both terrorism-related and public-safety risks. Some of the countries with remaining inadequacies face significant challenges. Others have made strides to improve their protocols and procedures, and I commend them for these efforts. But until they satisfactorily address the identified inadequacies, I have determined, on the basis of recommendations from the Secretary of Homeland Security and other members of my Cabinet, to impose certain conditional restrictions and limitations, as set forth more fully below, on entry into the United States of nationals of the countries identified in section 2 of this proclamation.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, DONALD J. TRUMP, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 212(f) and 215(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), 8 U.S.C. 1182(f) and 1185(a), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, hereby find that, absent the measures set forth in this proclamation, the immigrant and nonimmigrant entry into the United States of persons described in section 2 of this proclamation would be detrimental to the interests of the United States, and that their entry should be subject to certain restrictions, limitations, and exceptions. I therefore hereby proclaim the following:

Section 1. Policy and Purpose. (a) It is the policy of the United States to protect its citizens from terrorist attacks and other public-safety threats. Screening and vetting protocols and procedures associated with visa adjudications and other immigration processes play a critical role in implementing that policy. They enhance our ability to detect foreign nationals who may commit, aid, or support acts of terrorism, or otherwise pose a safety threat, and they aid our efforts to prevent such individuals from entering the United States.

(b) Information-sharing and identity-management protocols and practices of foreign governments are important for the effectiveness of the screening and vetting protocols and procedures of the United States. Governments manage the identity and travel documents of their nationals and residents. They also control the circumstances under which they provide information about their nationals to other governments, including information about known or suspected terrorists and criminal-history information. It is, therefore, the policy of the United States to take all necessary and appropriate steps to encourage foreign governments to improve their information-sharing and identity-management protocols and practices and to regularly share identity and threat information with our immigration screening and vetting systems.

(c) Section 2(a) of Executive Order 13780 directed a “worldwide review to identify whether, and if so what, additional information will be needed from each foreign country to adjudicate an application by a national of that country for a visa, admission, or other benefit under the INA (adjudications) in order to determine that the individual is not a security or public-safety threat.” That review culminated in a report submitted to the President by the Secretary of Homeland Security on July 9, 2017. In that review, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Director of National Intelligence, developed a baseline for the kinds of information required from foreign governments to support the United States Government’s ability to confirm the identity of individuals seeking entry into the United States as immigrants and nonimmigrants, as well as individuals applying for any other benefit under the immigration laws, and to assess whether they are a security or public-safety threat. That baseline incorporates three categories of criteria:

(i) Identity-management information. The United States expects foreign governments to provide the information needed to determine whether individuals seeking benefits under the immigration laws are who they claim to be. The identity-management information category focuses on the integrity of documents required for travel to the United States. The criteria assessed in this category include whether the country issues electronic passports embedded with data to enable confirmation of identity, reports lost and stolen passports to appropriate entities, and makes available upon request identity-related information not included in its passports.

(ii) National security and public-safety information. The United States expects foreign governments to provide information about whether persons who seek entry to this country pose national security or public-safety risks. The criteria assessed in this category include whether the country makes available, directly or indirectly, known or suspected terrorist and criminal-history information upon request, whether the country provides passport and national-identity document exemplars, and whether the country impedes the United States Government’s receipt of information about passengers and crew traveling to the United States.

(iii) National security and public-safety risk assessment. The national security and public-safety risk assessment category focuses on national security risk indicators. The criteria assessed in this category include whether the country is a known or potential terrorist safe haven, whether it is a participant in the Visa Waiver Program established under section 217 of the INA, 8 U.S.C. 1187, that meets all of its requirements, and whether it regularly fails to receive its nationals subject to final orders of removal from the United States.

(d) The Department of Homeland Security, in coordination with the Department of State, collected data on the performance of all foreign governments and assessed each country against the baseline described in subsection (c) of this section. The assessment focused, in particular, on identity management, security and public-safety threats, and national security risks. Through this assessment, the agencies measured each country’s performance with respect to issuing reliable travel documents and implementing adequate identity-management and information-sharing protocols and procedures, and evaluated terrorism-related and public-safety risks associated with foreign nationals seeking entry into the United States from each country.

(e) The Department of Homeland Security evaluated each country against the baseline described in subsection (c) of this section. The Secretary of Homeland Security identified 16 countries as being “inadequate” based on an analysis of their identity-management protocols, information-sharing practices, and risk factors. Thirty-one additional countries were classified “at risk” of becoming “inadequate” based on those criteria.

(f) As required by section 2(d) of Executive Order 13780, the Department of State conducted a 50-day engagement period to encourage all foreign governments, not just the 47 identified as either “inadequate” or “at risk,” to improve their performance with respect to the baseline described in subsection (c) of this section. Those engagements yielded significant improvements in many countries. Twenty-nine countries, for example, provided travel document exemplars for use by Department of Homeland Security officials to combat fraud. Eleven countries agreed to share information on known or suspected terrorists.

(g) The Secretary of Homeland Security assesses that the following countries continue to have “inadequate” identity-management protocols, information-sharing practices, and risk factors, with respect to the baseline described in subsection (c) of this section, such that entry restrictions and limitations are recommended: Chad, Iran, Libya, North Korea, Syria, Venezuela, and Yemen. The Secretary of Homeland Security also assesses that Iraq did not meet the baseline, but that entry restrictions and limitations under a Presidential proclamation are not warranted. The Secretary of Homeland Security recommends, however, that nationals of Iraq who seek to enter the United States be subject to additional scrutiny to determine if they pose risks to the national security or public safety of the United States. In reaching these conclusions, the Secretary of Homeland Security considered the close cooperative relationship between the United States and the democratically elected government of Iraq, the strong United States diplomatic presence in Iraq, the significant presence of United States forces in Iraq, and Iraq’s commitment to combating the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS).

(h) Section 2(e) of Executive Order 13780 directed the Secretary of Homeland Security to “submit to the President a list of countries recommended for inclusion in a Presidential proclamation that would prohibit the entry of appropriate categories of foreign nationals of countries that have not provided the information requested until they do so or until the Secretary of Homeland Security certifies that the country has an adequate plan to do so, or has adequately shared information through other means.” On September 15, 2017, the Secretary of Homeland Security submitted a report to me recommending entry restrictions and limitations on certain nationals of 7 countries determined to be “inadequate” in providing such information and in light of other factors discussed in the report. According to the report, the recommended restrictions would help address the threats that the countries’ identity-management protocols, information-sharing inadequacies, and other risk factors pose to the security and welfare of the United States. The restrictions also encourage the countries to work with the United States to address those inadequacies and risks so that the restrictions and limitations imposed by this proclamation may be relaxed or removed as soon as possible.

(i) In evaluating the recommendations of the Secretary of Homeland Security and in determining what restrictions to impose for each country, I consulted with appropriate Assistants to the President and members of the Cabinet, including the Secretaries of State, Defense, and Homeland Security, and the Attorney General. I considered several factors, including each country’s capacity, ability, and willingness to cooperate with our identity-management and information-sharing policies and each country’s risk factors, such as whether it has a significant terrorist presence within its territory. I also considered foreign policy, national security, and counterterrorism goals. I reviewed these factors and assessed these goals, with a particular focus on crafting those country-specific restrictions that would be most likely to encourage cooperation given each country’s distinct circumstances, and that would, at the same time, protect the United States until such time as improvements occur. The restrictions and limitations imposed by this proclamation are, in my judgment, necessary to prevent the entry of those foreign nationals about whom the United States Government lacks sufficient information to assess the risks they pose to the United States. These restrictions and limitations are also needed to elicit improved identity-management and information-sharing protocols and practices from foreign governments; and to advance foreign policy, national security, and counterterrorism objectives.

(ii) After reviewing the Secretary of Homeland Security’s report of September 15, 2017, and accounting for the foreign policy, national security, and counterterrorism objectives of the United States, I have determined to restrict and limit the entry of nationals of 7 countries found to be “inadequate” with respect to the baseline described in subsection (c) of this section: Chad, Iran, Libya, North Korea, Syria, Venezuela, and Yemen. These restrictions distinguish between the entry of immigrants and nonimmigrants. Persons admitted on immigrant visas become lawful permanent residents of the United States. Such persons may present national security or public-safety concerns that may be distinct from those admitted as nonimmigrants. The United States affords lawful permanent residents more enduring rights than it does to nonimmigrants. Lawful permanent residents are more difficult to remove than nonimmigrants even after national security concerns arise, which heightens the costs and dangers of errors associated with admitting such individuals. And although immigrants generally receive more extensive vetting than nonimmigrants, such vetting is less reliable when the country from which someone seeks to emigrate exhibits significant gaps in its identity-management or information-sharing policies, or presents risks to the national security of the United States. For all but one of those 7 countries, therefore, I am restricting the entry of all immigrants.

(iii) I am adopting a more tailored approach with respect to nonimmigrants, in accordance with the recommendations of the Secretary of Homeland Security. For some countries found to be “inadequate” with respect to the baseline described in subsection (c) of this section, I am restricting the entry of all nonimmigrants. For countries with certain mitigating factors, such as a willingness to cooperate or play a substantial role in combatting terrorism, I am restricting the entry only of certain categories of nonimmigrants, which will mitigate the security threats presented by their entry into the United States. In those cases in which future cooperation seems reasonably likely, and accounting for foreign policy, national security, and counterterrorism objectives, I have tailored the restrictions to encourage such improvements.

(i) Section 2(e) of Executive Order 13780 also provided that the “Secretary of State, the Attorney General, or the Secretary of Homeland Security may also submit to the President the names of additional countries for which any of them recommends other lawful restrictions or limitations deemed necessary for the security or welfare of the United States.” The Secretary of Homeland Security determined that Somalia generally satisfies the information-sharing requirements of the baseline described in subsection (c) of this section, but its government’s inability to effectively and consistently cooperate, combined with the terrorist threat that emanates from its territory, present special circumstances that warrant restrictions and limitations on the entry of its nationals into the United States. Somalia’s identity-management deficiencies and the significant terrorist presence within its territory make it a source of particular risks to the national security and public safety of the United States. Based on the considerations mentioned above, and as described further in section 2(h) of this proclamation, I have determined that entry restrictions, limitations, and other measures designed to ensure proper screening and vetting for nationals of Somalia are necessary for the security and welfare of the United States.

(j) Section 2 of this proclamation describes some of the inadequacies that led me to impose restrictions on the specified countries. Describing all of those reasons publicly, however, would cause serious damage to the national security of the United States, and many such descriptions are classified.

Sec. 2. Suspension of Entry for Nationals of Countries of Identified Concern. The entry into the United States of nationals of the following countries is hereby suspended and limited, as follows, subject to categorical exceptions and case-by-case waivers, as described in sections 3 and 6 of this proclamation:

[(a) Revoked by Proc. No. 9723, § 1, Apr. 10, 2018, 83 F.R. 15939.]

(b) Iran.

(i) Iran regularly fails to cooperate with the United States Government in identifying security risks, fails to satisfy at least one key risk criterion, is the source of significant terrorist threats, and fails to receive its nationals subject to final orders of removal from the United States. The Department of State has also designated Iran as a state sponsor of terrorism.

(ii) The entry into the United States of nationals of Iran as immigrants and as nonimmigrants is hereby suspended, except that entry by such nationals under valid student (F and M) and exchange visitor (J) visas is not suspended, although such individuals should be subject to enhanced screening and vetting requirements.

(c) Libya.

(i) The government of Libya is an important and valuable counterterrorism partner of the United States, and the United States Government looks forward to expanding on that cooperation, including in the areas of immigration and border management. Libya, nonetheless, faces significant challenges in sharing several types of information, including public-safety and terrorism-related information necessary for the protection of the national security and public safety of the United States. Libya also has significant inadequacies in its identity-management protocols. Further, Libya fails to satisfy at least one key risk criterion and has been assessed to be not fully cooperative with respect to receiving its nationals subject to final orders of removal from the United States. The substantial terrorist presence within Libya’s territory amplifies the risks posed by the entry into the United States of its nationals.

(ii) The entry into the United States of nationals of Libya, as immigrants, and as nonimmigrants on business (B–1), tourist (B–2), and business/tourist (B–1/B–2) visas, is hereby suspended.

(d) North Korea.

(i) North Korea does not cooperate with the United States Government in any respect and fails to satisfy all information-sharing requirements.

(ii) The entry into the United States of nationals of North Korea as immigrants and nonimmigrants is hereby suspended.

(e) Syria.

(i) Syria regularly fails to cooperate with the United States Government in identifying security risks, is the source of significant terrorist threats, and has been designated by the Department of State as a state sponsor of terrorism. Syria has significant inadequacies in identity-management protocols, fails to share public-safety and terrorism information, and fails to satisfy at least one key risk criterion.

(ii) The entry into the United States of nationals of Syria as immigrants and nonimmigrants is hereby suspended.

(f) Venezuela.

(i) Venezuela has adopted many of the baseline standards identified by the Secretary of Homeland Security and in section 1 of this proclamation, but its government is uncooperative in verifying whether its citizens pose national security or public-safety threats. Venezuela’s government fails to share public-safety and terrorism-related information adequately, fails to satisfy at least one key risk criterion, and has been assessed to be not fully cooperative with respect to receiving its nationals subject to final orders of removal from the United States. There are, however, alternative sources for obtaining information to verify the citizenship and identity of nationals from Venezuela. As a result, the restrictions imposed by this proclamation focus on government officials of Venezuela who are responsible for the identified inadequacies.

(ii) Notwithstanding section 3(b)(v) of this proclamation, the entry into the United States of officials of government agencies of Venezuela involved in screening and vetting procedures—including the Ministry of the Popular Power for Interior, Justice and Peace; the Administrative Service of Identification, Migration and Immigration; the Scientific, Penal and Criminal Investigation Service Corps; the Bolivarian National Intelligence Service; and the Ministry of the Popular Power for Foreign Relations—and their immediate family members, as nonimmigrants on business (B–1), tourist (B–2), and business/tourist (B–1/B–2) visas, is hereby suspended. Further, nationals of Venezuela who are visa holders should be subject to appropriate additional measures to ensure traveler information remains current.

(g) Yemen.

(i) The government of Yemen is an important and valuable counterterrorism partner, and the United States Government looks forward to expanding that cooperation, including in the areas of immigration and border management. Yemen, nonetheless, faces significant identity-management challenges, which are amplified by the notable terrorist presence within its territory. The government of Yemen fails to satisfy critical identity-management requirements, does not share public-safety and terrorism-related information adequately, and fails to satisfy at least one key risk criterion.

(ii) The entry into the United States of nationals of Yemen as immigrants, and as nonimmigrants on business (B–1), tourist (B–2), and business/tourist (B–1/B–2) visas, is hereby suspended.

(h) Somalia.

(i) The Secretary of Homeland Security’s report of September 15, 2017, determined that Somalia satisfies the information-sharing requirements of the baseline described in section 1(c) of this proclamation. But several other considerations support imposing entry restrictions and limitations on Somalia. Somalia has significant identity-management deficiencies. For example, while Somalia issues an electronic passport, the United States and many other countries do not recognize it. A persistent terrorist threat also emanates from Somalia’s territory. The United States Government has identified Somalia as a terrorist safe haven. Somalia stands apart from other countries in the degree to which its government lacks command and control of its territory, which greatly limits the effectiveness of its national capabilities in a variety of respects. Terrorists use under-governed areas in northern, central, and southern Somalia as safe havens from which to plan, facilitate, and conduct their operations. Somalia also remains a destination for individuals attempting to join terrorist groups that threaten the national security of the United States. The State Department’s 2016 Country Reports on Terrorism observed that Somalia has not sufficiently degraded the ability of terrorist groups to plan and mount attacks from its territory. Further, despite having made significant progress toward formally federating its member states, and its willingness to fight terrorism, Somalia continues to struggle to provide the governance needed to limit terrorists’ freedom of movement, access to resources, and capacity to operate. The government of Somalia’s lack of territorial control also compromises Somalia’s ability, already limited because of poor recordkeeping, to share information about its nationals who pose criminal or terrorist risks. As a result of these and other factors, Somalia presents special concerns that distinguish it from other countries.

(ii) The entry into the United States of nationals of Somalia as immigrants is hereby suspended. Additionally, visa adjudications for nationals of Somalia and decisions regarding their entry as nonimmigrants should be subject to additional scrutiny to determine if applicants are connected to terrorist organizations or otherwise pose a threat to the national security or public safety of the United States.

Sec. 3. Scope and Implementation of Suspensions and Limitations. (a) Scope. Subject to the exceptions set forth in subsection (b) of this section and any waiver under subsection (c) of this section, the suspensions of and limitations on entry pursuant to section 2 of this proclamation shall apply only to foreign nationals of the designated countries who:

(i) are outside the United States on the applicable effective date under section 7 of this proclamation;

(ii) do not have a valid visa on the applicable effective date under section 7 of this proclamation; and

(iii) do not qualify for a visa or other valid travel document under section 6(d) of this proclamation.

(b) Exceptions. The suspension of entry pursuant to section 2 of this proclamation shall not apply to:

(i) any lawful permanent resident of the United States;

(ii) any foreign national who is admitted to or paroled into the United States on or after the applicable effective date under section 7 of this proclamation;

(iii) any foreign national who has a document other than a visa—such as a transportation letter, an appropriate boarding foil, or an advance parole document—valid on the applicable effective date under section 7 of this proclamation or issued on any date thereafter, that permits him or her to travel to the United States and seek entry or admission;

(iv) any dual national of a country designated under section 2 of this proclamation when the individual is traveling on a passport issued by a non-designated country;

(v) any foreign national traveling on a diplomatic or diplomatic-type visa, North Atlantic Treaty Organization visa, C–2 visa for travel to the United Nations, or G–1, G–2, G–3, or G–4 visa; or

(vi) any foreign national who has been granted asylum by the United States; any refugee who has already been admitted to the United States; or any individual who has been granted withholding of removal, advance parole, or protection under the Convention Against Torture.

(c) Waivers. Notwithstanding the suspensions of and limitations on entry set forth in section 2 of this proclamation, a consular officer, or the Commissioner, United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP), or the Commissioner’s designee, as appropriate, may, in their discretion, grant waivers on a case-by-case basis to permit the entry of foreign nationals for whom entry is otherwise suspended or limited if such foreign nationals demonstrate that waivers would be appropriate and consistent with subsections (i) through (iv) of this subsection. The Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall coordinate to adopt guidance addressing the circumstances in which waivers may be appropriate for foreign nationals seeking entry as immigrants or nonimmigrants.

(i) A waiver may be granted only if a foreign national demonstrates to the consular officer’s or CBP official’s satisfaction that:

(A) denying entry would cause the foreign national undue hardship;

(B) entry would not pose a threat to the national security or public safety of the United States; and

(C) entry would be in the national interest.

(ii) The guidance issued by the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security under this subsection shall address the standards, policies, and procedures for:

(A) determining whether the entry of a foreign national would not pose a threat to the national security or public safety of the United States;

(B) determining whether the entry of a foreign national would be in the national interest;

(C) addressing and managing the risks of making such a determination in light of the inadequacies in information sharing, identity management, and other potential dangers posed by the nationals of individual countries subject to the restrictions and limitations imposed by this proclamation;

(D) assessing whether the United States has access, at the time of the waiver determination, to sufficient information about the foreign national to determine whether entry would satisfy the requirements of subsection (i) of this subsection; and

(E) determining the special circumstances that would justify granting a waiver under subsection (iv)(E) of this subsection.

(iii) Unless otherwise specified by the Secretary of Homeland Security, any waiver issued by a consular officer as part of the visa adjudication process will be effective both for the issuance of a visa and for any subsequent entry on that visa, but will leave unchanged all other requirements for admission or entry.

(iv) Case-by-case waivers may not be granted categorically, but may be appropriate, subject to the limitations, conditions, and requirements set forth under subsection (i) of this subsection and the guidance issued under subsection (ii) of this subsection, in individual circumstances such as the following:

(A) the foreign national has previously been admitted to the United States for a continuous period of work, study, or other long-term activity, is outside the United States on the applicable effective date under section 7 of this proclamation, seeks to reenter the United States to resume that activity, and the denial of reentry would impair that activity;

(B) the foreign national has previously established significant contacts with the United States but is outside the United States on the applicable effective date under section 7 of this proclamation for work, study, or other lawful activity;

(C) the foreign national seeks to enter the United States for significant business or professional obligations and the denial of entry would impair those obligations;

(D) the foreign national seeks to enter the United States to visit or reside with a close family member (e.g., a spouse, child, or parent) who is a United States citizen, lawful permanent resident, or alien lawfully admitted on a valid nonimmigrant visa, and the denial of entry would cause the foreign national undue hardship;

(E) the foreign national is an infant, a young child or adoptee, an individual needing urgent medical care, or someone whose entry is otherwise justified by the special circumstances of the case;

(F) the foreign national has been employed by, or on behalf of, the United States Government (or is an eligible dependent of such an employee), and the foreign national can document that he or she has provided faithful and valuable service to the United States Government;

(G) the foreign national is traveling for purposes related to an international organization designated under the International Organizations Immunities Act (IOIA), 22 U.S.C. 288 et seq., traveling for purposes of conducting meetings or business with the United States Government, or traveling to conduct business on behalf of an international organization not designated under the IOIA;

(H) the foreign national is a Canadian permanent resident who applies for a visa at a location within Canada;

(I) the foreign national is traveling as a United States Government-sponsored exchange visitor; or

(J) the foreign national is traveling to the United States, at the request of a United States Government department or agency, for legitimate law enforcement, foreign policy, or national security purposes.

Sec. 4. Adjustments to Removal of Suspensions and Limitations.

(a) The Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall on October 1, 2020, and annually thereafter, submit to the President the results of an evaluation as to whether to continue, terminate, modify, or supplement any suspensions of, or limitations on, the entry on certain classes of nationals of countries identified in section 2 of this proclamation and section 1(b) of the Proclamation “Improving Enhanced Vetting Capabilities and Processes for Detecting Attempted Entry into the United States by Terrorists or Other Public-Safety Threats,” signed on January 31, 2020 [Proc. No. 9983, set out below].

(b) The Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Director of National Intelligence, shall not less than every 2 years evaluate whether each country in the world sufficiently shares relevant information and maintains adequate identity-management and information-sharing practices to mitigate the risk that its citizens or residents may travel to the United States in furtherance of criminal or terrorist objectives, or otherwise seek to violate any law of the United States through travel or immigration. In doing so, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall:

(i) in consultation with the Secretary of State, Attorney General, and the Director of National Intelligence, report to the President, through the appropriate Assistants to the President, any instance in which, based on a review conducted under subsection (b) of this section, the Secretary of Homeland Security believes it is in the interests of the United States to suspend or limit the entry of certain classes of nationals of a country; and

(ii) in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Director of National Intelligence, regularly review and update as necessary the criteria and methodology by which such evaluations are implemented to ensure they continue to protect the national interests of the United States.

(c) Notwithstanding the requirements set forth in subsections (a) and (b) of this section, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State, Attorney General, and the Director of National Intelligence, may, at any time, recommend that the President impose, modify, or terminate a suspension or limitation on entry on certain classes of foreign nationals to protect the national interests of the United States.

[Sec. 5. Revoked by Proc. No. 9983, § 3(b), Jan. 31, 2020, 85 F.R. 6706.]

Sec. 6. Enforcement. (a) The Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall consult with appropriate domestic and international partners, including countries and organizations, to ensure efficient, effective, and appropriate implementation of this proclamation.

(b) In implementing this proclamation, the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall comply with all applicable laws and regulations, including those that provide an opportunity for individuals to enter the United States on the basis of a credible claim of fear of persecution or torture.

(c) No immigrant or nonimmigrant visa issued before the applicable effective date under section 7 of this proclamation shall be revoked pursuant to this proclamation.

(d) Any individual whose visa was marked revoked or marked canceled as a result of Executive Order 13769 of January 27, 2017 (Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States), shall be entitled to a travel document confirming that the individual is permitted to travel to the United States and seek entry under the terms and conditions of the visa marked revoked or marked canceled. Any prior cancellation or revocation of a visa that was solely pursuant to Executive Order 13769 shall not be the basis of inadmissibility for any future determination about entry or admissibility.

(e) This proclamation shall not apply to an individual who has been granted asylum by the United States, to a refugee who has already been admitted to the United States, or to an individual granted withholding of removal or protection under the Convention Against Torture. Nothing in this proclamation shall be construed to limit the ability of an individual to seek asylum, refugee status, withholding of removal, or protection under the Convention Against Torture, consistent with the laws of the United States.

Sec. 7. Effective Dates. Executive Order 13780 ordered a temporary pause on the entry of foreign nationals from certain foreign countries. In two cases, however, Federal courts have enjoined those restrictions. The Supreme Court has stayed those injunctions as to foreign nationals who lack a credible claim of a bona fide relationship with a person or entity in the United States, pending its review of the decisions of the lower courts.

(a) The restrictions and limitations established in section 2 of this proclamation are effective at 3:30 p.m. eastern daylight time on September 24, 2017, for foreign nationals who:

(i) were subject to entry restrictions under section 2 of Executive Order 13780, or would have been subject to the restrictions but for section 3 of that Executive Order, and

(ii) lack a credible claim of a bona fide relationship with a person or entity in the United States.

(b) The restrictions and limitations established in section 2 of this proclamation are effective at 12:01 a.m. eastern daylight time on October 18, 2017, for all other persons subject to this proclamation, including nationals of:

(i) Iran, Libya, Syria, Yemen, and Somalia who have a credible claim of a bona fide relationship with a person or entity in the United States; and

(ii) Chad, North Korea, and Venezuela.

Sec. 8. Severability. It is the policy of the United States to enforce this proclamation to the maximum extent possible to advance the national security, foreign policy, and counterterrorism interests of the United States. Accordingly:

(a) if any provision of this proclamation, or the application of any provision to any person or circumstance, is held to be invalid, the remainder of this proclamation and the application of its other provisions to any other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby; and

(b) if any provision of this proclamation, or the application of any provision to any person or circumstance, is held to be invalid because of the lack of certain procedural requirements, the relevant executive branch officials shall implement those procedural requirements to conform with existing law and with any applicable court orders.

Sec. 9. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this proclamation shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This proclamation shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This proclamation is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-fourth day of September, in the year of our Lord two thousand seventeen, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and forty-second.

Donald J. Trump.
Proc. No. 9983. Improving Enhanced Vetting Capabilities and Processes for Detecting Attempted Entry Into the United States by Terrorists or Other Public-Safety Threats

Proc. No. 9983, Jan. 31, 2020, 85 F.R. 6699, provided:

In Executive Order 13780 of March 6, 2017 (Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry Into the United States) [set out below], I temporarily suspended entry of nationals of certain specified countries and ordered a worldwide review of whether the United States would need additional information from each foreign country to assess adequately whether nationals of that foreign country seeking to enter the United States pose a security or public-safety threat to the United States, and if so, what additional information was needed. The Secretary of Homeland Security, pursuant to Executive Order 13780 and in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Director of National Intelligence, developed an assessment model using three categories of criteria to assess national security and public-safety threats: whether a foreign government engages in reliable identity-management practices and shares relevant information; whether a foreign government shares national security and public-safety information; and whether a country otherwise poses a national security or public-safety risk.

Following a comprehensive worldwide review of the performance of approximately 200 countries using these criteria, the Secretary of Homeland Security presented the results of this review, focusing in particular on those countries that were deficient or at risk of becoming deficient in their performance under the assessment criteria. After a subsequent period of diplomatic engagement on these issues by the Department of State, the Acting Secretary of Homeland Security submitted a report in September 2017, which found that eight countries were hindering the ability of the United States Government to identify threats posed by foreign nationals attempting to enter the United States. The Secretary of Homeland Security then recommended that I impose travel restrictions on certain nationals of those countries. After consultation with relevant Cabinet officials and appropriate Assistants to the President, I issued Proclamation 9645 of September 24, 2017 (Enhancing Vetting Capabilities and Processes for Detecting Attempted Entry Into the United States by Terrorists or Other Public-Safety Threats) [set out above].

In Proclamation 9645, I suspended and limited the entry into the United States of certain nationals of eight countries that failed to satisfy the criteria and were unable or unwilling to improve their information sharing, or that otherwise presented serious terrorism-related risks. Those travel restrictions remain in effect today, with one exception. On April 10, 2018, I issued Proclamation 9723 (Maintaining Enhanced Vetting Capabilities and Processes for Detecting Attempted Entry Into the United States by Terrorists or Other Public-Safety Threats) [amending Proc. No. 9645], removing travel restrictions on nationals of the Republic of Chad. Chad had improved its identity-management and information-sharing practices by taking steps to issue more secure passports and by increasing the integrity of how its government handles lost and stolen passports. Chad also began to share information about known or suspected terrorists in a manner that makes that information available to the United States screening and vetting programs, and it created a new, standardized process for the United States to request relevant criminal information.

Pursuant to my directives in section 4 of Proclamation 9645, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has continued to assess every 180 days and report to me on whether the interests of the United States require the suspension of or limitation on entry of certain classes of foreign nationals. DHS has also continued to assess ways to further improve its processes for measuring how countries perform under the assessment criteria. From July 2018 through August 2019, DHS updated its methodology to assess compliance with the assessment criteria, which has allowed for more in-depth analysis and yields even more granularity and increased accuracy regarding each country’s performance under the criteria.

In this updated methodology, the general overall criteria for review have not changed. The United States Government still expects all foreign governments to share needed identity-management information, to share national security and public-safety information, and to pass a security and public-safety risk assessment. Building on experience and insight gained over the last 2 years, DHS has, however, refined and modified the specific performance metrics by which it assesses compliance with the above criteria. For example, while the prior model determined whether a country shares certain needed information, the revised model accounts for how frequently the country shares that information and the extent to which that data contributes to border and immigration screening and vetting. As another example, the prior system asked whether a country issued electronic passports at all, whereas the refined metrics assess whether a country issues electronic passports for all major classes of travel documents. Similarly, the lost and stolen passports criterion previously assessed whether a country had prior instances of reporting loss or theft to the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL), whereas the revised model now assesses whether the country has reported lost or stolen passports to INTERPOL within 30 days of a report of a loss or theft.

The DHS improvements to the assessment criteria also involve additional, and more customized, data from the United States Intelligence Community. DHS’s original evaluation under Executive Order 13780 relied on existing intelligence products to assess the threat from each country. With the benefit of 2 years of experience, DHS has worked closely with the Intelligence Community to define intelligence requirements and customize intelligence reporting that offers a detailed characterization of the relative risk of terrorist travel to the United States from each country in the world. This additional detail improves DHS’s assessment of national security and public-safety risk.

In addition, DHS greatly increased the amount of information obtained from United States Embassies abroad, which work closely with foreign governments. United States Embassies are best positioned to understand their host countries’ ability and willingness to provide information to the United States, and United States Embassies’ assessments contribute to a clearer understanding of how well a foreign government satisfies the assessment criteria. DHS also consolidated statistical information on operational encounters with foreign nationals. This information speaks to the frequency with which a country’s nationals commit offenses while in the United States or otherwise develop grounds for inadmissibility under the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.].

Finally, as more precise, granular data became available, it became clear that many countries were only partially implementing each criterion. The 2017 process had three basic potential compliance ratings for each criterion: in compliance, out of compliance, or unknown. The updated methodology allows the United States to account for ways in which countries partially comply with the metrics associated with each criterion. As a result, for example, countries that DHS assessed in the 2017 review have now received more nuanced, partial compliance ratings. In addition, the process now weighs each criterion and risk factor based on its degree of importance to the United States Government for conducting screening and vetting of visa applicants and other travelers to the United States.

Using this enhanced review process, DHS conducted its most recent, worldwide review pursuant to Proclamation 9645 between March 2019 and September 2019. The process began on March 11, 2019, when the United States Government formally notified all foreign governments (except for Iran, Syria, and North Korea) about the refined performance metrics for the identity-management and information-sharing criteria. After collecting information from foreign governments, multilateral organizations, United States Embassies, Federal law enforcement agencies, and the Intelligence Community, multiple subject matter experts reviewed each country’s data and measured its identity-management and information-sharing practices against the criteria. DHS then applied the data to an algorithm it developed to consistently assess each country’s compliance with the criteria.

DHS identified the worst-performing countries for further interagency review and for an assessment of the potential impact of visa restrictions. As in the worldwide review culminating in Proclamation 9645, the Acting Secretary of Homeland Security assessed that Iraq did not meet the baseline for compliance. As part of the interagency review process, the Acting Secretary of Homeland Security determined, however, not to recommend entry restrictions and limitations for nationals of Iraq. In his report, the Acting Secretary of Homeland Security recognized a close cooperative relationship between the United States and the democratically elected government of Iraq, the strong United States diplomatic presence in Iraq, the significant presence of United States forces in Iraq, and Iraq’s commitment to combating the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). The Acting Secretary of Homeland Security considered another similarly situated country and determined that, for reasons similar to those present in Iraq, entry restrictions and limitations would not be appropriate.

In addition, the United States Government, led by the Department of State, continued or increased engagements with many countries about those countries’ deficiencies. A number of foreign governments sent senior officials to Washington, D.C., to discuss those issues, explore potential solutions, and convey views about obstacles to improving performance. As a result of this engagement, one country made sufficient improvements in its information-sharing and identity-management practices and was removed from consideration for travel restrictions.

On September 13, 2019, the Acting Secretary of Homeland Security, after consulting with the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Director of National Intelligence, and the heads of other appropriate agencies, submitted a fourth report to me recommending the suspension of, or limitation on, the entry of certain classes of nationals from certain countries in order to protect United States national security, including by incentivizing those foreign governments to improve their practices. The Acting Secretary of Homeland Security recommended maintaining the current restrictions on the seven countries announced in Proclamation 9645 (apart from Chad), as well as implementing suspensions and limitations on entry for certain nationals of twelve additional countries.

Since the Acting Secretary of Homeland Security issued his report on September 13, 2019, the Secretary of State, consistent with section 4(b) of Proclamation 9645, has continued to engage many foreign governments regarding the deficiencies identified in DHS’s report and has continued to consult with the Acting Secretary of Homeland Security, the Secretary of Defense, and other Cabinet-level officials about how best to protect the national interest. Based on these engagements, in January 2020, those senior officials recommended that I maintain the entry restrictions adopted in Proclamation 9645 (as modified by Proclamation 9723), and that I exercise my authority under section 212(f) of the INA [8 U.S.C. 1182(f)] to suspend entry into the United States for nationals of six new countries—Burma (Myanmar), Eritrea, Kyrgyzstan, Nigeria, Sudan, and Tanzania—until those countries address their identified deficiencies.

The January 2020 proposal recommended visa restrictions on fewer countries than identified by the September 2019 DHS report. For example, the January 2020 proposal recommended no entry restrictions on nationals of one country that had been recommended for restrictions in the September 2019 report. This country made exceptional progress in correcting deficiencies since the September 2019 report, such that it could no longer be characterized as a country that is among those posing the highest degree of risk. In addition, the January 2020 proposal recommended that, for five poorly performing countries, foreign policy interests warranted a different approach than recommended in the September 2019 report. Specifically, the January 2020 proposal suggested that diplomatic engagement and requests for specific improvements during a defined 180-day period would be more appropriate and more likely to result in immediate improvements in these five countries. Each of these five countries provides critical counterterrorism cooperation with the United States and therefore holds strategic importance in countering malign external actors. In several of the five countries, the United States has experienced a recent deepening of diplomatic ties that generally mark increased cooperation toward achieving key regional and global United States foreign policy goals. Importantly, all five countries have credibly communicated willingness to work directly with the United States Government to correct their outstanding deficiencies, and the United States believes progress is imminent for several countries and underway for others. For these reasons, these countries will be given an opportunity to show specific improvements in their deficiencies within the next 180 days.

Consistent with recommendations contained in the January 2020 proposal, I have decided to leave unaltered the existing entry restrictions imposed by Proclamation 9645, as amended by Proclamation 9723, and to impose tailored entry restrictions and limitations on nationals from six additional countries. I have decided not to impose any nonimmigrant visa restrictions for the newly identified countries, which substantially reduces the number of people affected by the proposed restrictions. Like the seven countries that continue to face travel restrictions pursuant to Proclamation 9645, the six additional countries recommended for restrictions in the January 2020 proposal are among the worst performing in the world. However, there are prospects for near-term improvement for these six countries. Each has a functioning government and each maintains productive relations with the United States. Most of the newly identified countries have expressed a willingness to work with the United States to address their deficiencies, although it may take some time to identify and implement specific solutions to resolve the deficiencies.

Consistent with the January 2020 proposal, I have prioritized restricting immigrant visa travel over nonimmigrant visa travel because of the challenges of removing an individual in the United States who was admitted with an immigrant visa if, after admission to the United States, the individual is discovered to have terrorist connections, criminal ties, or misrepresented information. Because each of the six additional countries identified in the January 2020 proposal has deficiencies in sharing terrorist, criminal, or identity information, there is an unacceptable likelihood that information reflecting the fact that a visa applicant is a threat to national security or public safety may not be available at the time the visa or entry is approved.

For two newly identified countries that were among the highest risk countries, but performed somewhat better than others, I have decided, consistent with the January 2020 proposal, to suspend entry only of Diversity Immigrants, as described in section 203(c) of the INA, 8 U.S.C. 1153(c). Such a suspension represents a less severe limit compared to a general restriction on immigrant visas, given the significantly fewer number of aliens affected. The Acting Secretary of Homeland Security considers foreign-government-supplied information especially important for screening and vetting the Diversity Visa population in comparison to other immigrant visa applicants, and I agree with that assessment. In many cases, the United States Government may not have the same amount of information about Diversity Visa applicants compared with other categories of immigrant visa applicants because Diversity Visa applicants, with limited exceptions, do not have the burden to show certain family ties to or employment in the United States, or particular service to the United States Government, as required for other immigrant visa categories.

Consistent with the January 2020 proposal, I have decided not to impose any restrictions on certain Special Immigrant Visas for nationals of the six newly identified countries. Applicants under Special Immigrant programs generally do not need to demonstrate the same work or familial ties as other immigrant visas, but do need to show other unique qualifications. This exception is intended to cover those Special Immigrants who have advanced United States interests (and their eligible family members), such as foreign nationals who have worked for a United States Embassy for 15 years or more and are especially deserving of a visa.

As President, I must continue to act to protect the security and interests of the United States and its people. I remain committed to our ongoing efforts to engage those countries willing to cooperate, to improve information-sharing and identity-management protocols and procedures, and to address both terrorism-related and public-safety risks. And I believe that the assessment process, including enhancements made to that process, leads to new partnerships that strengthen our immigration screening and vetting capabilities. Until the countries identified in this proclamation satisfactorily address the identified deficiencies, I have determined, on the basis of a recommendation from the Acting Secretary of Homeland Security and other members of my Cabinet, to impose certain conditional restrictions and limitations on entry into the United States of nationals of the countries identified in section 1 of this proclamation, as set forth more fully below.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, DONALD J. TRUMP, President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 212(f) and 215(a) of the INA, 8 U.S.C. 1182(f) and 1185(a), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, hereby find that, absent the measures set forth in this proclamation, the immigrant entry into the United States of persons described in section 1 of this proclamation would be detrimental to the interests of the United States, and that their entry should be subject to certain restrictions, limitations, and exceptions. I therefore hereby proclaim the following:

Section 1. Suspension of Entry for Nationals of Countries of Identified Concern. The entry into the United States of nationals of the following countries is hereby suspended and limited, as follows, subject to section 2 of this proclamation.

(a) The entry suspensions and limitations enacted by section 2 of Proclamation 9645 are not altered by this proclamation, and they remain in force by their terms, except as modified by Proclamation 9723.

(b) Burma (Myanmar)

(i) Although Burma has begun to engage with the United States on a variety of identity-management and information-sharing issues, it does not comply with the established identity-management and information-sharing criteria assessed by the performance metrics. Burma does not issue electronic passports nor does it adequately share several types of information, including public-safety and terrorism-related information, that are necessary for the protection of the national security and public safety of the United States. Burma is in the process of modernizing its domestic identity-management and criminal-records systems and has worked with the United States to develop some of those systems. It has also recognized the need to make improvements. As its capabilities improve, the prospect for further bilateral cooperation will likely also increase. Despite these encouraging prospects, Burma’s identified deficiencies create vulnerabilities that terrorists, criminals, and fraudulent entrants could exploit to harm United States national security and public safety.

(ii) The entry into the United States of nationals of Burma as immigrants, except as Special Immigrants whose eligibility is based on having provided assistance to the United States Government, is hereby suspended.

(c) Eritrea

(i) Eritrea does not comply with the established identity-management and information-sharing criteria assessed by the performance metrics. Eritrea does not issue electronic passports or adequately share several types of information, including public-safety and terrorism-related information, that are necessary for the protection of the national security and public safety of the United States. Further, Eritrea is currently subject to several nonimmigrant visa restrictions. Eritrea does not accept return of its nationals subject to final orders of removal from the United States, which further magnifies the challenges of removing its nationals who have entered with immigrant visas. Eritrea has engaged with the United States about its deficiencies, but it also requires significant reforms to its border security, travel-document security, and information-sharing infrastructure. Improvements in these areas will increase its opportunities to come into compliance with the United States Government’s identity-management and information-sharing criteria.

(ii) The entry into the United States of nationals of Eritrea as immigrants, except as Special Immigrants whose eligibility is based on having provided assistance to the United States Government, is hereby suspended.

(d) Kyrgyzstan

(i) Kyrgyzstan does not comply with the established identity-management and information-sharing criteria assessed by the performance metrics. Kyrgyzstan does not issue electronic passports or adequately share several types of information, including public-safety and terrorism-related information, that are necessary for the protection of the national security and public safety of the United States. Kyrgyzstan also presents an elevated risk, relative to other countries in the world, of terrorist travel to the United States, though it has been responsive to United States diplomatic engagement on the need to make improvements.

(ii) The entry into the United States of nationals of Kyrgyzstan as immigrants, except as Special Immigrants whose eligibility is based on having provided assistance to the United States Government, is hereby suspended.

(e) Nigeria

(i) Nigeria does not comply with the established identity-management and information-sharing criteria assessed by the performance metrics. Nigeria does not adequately share public-safety and terrorism-related information, which is necessary for the protection of the national security and public safety of the United States. Nigeria also presents a high risk, relative to other countries in the world, of terrorist travel to the United States. Nigeria is an important strategic partner in the global fight against terrorism, and the United States continues to engage with Nigeria on these and other issues. The Department of State has provided significant assistance to Nigeria as it modernizes its border management capabilities, and the Government of Nigeria recognizes the importance of improving its information sharing with the United States. Nevertheless, these investments have not yet resulted in sufficient improvements in Nigeria’s information sharing with the United States for border and immigration screening and vetting.

(ii) The entry into the United States of nationals of Nigeria as immigrants, except as Special Immigrants whose eligibility is based on having provided assistance to the United States Government, is hereby suspended.

(f) Sudan

(i) Sudan generally does not comply with our identity-management performance metrics and presents a high risk, relative to other countries in the world, of terrorist travel to the United States. Sudan is, however, transitioning to civilian rule, a process which should improve opportunities for cooperation in the future, and it has already made progress in addressing its deficiencies in several areas. For example, Sudan now issues electronic passports and has improved its coordination with INTERPOL in several respects. Sudan has also shared exemplars of its passports with the United States and now permanently invalidates lost and stolen passports and fraudulently obtained travel documents. Because Sudan performed somewhat better than the countries listed earlier in this proclamation and is making important reforms to its system of government, different travel restrictions are warranted.

(ii) The entry into the United States of nationals of Sudan as Diversity Immigrants, as described in section 203(c) of the INA, 8 U.S.C. 1153(c), is hereby suspended.

(g) Tanzania

(i) Tanzania does not comply with the established identity-management and information-sharing criteria assessed by the performance metrics. Tanzania does not adequately share several types of information, including public-safety and terrorism-related information, that is necessary for the protection of the national security and public safety of the United States. The Government of Tanzania’s significant failures to adequately share information with the United States and other countries about possible Ebola cases in its territory detract from my confidence in its ability to resolve these deficiencies. Tanzania also presents an elevated risk, relative to other countries in the world, of terrorist travel to the United States. Tanzania does, however, issue electronic passports for all major passport classes, reports lost and stolen travel documents to INTERPOL at least once a month, and has provided exemplars of its current passports to the United States. Further, Tanzania does share some information with the United States, although its processes can be slow, overly bureaucratic, and complicated by limited technical capability. In light of these considerations, different travel restrictions are warranted.

(ii) The entry into the United States of nationals of Tanzania as Diversity Immigrants, as described in section 203(c) of the INA, 8 U.S.C. 1153(c), is hereby suspended.

Sec. 2. Scope and Implementation of Suspensions and Limitations. (a) Subject to the exceptions set forth in section 3(b) of Proclamation 9645, any waiver under section 3(c) of Proclamation 9645, and any enforcement provision of section 6(b) through (e) of Proclamation 9645, the suspensions of and limitations on entry pursuant to section 1(b) of this proclamation shall apply to foreign nationals of the designated countries who:

(i) are outside the United States on the applicable effective date of this proclamation;

(ii) do not have a valid visa on the applicable effective date of this proclamation; and

(iii) do not qualify for a visa or other valid travel document under section 6(d) of Proclamation 9645.

(b) The Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall coordinate to update guidance, if necessary, to implement this proclamation as to nationals of the six countries identified in section 1(b) of this proclamation, consistent with the provisions of this section.

(c) For purposes of this proclamation, the phrase “Special Immigrants whose eligibility is based on having provided assistance to the United States Government” means those aliens described in section 101(a)(27)(D) through (G) and (K) of the INA, 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(27)(D) through (G) and (K), any alien seeking to enter the United States pursuant to a Special Immigrant Visa in the SI or SQ classification, and any spouse and children of any such individual.

Sec. 3. Reporting Requirements. [Amended Proc. No. 9645, set out above.]

Sec. 4. Effective Date. This proclamation is effective at 12:01 a.m. eastern standard time on February 21, 2020. With respect to the application of those provisions of Proclamation 9645 that are incorporated here through section 2 for countries designated in section 1(b), and that contained their own effective dates, those dates are correspondingly updated to be January 31, 2020, or February 21, 2020, as appropriate.

Sec. 5. Severability. It is the policy of the United States to enforce this proclamation to the maximum extent possible to advance the national security, foreign policy, and counterterrorism interests of the United States. Accordingly:

(a) if any provision of this proclamation, or the application of any provision to any person or circumstance, is held to be invalid, the remainder of this proclamation and the application of its other provisions to any other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby; and

(b) if any provision of this proclamation, or the application of any provision to any person or circumstance, is held to be invalid because of the lack of certain procedural requirements, the relevant executive branch officials shall implement those procedural requirements to conform with existing law and with any applicable court orders.

Sec. 6. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this proclamation shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) United States Government obligations under applicable international agreements;

(ii) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(iii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This proclamation shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This proclamation is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this thirty-first day of January, in the year of our Lord two thousand twenty, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and forty-fourth.

Donald J. Trump.
Executive Order No. 12324

Ex. Ord. No. 12324, Sept. 29, 1981, 46 F.R. 48109, which directed Secretary of State to enter into cooperative arrangements with foreign governments for purpose of preventing illegal migration to United States by sea, directed Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating to issue appropriate instructions to Coast Guard to enforce suspension of entry of undocumented aliens and interdiction of any defined vessel carrying such aliens, and directed Attorney General to ensure fair enforcement of immigration laws and strict observance of international obligations of United States concerning those who genuinely flee persecution in their homeland, was revoked and replaced by Ex. Ord. No. 12807, § 4, May 24, 1992, 57 F.R. 23134, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 12807. Interdiction of Illegal Aliens

Ex. Ord. No. 12807, May 24, 1992, 57 F.R. 23133, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, § 30, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10625, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 212(f) and 215(a)(1) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended (8 U.S.C. 1182(f) and 1185(a)(1)), and whereas:

(1) The President has authority to suspend the entry of aliens coming by sea to the United States without necessary documentation, to establish reasonable rules and regulations regarding, and other limitations on, the entry or attempted entry of aliens into the United States, and to repatriate aliens interdicted beyond the territorial sea of the United States;

(2) The international legal obligations of the United States under the United Nations Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees (U.S. T.I.A.S. 6577; 19 U.S.T. 6223) to apply Article 33 of the United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees do not extend to persons located outside the territory of the United States;

(3) Proclamation No. 4865 [set out above] suspends the entry of all undocumented aliens into the United States by the high seas; and

(4) There continues to be a serious problem of persons attempting to come to the United States by sea without necessary documentation and otherwise illegally;

I, GEORGE BUSH, President of the United States of America, hereby order as follows:

Section 1. The Secretary of State shall undertake to enter into, on behalf of the United States, cooperative arrangements with appropriate foreign governments for the purpose of preventing illegal migration to the United States by sea.

Sec. 2. (a) The Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating, in consultation, where appropriate, with the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, and the Secretary of State, shall issue appropriate instructions to the Coast Guard in order to enforce the suspension of the entry of undocumented aliens by sea and the interdiction of any defined vessel carrying such aliens.

(b) Those instructions shall apply to any of the following defined vessels:

(1) Vessels of the United States, meaning any vessel documented or numbered pursuant to the laws of the United States, or owned in whole or in part by the United States, a citizen of the United States, or a corporation incorporated under the laws of the United States or any State, Territory, District, Commonwealth, or possession thereof, unless the vessel has been granted nationality by a foreign nation in accord with Article 5 of the Convention on the High Seas of 1958 (U.S. T.I.A.S. 5200; 13 U.S.T. 2312).

(2) Vessels without nationality or vessels assimilated to vessels without nationality in accordance with paragraph (2) of Article 6 of the Convention on the High Seas of 1958 (U.S. T.I.A.S. 5200; 13 U.S.T. 2312).

(3) Vessels of foreign nations with whom we have arrangements authorizing the United States to stop and board such vessels.

(c) Those instructions to the Coast Guard shall include appropriate directives providing for the Coast Guard:

(1) To stop and board defined vessels, when there is reason to believe that such vessels are engaged in the irregular transportation of persons or violations of United States law or the law of a country with which the United States has an arrangement authorizing such action.

(2) To make inquiries of those on board, examine documents and take such actions as are necessary to carry out this order.

(3) To return the vessel and its passengers to the country from which it came, or to another country, when there is reason to believe that an offense is being committed against the United States immigration laws, or appropriate laws of a foreign country with which we have an arrangement to assist; provided, however, that the Secretary of Homeland Security, in his unreviewable discretion, may decide that a person who is a refugee will not be returned without his consent.

(d) These actions, pursuant to this section, are authorized to be undertaken only beyond the territorial sea of the United States.

Sec. 3. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the Executive Branch. Neither this order nor any agency guidelines, procedures, instructions, directives, rules or regulations implementing this order shall create, or shall be construed to create, any right or benefit, substantive or procedural (including without limitation any right or benefit under the Administrative Procedure Act [5 U.S.C. 551 et seq., 701 et seq.]), legally enforceable by any party against the United States, its agencies or instrumentalities, officers, employees, or any other person. Nor shall this order be construed to require any procedures to determine whether a person is a refugee.

Sec. 4. Executive Order No. 12324 is hereby revoked and replaced by this order.

Sec. 5. This order shall be effective immediately.

Ex. Ord. No. 13276. Delegation of Responsibilities Concerning Undocumented Aliens Interdicted or Intercepted in the Caribbean Region

Ex. Ord. No. 13276, Nov. 15, 2002, 67 F.R. 69985, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, § 1, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10619, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 212(f) and 215(a)(1) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended (8 U.S.C. 1182(f) and 1185(a)(1)), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and in order to delegate appropriate responsibilities to Federal agencies for responding to migration of undocumented aliens in the Caribbean region, it is hereby ordered:

Section 1. Duties and Authorities of Agency Heads. Consistent with applicable law,

(a)(i) The Secretary of Homeland Security may maintain custody, at any location he deems appropriate, of any undocumented aliens he has reason to believe are seeking to enter the United States and who are interdicted or intercepted in the Caribbean region. In this regard, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide and operate a facility, or facilities, to house and provide for the needs of any such aliens. Such a facility may be located at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base or any other appropriate location.

(ii) The Secretary of Homeland Security may conduct any screening of such aliens that he deems appropriate, including screening to determine whether such aliens should be returned to their country of origin or transit, or whether they are persons in need of protection who should not be returned without their consent. If the Secretary of Homeland Security institutes such screening, then until a determination is made, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide for the custody, care, safety, transportation, and other needs of the aliens. The Secretary of Homeland Security shall continue to provide for the custody, care, safety, transportation, and other needs of aliens who are determined not to be persons in need of protection until such time as they are returned to their country of origin or transit.

(b) The Secretary of State shall provide for the custody, care, safety, transportation, and other needs of undocumented aliens interdicted or intercepted in the Caribbean region whom the Secretary of Homeland Security has identified as persons in need of protection. The Secretary of State shall provide for and execute a process for resettling such persons in need of protection, as appropriate, in countries other than their country of origin, and shall also undertake such diplomatic efforts as may be necessary to address the problem of illegal migration of aliens in the Caribbean region and to facilitate the return of those aliens who are determined not to be persons in need of protection.

(c)(i) The Secretary of Defense shall make available to the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Secretary of State, for the housing and care of any undocumented aliens interdicted or intercepted in the Caribbean region and taken into their custody, any facilities at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base that are excess to current military needs and the provision of which does not interfere with the operation and security of the base. The Secretary of Defense shall be responsible for providing access to such facilities and perimeter security. The Secretary of Homeland Security and the Secretary of State, respectively, shall be responsible for reimbursement for necessary supporting utilities.

(ii) In the event of a mass migration in the Caribbean region, the Secretary of Defense shall provide support to the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Secretary of State in carrying out the duties described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section regarding the custody, care, safety, transportation, and other needs of the aliens, and shall assume primary responsibility for these duties on a nonreimbursable basis as necessary to contain the threat to national security posed by the migration. The Secretary of Defense shall also provide support to the Coast Guard in carrying out the duties described in Executive Order 12807 of May 24, 1992 [set out above], regarding interdiction of migrants.

Sec. 2. Definitions. For purposes of this order, the term “mass migration” means a migration of undocumented aliens that is of such magnitude and duration that it poses a threat to the national security of the United States, as determined by the President.

Sec. 3. Scope.

(a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect the authorities and responsibilities set forth in Executive Order 12807 of May 24, 1992 [set out above].

(b) Nothing in this order shall be construed to make reviewable in any judicial or administrative proceeding, or otherwise, any action, omission, or matter that otherwise would not be reviewable.

(c) This order is intended only to improve the management of the executive branch. This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or equity or otherwise against the United States, its departments, agencies, entities, instrumentalities, officers, employees, or any other person.

(d) Any agency assigned any duties by this order may use the provisions of the Economy Act, 31 U.S.C. 1535 and 1536, to carry out such duties, to the extent permitted by such Act.

(e) This order shall not be construed to require any procedure to determine whether a person is a refugee or otherwise in need of protection.

George W. Bush.
Executive Order No. 13769

Ex. Ord. No. 13769, Jan. 27, 2017, 82 F.R. 8977, which related to review and suspension of issuance of visas and other immigration benefits to nationals of certain countries, implementation of a program to identify individuals seeking to enter the United States with the intent to cause or risk of causing harm, review and suspension of the U.S. Refugee Admissions Program, exercises of authority relating to terrorism grounds of inadmissibility under this section, expedited completion of the biometric entry-exit tracking system, review and suspension of the Visa Interview Waiver Program, review of nonimmigrant visa reciprocity agreements, and collection and public availablility of certain immigration data, was repealed, effective Mar. 16, 2017, by Ex. Ord. No. 13780, § 13, Mar. 6, 2017, 82 F.R. 13218, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 13780. Protecting the Nation From Foreign Terrorist Entry Into the United States

Ex. Ord. No. 13780, Mar. 6, 2017, 82 F.R. 13209, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), 8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq., and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and to protect the Nation from terrorist activities by foreign nationals admitted to the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy and Purpose. (a) It is the policy of the United States to protect its citizens from terrorist attacks, including those committed by foreign nationals. The screening and vetting protocols and procedures associated with the visa-issuance process and the United States Refugee Admissions Program (USRAP) play a crucial role in detecting foreign nationals who may commit, aid, or support acts of terrorism and in preventing those individuals from entering the United States. It is therefore the policy of the United States to improve the screening and vetting protocols and procedures associated with the visa-issuance process and the USRAP.

(b) On January 27, 2017, to implement this policy, I issued Executive Order 13769 (Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States).

(i) Among other actions, Executive Order 13769 suspended for 90 days the entry of certain aliens from seven countries: Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen. These are countries that had already been identified as presenting heightened concerns about terrorism and travel to the United States. Specifically, the suspension applied to countries referred to in, or designated under, section 217(a)(12) of the INA, 8 U.S.C. 1187(a)(12), in which Congress restricted use of the Visa Waiver Program for nationals of, and aliens recently present in, (A) Iraq or Syria, (B) any country designated by the Secretary of State as a state sponsor of terrorism (currently Iran, Syria, and Sudan), and (C) any other country designated as a country of concern by the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Director of National Intelligence. In 2016, the Secretary of Homeland Security designated Libya, Somalia, and Yemen as additional countries of concern for travel purposes, based on consideration of three statutory factors related to terrorism and national security:

“(I) whether the presence of an alien in the country or area increases the likelihood that the alien is a credible threat to the national security of the United States; (II) whether a foreign terrorist organization has a significant presence in the country or area; and (III) whether the country or area is a safe haven for terrorists.”
8 U.S.C. 1187(a)(12)(D)(ii). Additionally, Members of Congress have expressed concerns about screening and vetting procedures following recent terrorist attacks in this country and in Europe.

(ii) In ordering the temporary suspension of entry described in subsection (b)(i) of this section, I exercised my authority under Article II of the Constitution and under section 212(f) of the INA, which provides in relevant part: “Whenever the President finds that the entry of any aliens or of any class of aliens into the United States would be detrimental to the interests of the United States, he may by proclamation, and for such period as he shall deem necessary, suspend the entry of all aliens or any class of aliens as immigrants or nonimmigrants, or impose on the entry of aliens any restrictions he may deem to be appropriate.” 8 U.S.C. 1182(f). Under these authorities, I determined that, for a brief period of 90 days, while existing screening and vetting procedures were under review, the entry into the United States of certain aliens from the seven identified countries—each afflicted by terrorism in a manner that compromised the ability of the United States to rely on normal decision-making procedures about travel to the United States—would be detrimental to the interests of the United States. Nonetheless, I permitted the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security to grant case-by-case waivers when they determined that it was in the national interest to do so.

(iii) Executive Order 13769 also suspended the USRAP for 120 days. Terrorist groups have sought to infiltrate several nations through refugee programs. Accordingly, I temporarily suspended the USRAP pending a review of our procedures for screening and vetting refugees. Nonetheless, I permitted the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security to jointly grant case-by-case waivers when they determined that it was in the national interest to do so.

(iv) Executive Order 13769 did not provide a basis for discriminating for or against members of any particular religion. While that order allowed for prioritization of refugee claims from members of persecuted religious minority groups, that priority applied to refugees from every nation, including those in which Islam is a minority religion, and it applied to minority sects within a religion. That order was not motivated by animus toward any religion, but was instead intended to protect the ability of religious minorities—whoever they are and wherever they reside—to avail themselves of the USRAP in light of their particular challenges and circumstances.

(c) The implementation of Executive Order 13769 has been delayed by litigation. Most significantly, enforcement of critical provisions of that order has been temporarily halted by court orders that apply nationwide and extend even to foreign nationals with no prior or substantial connection to the United States. On February 9, 2017, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit declined to stay or narrow one such order pending the outcome of further judicial proceedings, while noting that the “political branches are far better equipped to make appropriate distinctions” about who should be covered by a suspension of entry or of refugee admissions.

(d) Nationals from the countries previously identified under section 217(a)(12) of the INA warrant additional scrutiny in connection with our immigration policies because the conditions in these countries present heightened threats. Each of these countries is a state sponsor of terrorism, has been significantly compromised by terrorist organizations, or contains active conflict zones. Any of these circumstances diminishes the foreign government’s willingness or ability to share or validate important information about individuals seeking to travel to the United States. Moreover, the significant presence in each of these countries of terrorist organizations, their members, and others exposed to those organizations increases the chance that conditions will be exploited to enable terrorist operatives or sympathizers to travel to the United States. Finally, once foreign nationals from these countries are admitted to the United States, it is often difficult to remove them, because many of these countries typically delay issuing, or refuse to issue, travel documents.

(e) The following are brief descriptions, taken in part from the Department of State’s Country Reports on Terrorism 2015 (June 2016), of some of the conditions in six of the previously designated countries that demonstrate why their nationals continue to present heightened risks to the security of the United States:

(i) Iran. Iran has been designated as a state sponsor of terrorism since 1984 and continues to support various terrorist groups, including Hizballah, Hamas, and terrorist groups in Iraq. Iran has also been linked to support for al-Qa’ida and has permitted al-Qa’ida to transport funds and fighters through Iran to Syria and South Asia. Iran does not cooperate with the United States in counterterrorism efforts.

(ii) Libya. Libya is an active combat zone, with hostilities between the internationally recognized government and its rivals. In many parts of the country, security and law enforcement functions are provided by armed militias rather than state institutions. Violent extremist groups, including the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), have exploited these conditions to expand their presence in the country. The Libyan government provides some cooperation with the United States’ counterterrorism efforts, but it is unable to secure thousands of miles of its land and maritime borders, enabling the illicit flow of weapons, migrants, and foreign terrorist fighters. The United States Embassy in Libya suspended its operations in 2014.

(iii) Somalia. Portions of Somalia have been terrorist safe havens. Al-Shabaab, an al-Qa’ida-affiliated terrorist group, has operated in the country for years and continues to plan and mount operations within Somalia and in neighboring countries. Somalia has porous borders, and most countries do not recognize Somali identity documents. The Somali government cooperates with the United States in some counterterrorism operations but does not have the capacity to sustain military pressure on or to investigate suspected terrorists.

(iv) Sudan. Sudan has been designated as a state sponsor of terrorism since 1993 because of its support for international terrorist groups, including Hizballah and Hamas. Historically, Sudan provided safe havens for al-Qa’ida and other terrorist groups to meet and train. Although Sudan’s support to al-Qa’ida has ceased and it provides some cooperation with the United States’ counterterrorism efforts, elements of core al-Qa’ida and ISIS-linked terrorist groups remain active in the country.

(v) Syria. Syria has been designated as a state sponsor of terrorism since 1979. The Syrian government is engaged in an ongoing military conflict against ISIS and others for control of portions of the country. At the same time, Syria continues to support other terrorist groups. It has allowed or encouraged extremists to pass through its territory to enter Iraq. ISIS continues to attract foreign fighters to Syria and to use its base in Syria to plot or encourage attacks around the globe, including in the United States. The United States Embassy in Syria suspended its operations in 2012. Syria does not cooperate with the United States’ counterterrorism efforts.

(vi) Yemen. Yemen is the site of an ongoing conflict between the incumbent government and the Houthi-led opposition. Both ISIS and a second group, al-Qa’ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), have exploited this conflict to expand their presence in Yemen and to carry out hundreds of attacks. Weapons and other materials smuggled across Yemen’s porous borders are used to finance AQAP and other terrorist activities. In 2015, the United States Embassy in Yemen suspended its operations, and embassy staff were relocated out of the country. Yemen has been supportive of, but has not been able to cooperate fully with, the United States in counterterrorism efforts.

(f) In light of the conditions in these six countries, until the assessment of current screening and vetting procedures required by section 2 of this order is completed, the risk of erroneously permitting entry of a national of one of these countries who intends to commit terrorist acts or otherwise harm the national security of the United States is unacceptably high. Accordingly, while that assessment is ongoing, I am imposing a temporary pause on the entry of nationals from Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen, subject to categorical exceptions and case-by-case waivers, as described in section 3 of this order.

(g) Iraq presents a special case. Portions of Iraq remain active combat zones. Since 2014, ISIS has had dominant influence over significant territory in northern and central Iraq. Although that influence has been significantly reduced due to the efforts and sacrifices of the Iraqi government and armed forces, working along with a United States-led coalition, the ongoing conflict has impacted the Iraqi government’s capacity to secure its borders and to identify fraudulent travel documents. Nevertheless, the close cooperative relationship between the United States and the democratically elected Iraqi government, the strong United States diplomatic presence in Iraq, the significant presence of United States forces in Iraq, and Iraq’s commitment to combat ISIS justify different treatment for Iraq. In particular, those Iraqi government forces that have fought to regain more than half of the territory previously dominated by ISIS have shown steadfast determination and earned enduring respect as they battle an armed group that is the common enemy of Iraq and the United States. In addition, since Executive Order 13769 was issued, the Iraqi government has expressly undertaken steps to enhance travel documentation, information sharing, and the return of Iraqi nationals subject to final orders of removal. Decisions about issuance of visas or granting admission to Iraqi nationals should be subjected to additional scrutiny to determine if applicants have connections with ISIS or other terrorist organizations, or otherwise pose a risk to either national security or public safety.

(h) Recent history shows that some of those who have entered the United States through our immigration system have proved to be threats to our national security. Since 2001, hundreds of persons born abroad have been convicted of terrorism-related crimes in the United States. They have included not just persons who came here legally on visas but also individuals who first entered the country as refugees. For example, in January 2013, two Iraqi nationals admitted to the United States as refugees in 2009 were sentenced to 40 years and to life in prison, respectively, for multiple terrorism-related offenses. And in October 2014, a native of Somalia who had been brought to the United States as a child refugee and later became a naturalized United States citizen was sentenced to 30 years in prison for attempting to use a weapon of mass destruction as part of a plot to detonate a bomb at a crowded Christmas-tree-lighting ceremony in Portland, Oregon. The Attorney General has reported to me that more than 300 persons who entered the United States as refugees are currently the subjects of counterterrorism investigations by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

(i) Given the foregoing, the entry into the United States of foreign nationals who may commit, aid, or support acts of terrorism remains a matter of grave concern. In light of the Ninth Circuit’s observation that the political branches are better suited to determine the appropriate scope of any suspensions than are the courts, and in order to avoid spending additional time pursuing litigation, I am revoking Executive Order 13769 and replacing it with this order, which expressly excludes from the suspensions categories of aliens that have prompted judicial concerns and which clarifies or refines the approach to certain other issues or categories of affected aliens.

Sec. 2. Temporary Suspension of Entry for Nationals of Countries of Particular Concern During Review Period. (a) The Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Director of National Intelligence, shall conduct a worldwide review to identify whether, and if so what, additional information will be needed from each foreign country to adjudicate an application by a national of that country for a visa, admission, or other benefit under the INA (adjudications) in order to determine that the individual is not a security or public-safety threat. The Secretary of Homeland Security may conclude that certain information is needed from particular countries even if it is not needed from every country.

(b) The Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Director of National Intelligence, shall submit to the President a report on the results of the worldwide review described in subsection (a) of this section, including the Secretary of Homeland Security’s determination of the information needed from each country for adjudications and a list of countries that do not provide adequate information, within 20 days of the effective date of this order. The Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide a copy of the report to the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, and the Director of National Intelligence.

(c) To temporarily reduce investigative burdens on relevant agencies during the review period described in subsection (a) of this section, to ensure the proper review and maximum utilization of available resources for the screening and vetting of foreign nationals, to ensure that adequate standards are established to prevent infiltration by foreign terrorists, and in light of the national security concerns referenced in section 1 of this order, I hereby proclaim, pursuant to sections 212(f) and 215(a) of the INA, 8 U.S.C. 1182(f) and 1185(a), that the unrestricted entry into the United States of nationals of Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen would be detrimental to the interests of the United States. I therefore direct that the entry into the United States of nationals of those six countries be suspended for 90 days from the effective date of this order, subject to the limitations, waivers, and exceptions set forth in sections 3 and 12 of this order.

(d) Upon submission of the report described in subsection (b) of this section regarding the information needed from each country for adjudications, the Secretary of State shall request that all foreign governments that do not supply such information regarding their nationals begin providing it within 50 days of notification.

(e) After the period described in subsection (d) of this section expires, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Attorney General, shall submit to the President a list of countries recommended for inclusion in a Presidential proclamation that would prohibit the entry of appropriate categories of foreign nationals of countries that have not provided the information requested until they do so or until the Secretary of Homeland Security certifies that the country has an adequate plan to do so, or has adequately shared information through other means. The Secretary of State, the Attorney General, or the Secretary of Homeland Security may also submit to the President the names of additional countries for which any of them recommends other lawful restrictions or limitations deemed necessary for the security or welfare of the United States.

(f) At any point after the submission of the list described in subsection (e) of this section, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Attorney General, may submit to the President the names of any additional countries recommended for similar treatment, as well as the names of any countries that they recommend should be removed from the scope of a proclamation described in subsection (e) of this section.

(g) The Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall submit to the President a joint report on the progress in implementing this order within 60 days of the effective date of this order, a second report within 90 days of the effective date of this order, a third report within 120 days of the effective date of this order, and a fourth report within 150 days of the effective date of this order.

Sec. 3. Scope and Implementation of Suspension.

(a) Scope. Subject to the exceptions set forth in subsection (b) of this section and any waiver under subsection (c) of this section, the suspension of entry pursuant to section 2 of this order shall apply only to foreign nationals of the designated countries who:

(i) are outside the United States on the effective date of this order;

(ii) did not have a valid visa at 5:00 p.m., eastern standard time on January 27, 2017; and

(iii) do not have a valid visa on the effective date of this order.

(b) Exceptions. The suspension of entry pursuant to section 2 of this order shall not apply to:

(i) any lawful permanent resident of the United States;

(ii) any foreign national who is admitted to or paroled into the United States on or after the effective date of this order;

(iii) any foreign national who has a document other than a visa, valid on the effective date of this order or issued on any date thereafter, that permits him or her to travel to the United States and seek entry or admission, such as an advance parole document;

(iv) any dual national of a country designated under section 2 of this order when the individual is traveling on a passport issued by a non-designated country;

(v) any foreign national traveling on a diplomatic or diplomatic-type visa, North Atlantic Treaty Organization visa, C–2 visa for travel to the United Nations, or G–1, G–2, G–3, or G–4 visa; or

(vi) any foreign national who has been granted asylum; any refugee who has already been admitted to the United States; or any individual who has been granted withholding of removal, advance parole, or protection under the Convention Against Torture.

(c) Waivers. Notwithstanding the suspension of entry pursuant to section 2 of this order, a consular officer, or, as appropriate, the Commissioner, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), or the Commissioner’s delegee, may, in the consular officer’s or the CBP official’s discretion, decide on a case-by-case basis to authorize the issuance of a visa to, or to permit the entry of, a foreign national for whom entry is otherwise suspended if the foreign national has demonstrated to the officer’s satisfaction that denying entry during the suspension period would cause undue hardship, and that his or her entry would not pose a threat to national security and would be in the national interest. Unless otherwise specified by the Secretary of Homeland Security, any waiver issued by a consular officer as part of the visa issuance process will be effective both for the issuance of a visa and any subsequent entry on that visa, but will leave all other requirements for admission or entry unchanged. Case-by-case waivers could be appropriate in circumstances such as the following:

(i) the foreign national has previously been admitted to the United States for a continuous period of work, study, or other long-term activity, is outside the United States on the effective date of this order, seeks to reenter the United States to resume that activity, and the denial of reentry during the suspension period would impair that activity;

(ii) the foreign national has previously established significant contacts with the United States but is outside the United States on the effective date of this order for work, study, or other lawful activity;

(iii) the foreign national seeks to enter the United States for significant business or professional obligations and the denial of entry during the suspension period would impair those obligations;

(iv) the foreign national seeks to enter the United States to visit or reside with a close family member (e.g., a spouse, child, or parent) who is a United States citizen, lawful permanent resident, or alien lawfully admitted on a valid nonimmigrant visa, and the denial of entry during the suspension period would cause undue hardship;

(v) the foreign national is an infant, a young child or adoptee, an individual needing urgent medical care, or someone whose entry is otherwise justified by the special circumstances of the case;

(vi) the foreign national has been employed by, or on behalf of, the United States Government (or is an eligible dependent of such an employee) and the employee can document that he or she has provided faithful and valuable service to the United States Government;

(vii) the foreign national is traveling for purposes related to an international organization designated under the International Organizations Immunities Act (IOIA), 22 U.S.C. 288 et seq., traveling for purposes of conducting meetings or business with the United States Government, or traveling to conduct business on behalf of an international organization not designated under the IOIA;

(viii) the foreign national is a landed Canadian immigrant who applies for a visa at a location within Canada; or

(ix) the foreign national is traveling as a United States Government-sponsored exchange visitor.

Sec. 4. Additional Inquiries Related to Nationals of Iraq. An application by any Iraqi national for a visa, admission, or other immigration benefit should be subjected to thorough review, including, as appropriate, consultation with a designee of the Secretary of Defense and use of the additional information that has been obtained in the context of the close U.S.-Iraqi security partnership, since Executive Order 13769 was issued, concerning individuals suspected of ties to ISIS or other terrorist organizations and individuals coming from territories controlled or formerly controlled by ISIS. Such review shall include consideration of whether the applicant has connections with ISIS or other terrorist organizations or with territory that is or has been under the dominant influence of ISIS, as well as any other information bearing on whether the applicant may be a threat to commit acts of terrorism or otherwise threaten the national security or public safety of the United States.

Sec. 5. Implementing Uniform Screening and Vetting Standards for All Immigration Programs. (a) The Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Director of National Intelligence shall implement a program, as part of the process for adjudications, to identify individuals who seek to enter the United States on a fraudulent basis, who support terrorism, violent extremism, acts of violence toward any group or class of people within the United States, or who present a risk of causing harm subsequent to their entry. This program shall include the development of a uniform baseline for screening and vetting standards and procedures, such as in-person interviews; a database of identity documents proffered by applicants to ensure that duplicate documents are not used by multiple applicants; amended application forms that include questions aimed at identifying fraudulent answers and malicious intent; a mechanism to ensure that applicants are who they claim to be; a mechanism to assess whether applicants may commit, aid, or support any kind of violent, criminal, or terrorist acts after entering the United States; and any other appropriate means for ensuring the proper collection of all information necessary for a rigorous evaluation of all grounds of inadmissibility or grounds for the denial of other immigration benefits.

(b) The Secretary of Homeland Security, in conjunction with the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, and the Director of National Intelligence, shall submit to the President an initial report on the progress of the program described in subsection (a) of this section within 60 days of the effective date of this order, a second report within 100 days of the effective date of this order, and a third report within 200 days of the effective date of this order.

Sec. 6. Realignment of the U.S. Refugee Admissions Program for Fiscal Year 2017. (a) The Secretary of State shall suspend travel of refugees into the United States under the USRAP, and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall suspend decisions on applications for refugee status, for 120 days after the effective date of this order, subject to waivers pursuant to subsection (c) of this section. During the 120-day period, the Secretary of State, in conjunction with the Secretary of Homeland Security and in consultation with the Director of National Intelligence, shall review the USRAP application and adjudication processes to determine what additional procedures should be used to ensure that individuals seeking admission as refugees do not pose a threat to the security and welfare of the United States, and shall implement such additional procedures. The suspension described in this subsection shall not apply to refugee applicants who, before the effective date of this order, have been formally scheduled for transit by the Department of State. The Secretary of State shall resume travel of refugees into the United States under the USRAP 120 days after the effective date of this order, and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall resume making decisions on applications for refugee status only for stateless persons and nationals of countries for which the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Director of National Intelligence have jointly determined that the additional procedures implemented pursuant to this subsection are adequate to ensure the security and welfare of the United States.

(b) Pursuant to section 212(f) of the INA, I hereby proclaim that the entry of more than 50,000 refugees in fiscal year 2017 would be detrimental to the interests of the United States, and thus suspend any entries in excess of that number until such time as I determine that additional entries would be in the national interest.

(c) Notwithstanding the temporary suspension imposed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security may jointly determine to admit individuals to the United States as refugees on a case-by-case basis, in their discretion, but only so long as they determine that the entry of such individuals as refugees is in the national interest and does not pose a threat to the security or welfare of the United States, including in circumstances such as the following: the individual’s entry would enable the United States to conform its conduct to a preexisting international agreement or arrangement, or the denial of entry would cause undue hardship.

(d) It is the policy of the executive branch that, to the extent permitted by law and as practicable, State and local jurisdictions be granted a role in the process of determining the placement or settlement in their jurisdictions of aliens eligible to be admitted to the United States as refugees. To that end, the Secretary of State shall examine existing law to determine the extent to which, consistent with applicable law, State and local jurisdictions may have greater involvement in the process of determining the placement or resettlement of refugees in their jurisdictions, and shall devise a proposal to lawfully promote such involvement.

Sec. 7. Rescission of Exercise of Authority Relating to the Terrorism Grounds of Inadmissibility. The Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall, in consultation with the Attorney General, consider rescinding the exercises of authority permitted by section 212(d)(3)(B) of the INA, 8 U.S.C. 1182(d)(3)(B), relating to the terrorism grounds of inadmissibility, as well as any related implementing directives or guidance.

Sec. 8. Expedited Completion of the Biometric Entry-Exit Tracking System. (a) The Secretary of Homeland Security shall expedite the completion and implementation of a biometric entry-exit tracking system for in-scope travelers to the United States, as recommended by the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States.

(b) The Secretary of Homeland Security shall submit to the President periodic reports on the progress of the directive set forth in subsection (a) of this section. The initial report shall be submitted within 100 days of the effective date of this order, a second report shall be submitted within 200 days of the effective date of this order, and a third report shall be submitted within 365 days of the effective date of this order. The Secretary of Homeland Security shall submit further reports every 180 days thereafter until the system is fully deployed and operational.

Sec. 9. Visa Interview Security. (a) The Secretary of State shall immediately suspend the Visa Interview Waiver Program and ensure compliance with section 222 of the INA, 8 U.S.C. 1202, which requires that all individuals seeking a nonimmigrant visa undergo an in-person interview, subject to specific statutory exceptions. This suspension shall not apply to any foreign national traveling on a diplomatic or diplomatic-type visa, North Atlantic Treaty Organization visa, C–2 visa for travel to the United Nations, or G–1, G–2, G–3, or G–4 visa; traveling for purposes related to an international organization designated under the IOIA; or traveling for purposes of conducting meetings or business with the United States Government.

(b) To the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability of appropriations, the Secretary of State shall immediately expand the Consular Fellows Program, including by substantially increasing the number of Fellows, lengthening or making permanent the period of service, and making language training at the Foreign Service Institute available to Fellows for assignment to posts outside of their area of core linguistic ability, to ensure that nonimmigrant visa-interview wait times are not unduly affected.

Sec. 10. Visa Validity Reciprocity. The Secretary of State shall review all nonimmigrant visa reciprocity agreements and arrangements to ensure that they are, with respect to each visa classification, truly reciprocal insofar as practicable with respect to validity period and fees, as required by sections 221(c) and 281 of the INA, 8 U.S.C. 1201(c) and 1351, and other treatment. If another country does not treat United States nationals seeking nonimmigrant visas in a truly reciprocal manner, the Secretary of State shall adjust the visa validity period, fee schedule, or other treatment to match the treatment of United States nationals by that foreign country, to the extent practicable.

Sec. 11. Transparency and Data Collection. (a) To be more transparent with the American people and to implement more effectively policies and practices that serve the national interest, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Attorney General, shall, consistent with applicable law and national security, collect and make publicly available the following information:

(i) information regarding the number of foreign nationals in the United States who have been charged with terrorism-related offenses while in the United States; convicted of terrorism-related offenses while in the United States; or removed from the United States based on terrorism-related activity, affiliation with or provision of material support to a terrorism-related organization, or any other national-security-related reasons;

(ii) information regarding the number of foreign nationals in the United States who have been radicalized after entry into the United States and who have engaged in terrorism-related acts, or who have provided material support to terrorism-related organizations in countries that pose a threat to the United States;

(iii) information regarding the number and types of acts of gender-based violence against women, including so-called “honor killings,” in the United States by foreign nationals; and

(iv) any other information relevant to public safety and security as determined by the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General, including information on the immigration status of foreign nationals charged with major offenses.

(b) The Secretary of Homeland Security shall release the initial report under subsection (a) of this section within 180 days of the effective date of this order and shall include information for the period from September 11, 2001, until the date of the initial report. Subsequent reports shall be issued every 180 days thereafter and reflect the period since the previous report.

Sec. 12. Enforcement. (a) The Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall consult with appropriate domestic and international partners, including countries and organizations, to ensure efficient, effective, and appropriate implementation of the actions directed in this order.

(b) In implementing this order, the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall comply with all applicable laws and regulations, including, as appropriate, those providing an opportunity for individuals to claim a fear of persecution or torture, such as the credible fear determination for aliens covered by section 235(b)(1)(A) of the INA, 8 U.S.C. 1225(b)(1)(A).

(c) No immigrant or nonimmigrant visa issued before the effective date of this order shall be revoked pursuant to this order.

(d) Any individual whose visa was marked revoked or marked canceled as a result of Executive Order 13769 shall be entitled to a travel document confirming that the individual is permitted to travel to the United States and seek entry. Any prior cancellation or revocation of a visa that was solely pursuant to Executive Order 13769 shall not be the basis of inadmissibility for any future determination about entry or admissibility.

(e) This order shall not apply to an individual who has been granted asylum, to a refugee who has already been admitted to the United States, or to an individual granted withholding of removal or protection under the Convention Against Torture. Nothing in this order shall be construed to limit the ability of an individual to seek asylum, withholding of removal, or protection under the Convention Against Torture, consistent with the laws of the United States.

Sec. 13. Revocation. Executive Order 13769 of January 27, 2017, is revoked as of the effective date of this order.

Sec. 14. Effective Date. This order is effective at 12:01 a.m., eastern daylight time on March 16, 2017 [see Memorandum of President of the United States, June 14, 2017, 82 F.R. 27965, set out below].

Sec. 15. Severability. (a) If any provision of this order, or the application of any provision to any person or circumstance, is held to be invalid, the remainder of this order and the application of its other provisions to any other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby.

(b) If any provision of this order, or the application of any provision to any person or circumstance, is held to be invalid because of the lack of certain procedural requirements, the relevant executive branch officials shall implement those procedural requirements.

Sec. 16. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

Donald J. Trump.

[Memorandum of President of the United States, June 14, 2017, 82 F.R. 27965, provided:

[Memorandum for the Secretary of State[,] the Attorney General[,] the Secretary of Homeland Security[, and] the Director of National Intelligence

[This memorandum provides guidance for the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Director of National Intelligence in light of two preliminary injunctions that bar enforcement of certain provisions of Executive Order 13780 [set out above], “Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States” (Mar. 6, 2017). The preliminary injunction entered by the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, and affirmed in substantial part by the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, bars enforcement of section 2(c) of the Executive Order. The portions of the preliminary injunction entered by the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii that were affirmed by the recent decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit bar enforcement of certain provisions of sections 2 and 6 of the Executive Order.

[Various provisions of sections 2 and 6 of the Executive Order (as well as sections 3 and 12(c), which delineate the scope of the suspension contained in section 2(c)), refer to the Order’s effective date. Section 14 of the Executive Order provides that the Order was effective at 12:01 a.m., eastern daylight time on March 16, 2017. Sections 2 and 6, however, were enjoined before that effective date, and the courts of appeals have affirmed the injunctions with respect to certain provisions of sections 2 and 6. As a result, under the terms of the Executive Order, the effective date of the enjoined provisions (as well as related provisions of sections 3 and 12(c)) is delayed or tolled until those injunctions are lifted or stayed.

[In light of questions in litigation about the effective date of the enjoined provisions and in the interest of clarity, I hereby declare the effective date of each enjoined provision to be the date and time at which the referenced injunctions are lifted or stayed with respect to that provision. To the extent it is necessary, this memorandum should be construed to amend the Executive Order.

[Because the injunctions have delayed the effective date of section 12(c), no immigrant or nonimmigrant visa issued before the effective date of section 2(c) shall be revoked pursuant to the Executive Order.

[I hereby direct the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Director of National Intelligence to jointly begin implementation of each relevant provision of sections 2 and 6 of the Executive Order 72 hours after all applicable injunctions are lifted or stayed with respect to that provision, to ensure an orderly and proper implementation of those provisions. Prior to that time, consular officers may issue valid visas to, and the Secretary of Homeland Security may admit, otherwise eligible aliens without regard to sections 2 and 6. If not otherwise revoked, visas and other travel documents issued during this period remain valid for travel as if they were issued prior to the effective date.

[Donald J. Trump.]
Ex. Ord. No. 13815. Resuming the United States Refugee Admissions Program With Enhanced Vetting Capabilities

Ex. Ord. No. 13815, Oct. 24, 2017, 82 F.R. 50055, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), 8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq., and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. (a) It is the policy of the United States to protect its people from terrorist attacks and other public-safety threats. Screening and vetting procedures associated with determining which foreign nationals may enter the United States, including through the U.S. Refugee Admissions Program (USRAP), play a critical role in implementing that policy. Those procedures enhance our ability to detect foreign nationals who might commit, aid, or support acts of terrorism, or otherwise pose a threat to the national security or public safety of the United States, and they bolster our efforts to prevent such individuals from entering the country.

(b) Section 5 of Executive Order 13780 of March 6, 2017 (Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States), directed the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Director of National Intelligence to develop a uniform baseline for screening and vetting standards and procedures applicable to all travelers who seek to enter the United States. A working group was established to satisfy this directive.

(c) Section 6(a) of Executive Order 13780 directed a review to strengthen the vetting process for the USRAP. It also instructed the Secretary of State to suspend the travel of refugees into the United States under that program, and the Secretary of Homeland Security to suspend decisions on applications for refugee status, subject to certain exceptions. Section 6(a) also required the Secretary of State, in conjunction with the Secretary of Homeland Security and in consultation with the Director of National Intelligence, to conduct a 120-day review of the USRAP application and adjudication process in order to determine, and implement, additional procedures to ensure that individuals seeking admission as refugees do not pose a threat to the security and welfare of the United States. Executive Order 13780 noted that terrorist groups have sought to infiltrate several nations through refugee programs and that the Attorney General had reported that more than 300 persons who had entered the United States as refugees were then the subjects of counterterrorism investigations by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

(d) The Secretary of State convened a working group to implement the review process under section 6(a) of Executive Order 13780. This review was informed by the development of uniform baseline screening and vetting standards and procedures for all travelers under section 5 of Executive Order 13780. The section 6(a) working group compared the process for screening and vetting refugees with the uniform baseline standards and procedures established by the section 5 working group. The section 6(a) working group identified several ways to enhance the process for screening and vetting refugees and began implementing those improvements.

(e) The review process for refugees required by Executive Order 13780 has made our Nation safer. The improvements the section 6(a) working group has identified will strengthen the data-collection process for all refugee applicants considered for resettlement in the United States. They will also bolster the process for interviewing refugees through improved training, fraud-detection procedures, and interagency information sharing. Further, they will enhance the ability of our systems to check biometric and biographic information against a broad range of threat information contained in various Federal watchlists and databases.

(f) Section 2 of Proclamation 9645 of September 24, 2017 (Enhancing Vetting Capabilities and Processes for Detecting Attempted Entry into the United States by Terrorists or Other Public-Safety Threats), suspended and limited, subject to exceptions and case-by-case waivers, the entry into the United States of foreign nationals of eight countries. As noted in that Proclamation, those suspensions and limitations are in the interest of the United States because of certain deficiencies in those countries’ identity-management and information-sharing protocols and procedures, and because of the national security and public-safety risks that emanate from their territory, including risks that result from the significant presence of terrorists within the territory of several of those countries.

(g) The entry restrictions and limitations in Proclamation 9645 apply to the immigrant and nonimmigrant visa application and adjudication processes, which foreign nationals use to seek authorization to travel to the United States and apply for admission. Pursuant to section 3(b)(iii) of Proclamation 9645, however, those restrictions and limitations do not apply to those who seek to enter the United States through the USRAP.

(h) Foreign nationals who seek to enter the United States with an immigrant or nonimmigrant visa stand in a different position from that of refugees who are considered for entry into this country under the USRAP. For a variety of reasons, including substantive differences in the risk factors presented by the refugee population and in the quality of information available to screen and vet refugees, the refugee screening and vetting process is different from the process that applies to most visa applicants. At the same time, the entry of certain refugees into the United States through the USRAP poses unique security risks and considerable domestic challenges that require the application of substantial resources.

Sec. 2. Resumption of the U.S. Refugee Admissions Program. (a) Section 6(a) of Executive Order 13780 provided for a temporary, 120-day review of the USRAP application and adjudication process and an accompanying worldwide suspension of refugee travel to the United States and of application decisions under the USRAP. That 120-day period expires on October 24, 2017. Section 6(a) further provided that refugee travel and application decisions could resume after 120 days for stateless persons and for the nationals of countries for which the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Director of National Intelligence jointly determine that the additional procedures identified through the USRAP review process are adequate to ensure the security and welfare of the United States. The Secretary of State, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Director of National Intelligence have advised that the improvements to the USRAP vetting process are generally adequate to ensure the security and welfare of the United States, that the Secretary of State and Secretary of Homeland Security may resume that program, and that they will apply special measures to certain categories of refugees whose entry continues to pose potential threats to the security and welfare of the United States.

(b) With the improvements identified by the section 6(a) working group and implemented by the participating agencies, the refugee screening and vetting process generally meets the uniform baseline for immigration screening and vetting established by the section 5 working group. Accordingly, a general resumption of the USRAP, subject to the conditions set forth in section 3 of this order, is consistent with the security and welfare of the United States.

(c) The suspension of the USRAP and other processes specified in section 6(a) of Executive Order 13780 are no longer in effect. Subject to the conditions set forth in section 3 of this order, the Secretary of State may resume travel of qualified and appropriately vetted refugees into the United States, and the Secretary of Homeland Security may resume adjudicating applications for refugee resettlement.

Sec. 3. Addressing the Risks Presented by Certain Categories of Refugees. (a) Based on the considerations outlined above, including the special measures referred to in subsection (a) of section 2 of this order, Presidential action to suspend the entry of refugees under the USRAP is not needed at this time to protect the security and interests of the United States and its people. The Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security, however, shall continue to assess and address any risks posed by particular refugees as follows:

(i) The Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall coordinate to assess any risks to the security and welfare of the United States that may be presented by the entry into the United States through the USRAP of stateless persons and foreign nationals. Under section 207(c) and applicable portions of section 212(a) of the INA, 8 U.S.C. 1157(c) and 1182(a), section 402(4) of the Homeland Security Act of 2002, 6 U.S.C. 202(4), and other applicable authorities, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall determine, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, whether any actions should be taken to address the risks to the security and welfare of the United States presented by permitting any category of refugees to enter this country, and, if so, what those actions should be. The Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall administer the USRAP consistent with those determinations, and in consultation with the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence.

(ii) Within 90 days of the date of this order and annually thereafter, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Director of National Intelligence, shall determine, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, whether any actions taken to address the risks to the security and welfare of the United States presented by permitting any category of refugees to enter this country should be modified or terminated, and, if so, what those modifications or terminations should be. If the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State, determines, at any time, that any actions taken pursuant to section 3(a)(i) should be modified or terminated, the Secretary of Homeland Security may modify or terminate those actions accordingly. The Secretary of Homeland Security and the Secretary of State shall administer the USRAP consistent with the determinations made under this subsection, and in consultation with the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence.

(b) Within 180 days of the date of this order, the Attorney General shall, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security, and in cooperation with the heads of other executive departments and agencies as he deems appropriate, provide a report to the President on the effect of refugee resettlement in the United States on the national security, public safety, and general welfare of the United States. The report shall include any recommendations the Attorney General deems necessary to advance those interests.

Sec. 4. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

Donald J. Trump.
Ex. Ord. No. 13940. Aligning Federal Contracting and Hiring Practices With the Interests of American Workers

Ex. Ord. No. 13940, Aug. 3, 2020, 85 F.R. 47879, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. It is the policy of the executive branch to create opportunities for United States workers to compete for jobs, including jobs created through Federal contracts. These opportunities, particularly in regions where the Federal Government remains the largest employer, are especially critical during the economic dislocation caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID–19) pandemic. When employers trade American jobs for temporary foreign labor, for example, it reduces opportunities for United States workers in a manner inconsistent with the role guest-worker programs are meant to play in the Nation’s economy.

Sec. 2. Review of Contracting and Hiring Practices. (a) The head of each executive department and agency (agency) that enters into contracts shall review, to the extent practicable, performance of contracts (including subcontracts) awarded by the agency in fiscal years 2018 and 2019 to assess:

(i) whether contractors (including subcontractors) used temporary foreign labor for contracts performed in the United States, and, if so, the nature of the work performed by temporary foreign labor on such contracts; whether opportunities for United States workers were affected by such hiring; and any potential effects on the national security caused by such hiring; and

(ii) whether contractors (including subcontractors) performed in foreign countries services previously performed in the United States, and, if so, whether opportunities for United States workers were affected by such offshoring; whether affected United States workers were eligible for assistance under the Trade Adjustment Assistance program authorized by the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2101 et seq.]; and any potential effects on the national security caused by such offshoring.

(b) The head of each agency that enters into contracts shall assess any negative impact of contractors’ and subcontractors’ temporary foreign labor hiring practices or offshoring practices on the economy and efficiency of Federal procurement and on the national security, and propose action, if necessary and as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, to improve the economy and efficiency of Federal procurement and protect the national security.

(c) The head of each agency shall, in coordination with the Director of the Office of Personnel Management, review the employment policies of the agency to assess the agency’s compliance with Executive Order 11935 of September 2, 1976 (Citizenship Requirements for Federal Employment) [41 F.R. 37301, amending the Civil Service Rules], and section 704 of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2020, Public Law 116–93 [5 U.S.C. 3101 note].

(d) Within 120 days of the date of this order [Aug. 3, 2020], the head of each agency shall submit a report to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget summarizing the results of the reviews required by subsections (a) through (c) of this section; recommending, if necessary, corrective actions that may be taken by the agency and timeframes to implement such actions; and proposing any Presidential actions that may be appropriate.

Sec. 3. Measures to Prevent Adverse Effects on United States Workers. Within 45 days of the date of this order, the Secretaries of Labor and Homeland Security shall take action, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, to protect United States workers from any adverse effects on wages and working conditions caused by the employment of H-1B visa holders at job sites (including third-party job sites), including measures to ensure that all employers of H–1B visa holders, including secondary employers, adhere to the requirements of section 212(n)(1) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(n)(1)).

Sec. 4. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

Donald J. Trump.
Delegation of Authority Under Sections 1182(f) and 1185(a)(1) of This Title

Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 24, 1999, 64 F.R. 55809, provided:

Memorandum for the Attorney General

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 212(f) and 215(a)(1) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended (8 U.S.C. 1182(f) and 1185(a)(1)), and in light of Proclamation 4865 of September 29, 1981 [set out above], I hereby delegate to the Attorney General the authority to:

(a) Maintain custody, at any location she deems appropriate, and conduct any screening she deems appropriate in her unreviewable discretion, of any undocumented person she has reason to believe is seeking to enter the United States and who is encountered in a vessel interdicted on the high seas through December 31, 2000; and

(b) Undertake any other appropriate actions with respect to such aliens permitted by law.

With respect to the functions delegated by this order, all actions taken after April 16, 1999, for or on behalf of the President that would have been valid if taken pursuant to this memorandum are ratified.

This memorandum is not intended to create, and should not be construed to create, any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, legally enforceable by any party against the United States, its agencies or instrumentalities, officers, employees, or any other person, or to require any procedures to determine whether a person is a refugee.

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

William J. Clinton.
Implementing Immediate Heightened Screening and Vetting of Applications for Visas and Other Immigration Benefits, Ensuring Enforcement of All Laws for Entry Into the United States, and Increasing Transparency Among Departments and Agencies of the Federal Government and for the American People

Memorandum of President of the United States, Mar. 6, 2017, 82 F.R. 16279, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of State[,] the Attorney General[, and] the Secretary of Homeland Security

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), 8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq., and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby direct the following:

Section 1. Policy. It is the policy of the United States to keep its citizens safe from terrorist attacks, including those committed by foreign nationals. To avert the entry into the United States of foreign nationals who may aid, support, or commit violent, criminal, or terrorist acts, it is critical that the executive branch enhance the screening and vetting protocols and procedures for granting visas, admission to the United States, or other benefits under the INA. For that reason, in the executive order entitled, “Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States,” [Ex. Ord. No. 13780, set out above] and issued today, I directed the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Director of National Intelligence, to conduct a review to “identify whether, and if so what, additional information will be needed from each foreign country to adjudicate an application by a national of that country for a visa, admission, or other benefit under the INA (adjudications) in order to determine that the individual is not a security or public-safety threat.”

While that comprehensive review is ongoing, however, this Nation cannot delay the immediate implementation of additional heightened screening and vetting protocols and procedures for issuing visas to ensure that we strengthen the safety and security of our country.

Moreover, because it is my constitutional duty to “take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed,” the executive branch is committed to ensuring that all laws related to entry into the United States are enforced rigorously and consistently.

Sec. 2. Enhanced Vetting Protocols and Procedures for Visas and Other Immigration Benefits. The Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Attorney General, shall, as permitted by law, implement protocols and procedures as soon as practicable that in their judgment will enhance the screening and vetting of applications for visas and all other immigration benefits, so as to increase the safety and security of the American people. These additional protocols and procedures should focus on:

(a) preventing the entry into the United States of foreign nationals who may aid, support, or commit violent, criminal, or terrorist acts; and

(b) ensuring the proper collection of all information necessary to rigorously evaluate all grounds of inadmissibility or deportability, or grounds for the denial of other immigration benefits.

Sec. 3. Enforcement of All Laws for Entry into the United States. I direct the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the heads of all other relevant executive departments and agencies (as identified by the Secretary of Homeland Security) to rigorously enforce all existing grounds of inadmissibility and to ensure subsequent compliance with related laws after admission. The heads of all relevant executive departments and agencies shall issue new rules, regulations, or guidance (collectively, rules), as appropriate, to enforce laws relating to such grounds of inadmissibility and subsequent compliance. To the extent that the Secretary of Homeland Security issues such new rules, the heads of all other relevant executive departments and agencies shall, as necessary and appropriate, issue new rules that conform to them. Such new rules shall supersede any previous rules to the extent of any conflict.

Sec. 4. Transparency and Data Collection. (a) To ensure that the American people have more regular access to information, and to ensure that the executive branch shares information among its departments and agencies, the Secretary of State and Secretary of Homeland Security shall, consistent with applicable law and national security, issue regular reports regarding visas and adjustments of immigration status, written in non-technical language for broad public use and understanding. In addition to any other information released by the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, or the Secretary of Homeland Security:

(i) Beginning on April 28, 2017, and by the last day of every month thereafter, the Secretary of State shall publish the following information about actions taken during the preceding calendar month:

(A) the number of visas that have been issued from each consular office within each country during the reporting period, disaggregated by detailed visa category and country of issuance; and

(B) any other information the Secretary of State considers appropriate, including information that the Attorney General or Secretary of Homeland Security may request be published.

(ii) The Secretary of Homeland Security shall issue reports detailing the number of adjustments of immigration status that have been made during the reporting period, disaggregated by type of adjustment, type and detailed class of admission, and country of nationality. The first report shall be issued within 90 days of the date of this memorandum, and subsequent reports shall be issued every 90 days thereafter. The first report shall address data from the date of this memorandum until the report is issued, and each subsequent report shall address new data since the last report was issued.

(b) To further ensure transparency for the American people regarding the efficiency and effectiveness of our immigration programs in serving the national interest, the Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, shall, within 180 days of the date of this memorandum, submit to me a report detailing the estimated long-term costs of the United States Refugee Admissions Program at the Federal, State, and local levels, along with recommendations about how to curtail those costs.

(c) The Secretary of State, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, shall, within 180 days of the date of this memorandum, produce a report estimating how many refugees are being supported in countries of first asylum (near their home countries) for the same long-term cost as supporting refugees in the United States, taking into account the full lifetime cost of Federal, State, and local benefits, and the comparable cost of providing similar benefits elsewhere.

Sec. 5. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this memorandum shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This memorandum shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) All actions taken pursuant to this memorandum shall be consistent with requirements and authorities to protect intelligence and law enforcement sources and methods, personally identifiable information, and the confidentiality of visa records. Nothing in this memorandum shall be interpreted to supersede measures established under authority of law to protect the security and integrity of specific activities and associations that are in direct support of intelligence and law enforcement operations.

(d) This memorandum is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

(e) The Secretary of State is hereby authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Donald J. Trump.